changing trends of agricultural extension

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  • 1. CHANGING TRENDS IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION BHAGYA VIJAYAN PALB 3120
  • 2. INTRODUCTION Well-being of rural population linked to the performance of agricultural sector Agricultural extension: Increasing growth potential of agricultural sector Promoting sustainable, inclusive agricultural and economic development World Development Report (2008)
  • 3. Extension services are needed Specific contexts Economic enterprises Livelihood functions Different farmer categories Based on differences in entrepreneurship, poverty and gender
  • 4. Changes in Indias extension system: Policy reforms Decentralization of extension services Institutional Restructuring Management Reforms Strenghthening R-E-F linkages Mainstreaming of women in Agriculture
  • 5. Use of media and IT Pluralistic mode of extension financing Participatory extension approaches Capacity training
  • 6. Pluralistic Extension System Enhance competitiveness of local agricultural production Local economic development Enhance local livelihoods Ultimately reduce rural poverty Improve food security Promote greater gender equality
  • 7. CONCEPT OF PLURALISTIC EXTENSION SYSTEM
  • 8. PLURALISM Inherent in extension in terms of: Concept Objectives Structures Functions Methods Inclusive
  • 9. Recognize existence and value of various organizations with different realities, agenda and behaviour, with a view to embrace a broadened mandate for agricultural extension with increased emphasis on rural livelihood approach PLURALISTIC EXTENSION
  • 10. PLURALISTIC DIMENSIONS CONCEPT POLICY INSTRUMENT EDUCATIONAL PROCESS PROFESSION SUBJECT MATTER DISCIPLINE SERVICE
  • 11. PLURALISTIC DIMENSIONS OBJECTIVES DESIRABLE BEHAVIOURA L CHANGES NEED BASED INFORMATION TOT SOCIO- ECONOMIC CHANGE EMPOWERME NT OF RURAL PEOPLE
  • 12. PLURALISTIC DIMENSIONS STRUCTURES PUBLIC PRIVATE NON- GOVERNMENT AL VOLUNTARY CLIENT GROUPS
  • 13. PLURALISTIC DIMENSIONS FUNCTIONS INFORMATION DISSEMINATION TOT SERVICING INPUT REQUIREMENT TRAINING & HRD EDUCATION IMPLEMENTING DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES
  • 14. PLURALISTIC DIMENSIONS
  • 15. FARMERS NARS: Research NAES: Extension NAETS: Education and Training AKIS AGRICULTURAL INNOVATION AGROPROCESSORS PRODUCER ORGANIZATIONS EXPORTERS INPUT SUPPLIERS CREDIT LAND AGENCIES
  • 16. FARMER/USERS EXTENSION ORGANIZATIONS EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FARMER BASED/COMMUNITY BASED ORGANIZATION MINISTRIES/DEPARTM ENTS/AGENCIES OF GOVERNMENT INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS NGOS RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS INPUT DEALERS
  • 17. CONSUMER RETAILER WHOLE SALER PROCESSOR TRADER FARMER FBO/SHG FSS ATMA EXTENSION WORKERS DOA KVK SAU ICAR AGRICLINIC INPUT DEALER NGO MEDIA E-CHOUPAL
  • 18. Extension services should be CONTEXT- SPECIFIC SITUATION-SPECIFIC PURPOSE- SPECIFIC NEED- SPECIFIC TARGET- SPECIFIC
  • 19. For farmers, public extension services are just one source of information, often the one focusing purely on production issues Spielman et al. 2011
  • 20. Business- related services: Private extension sector Facilitation services: NGOs and Farmers organizations
  • 21. MULTI-AGENCY EXTENSION SERVICE AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION NETWORK Public Extension and Research Services Private Extension Services Mass Media and Information Technology
  • 22. Public Extension and Research Services State government line departments ATMA ICAR SAUs KVKs and Krishi Gyan Kendras (KGKs) ATICs Institute Village Linkage Program (IVLP)
  • 23. Private Extension Services Agri-clinics and agribusinesses Input suppliers/dealers Corporate sector Community based organizations: FIGs SHGs Para extension workers: gopals, mitra kisans, and mahila mitra kisans
  • 24. Mass Media and Information Technology Print media Radio, TV and private cable channels NICNET, internet and V-SAT Farm Information & Advisory Centers (FIACs) Private portals Public and private information shops
  • 25. PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP PUBLIC DELIVERY & PUBLIC FINANCE Traditional government extension PUBLIC DELIVERY & PRIVATE FINANCE Contracting public staff PRIVATE DELIVERY & PUBLIC FINANCE NGOs, CBOs PRIVATE DELIVERY & PRIVATE FINANCE Privatised extension
  • 26. FARMING SYSTEMS APPROACH Farming Nutrition Food security Sustainability Risk minimization Income and employment generation
  • 27. FARMER-PARTICIPATORY APPROACH Problem diagnosis Searching for appropriate technology Implementation process Monitoring, evaluation and feedback
  • 28. DEMAND-DRIVEN AND FARMER- ACCOUNTABLE EXTENSION Access to linkage mechanisms Relevant information/data Improving feedback systems : FOs
  • 29. THRUST ON MARKET EXTENSION Marketing: major constraint in enhancing farm incomes Need to focus on agricultural marketing Public and private sectors, Media
  • 30. OBJECTIVES OF MARKET LED EXTENSION. Conversion of Agriculture sector into profit oriented business Strengthening R-E-F linkages between various departments at various levels. Strengthening market linkages to farmers IT application in Agricultural marketing. Wider use of electronic mass media for Agricultural Extension. 31
  • 31. REPERTOIRE OF MLE During last 50 years emphasis was given on PRODUCTION-LED EXTENSION (PLE) India become self reliant on food production. But the farmers at individual level are not realizing remunerative prices for their produce They sell their produce AS IS WHERE basis.
  • 32.

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