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UniversitiesandEconomicDevelopmentinAfrica

CASESTUDY: KenyaandUniversityofNairobiTracyBailey,NicoCloeteandPundyPillay

ContentsListoftablesandfigures......................................................................................................... v Acknowledgements..............................................................................................................vii Projectgroup.......................................................................................................................viii Acronymsandabbreviations.................................................................................................ix Glossaryofterms....................................................................................................................x HigherEducationandEconomicDevelopmentpublications..............................................xiii PART1:INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................. 1 1.1 IntroductiontotheHigherEducationandEconomicDevelopmentproject........... 1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.2 1.3 OverviewofHERANA...................................................................................1 Projectfocusandprocess............................................................................2 Theanalyticalframeworkforthestudy......................................................3 Whattheprojectisnotdoing......................................................................5

DatacollectionfortheKenyancasestudy............................................................ 6 Thefocusandstructureofthisreport................................................................... 6

PART2:THEKENYACASESTUDY:BACKGROUNDANDCONTEXT..................................... 8 2.1 TheKenyaneconomyandapproachtoeconomicdevelopment........................... 8 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.2 Economicdevelopment,competitivenessandinnovation.........................8 Economicdevelopmentpolicyandplanning.............................................15

TheKenyanhighereducationsystem.................................................................16 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 Sizeandshapeofthesystem ....................................................................16 . Highereducationexpenditureandfinancing............................................19 Highereducationgovernanceandpolicy..................................................22

UNIVERSITIESANDECONOMICDEVELOPMENTINAFRICA|KENYACASESTUDY

2.3

TheUniversityofNairobi....................................................................................26 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 Keymomentsinthedevelopmentoftheinstitution................................26 Governanceandstrategicobjectives........................................................29 Institutionalfinances.................................................................................30

PART3:THEROLEOFHIGHEREDUCATIONINKENYA....................................................32 3.1 3.2 Introduction.......................................................................................................32 Thenationalperspective....................................................................................33 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.3 Keynationalstakeholdersinrelationtothepact.....................................33 Theroleofhighereducationinnationalpolicies......................................33 Governanceandpolicycoordination.........................................................35

TheUniversityofNairobiperspective.................................................................35 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 Institutionalnarrative(s)ontheroleoftheuniversity..............................35 Initiativesaroundresearchandinnovation...............................................39 Initiativesaroundteachingandlearning...................................................42

PART4:THEUNIVERSITYOFNAIROBIACADEMICCORE................................................43 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 Introduction.......................................................................................................43 SETenrolmentsandgraduations........................................................................45 Postgraduateenrolmentsandgraduations.........................................................49 Studentstaffratios.............................................................................................52 Academicstaffqualifications..............................................................................55 Researchfunding................................................................................................56 Researchoutputs................................................................................................58

PART5:THEENGAGEMENTANDDEVELOPMENTRELATEDACTIVITIESOFTHE UNIVERSITYOFNAIROBI......................................................................................60 5.1 Introduction.......................................................................................................60

iii

UNIVERSITIESANDECONOMICDEVELOPMENTINAFRICA|KENYACASESTUDY

5.2

Engagementandlinkageswithexternalstakeholders........................................60 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 Universitygovernmentindustrylinkages.................................................61 Foreigndonors...........................................................................................64 Incentives,rewardsandcoordination.......................................................64 Summary....................................................................................................66

5.3

Theconnectednessofdevelopmentactivitiestotheacademiccore...................66 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.3.4 Abriefoverviewoftheprojects................................................................68 Articulation................................................................................................79 Contributiontostrengtheningtheacademiccore....................................84 Analysisoftheconnectednessofdevelopmentprojects/centres............88

PART6:KEYFINDINGS...................................................................................................91 6.1 6.2 6.3 Introduction.......................................................................................................91 Somemacroobservationsabouthighereducationandeconomicdevelopment inKenya.............................................................................................................92 EvidenceofapactaroundtheroleofhighereducationinKenya?......................93 6.3.1 6.4 6.5 Notionsoftheroleofknowledgeanduniversitiesindevelopment.........95

TheacademiccoreoftheUniversityofNairobi..................................................98 Coordinationandconnectedness......................................................................102 6.5.1 6.5.2 Knowledgepolicycoordinationandimplementation.............................103 Connectednesstoexternalstakeholdersandtheacademiccore ..........105 .

6.6

Concludingcomments......................................................................................108

Listofresources.................................................................................................................110 Appendix1:Listofinterviewees.......................................................................................113 Appendix2:Clusteranalysismethodologyanddata........................................................114 Appendix3:Academiccoreratingdescriptions................................................................118

iv

UNIVERSITIESANDECONOMICDEVELOPMENTINAFRICA|KENYACASESTUDY

ListoftablesandfiguresTables Table2.1:GDPpercapitavs.HumanDevelopmentIndexinsubSaharanAfrica(2007)9 Table2.2:Selectedhighereducationandeconomicdevelopmentindicators..............11 Table2.3:Globalcompetitivenessandglobalinnovation.............................................13 Table2.4:Countrycomparisonofinnovationinputs(enablers)andoutputs...............14 Table2.5:PublicandprivateuniversitiesinKenya(2007)............................................17 Table2.6:Admissiontrendstopublicuniversities(2002/032005/06) ........................18 . Table2.7:UniversityofNairobigovernmentallocation(1999/002006/07)................31 Table4.1:Nairobi:Totalenrolmentsbyfieldofstudy(thousands)..............................46 Table4.2:Comparisonoftotalscienceandtechnologyenrolments(thousands)........47 Table4.3:TotalSETgraduates.......................................................................................48 Table4.4:Comparisonoftotalscienceandtechnologygraduates...............................49 Table4.5:Comparisonoftotalpostgraduateenrolmentsinallfieldsofstudy.............50 Table4.6:Nairobi:Masteranddoctoralenrolmentsandgraduates.............................50 Table4.7:Comparisonofmastersanddoctoralenrolments ........................................51 . Table4.8:Comparisonofdoctoralgraduates................................................................52 Table4.9:Nairobi:FTEstudentsandacademicstaff.....................................................53 Table4.10:Comparisonofpermanentacademicswithmastersanddoctoraldegrees (2007)...........................................................................................................56 Table4.11:Nairobi:Researchoutputs...........................................................................58 Table5.1:Overviewofthedevelopmentrelatedprojects............................................77 Table5.2:Articulationwithinstitutionalobjectivesandnationalpriorities.................80 Table5.3:Initiation/agendasetting,fundingsourcesandimplementationagencies..81 Table5.4:Financialsustainabilityoftheprojects/centres.................

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