Capillary Liquid Chromatography Combined With Pressurized Liquid Extraction and Dispersive Liquid

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<p>Capillary liquid chromatography combined with pressurized liquid extraction and dispersive liquidliquid microextraction for the determination of vitamin E in cosmetic productsKromatografi cair kapiler dikombinasikan dengan ekstraksi cairan bertekanan dan dispersi microextraction cair-cair untuk penentuan vitamin E dalam produk kosmetikAbstractCapillary liquid chromatography (LC) is used for the determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in cosmetic products. Dispersive liquidliquid microextraction (DLLME) allows the analytes to be preconcentrated into a very small volume of organic solvent which is then injected into the chromatograph running at a very low flow rate. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) at a high temperature and pressure was used to isolate vitamin E forms from cosmetics. The Taguchi experimental method was used to optimize the factors affecting DLLME. The parameters selected were 2mL of acetonitrile (disperser solvent), 100L carbon tetrachloride (extraction solvent) and 10mL aqueous solution. A volume of 5L of the organic phase was injected into the reversed-phase capillary LC system equipped with a diode array detector and using an isocratic mobile phase composed of an 95:5 (v/v) methanol:water mixture at a flow-rate of 20Lmin1. Quantification was carried out using aqueous standards and detection limits were in the range 0.10.5ngmL1, corresponding to 315ngg1in the cosmetic sample. The recoveries were in the 87105% range, with RSDs lower than 7.8%. The method was validated according to international guidelines and using a certified reference material.</p> <p>abstrakKromatografi cair kapiler ( LC ) yang digunakan untuk penentuan tokoferol dan tokotrienol dalam produk kosmetik . Sebar microextraction cair-cair ( DLLME ) memungkinkan analit yang akan preconcentrated ke dalam volume yang sangat kecil dari pelarut organik yang kemudian disuntikkan ke dalam kromatografi berjalan pada kecepatan aliran yang sangat rendah . Ekstraksi cair bertekanan ( PLE ) pada suhu dan tekanan tinggi digunakan untuk mengisolasi bentuk vitamin E dari kosmetik . The Taguchi metode eksperimen digunakan untuk mengoptimalkan faktor yang mempengaruhi DLLME . Parameter yang dipilih adalah 2 mL asetonitril ( pelarut disperser ) , 100 uL karbon tetraklorida ( pelarut ekstraksi ) dan 10 mL larutan berair . Sebuah volume 5 uL fase organik disuntikkan ke dalam fase terbalik sistem kapiler LC yang dilengkapi dengan detektor diode array dan menggunakan fase gerak isokratik terdiri dari 95:5 ( v / v ) metanol : campuran air pada aliran - tingkat 20 uL min - 1 . Kuantifikasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan standar berair dan batas deteksi berada di kisaran 0,1-0,5 ng mL - 1 , sesuai dengan 3-15 ng g - 1 dalam sampel kosmetik . Perolehan kembali berada di kisaran 87-105 % , dengan RSDs lebih rendah dari 7,8 % . Metode ini divalidasi sesuai dengan pedoman internasional dan menggunakan bahan referensi bersertifikat .</p> <p>Toxic metals contained in cosmetics: A status reportLogam beracun yang terkandung dalam kosmetik : Sebuah laporan statusAbstractThe persistence of metals in the environment and their natural occurrence in rocks, soil and water cause them to be present in the manufacture of pigments and other raw materials used in the cosmetic industry. Thus, people can be exposed to metals as trace contaminants in cosmetic products they daily use. Cosmetics may have multiple forms, uses and exposure scenarios, and metals contained in them can cause skin local problems but also systemic effects after their absorption via the skin or ingestion. Even this, cosmetics companies are not obliged to report on this kind of impurities and so consumers have no way of knowing about their own risk. This paper reviewed both the concentration of metals in different types of cosmetics manufactured and sold worldwide and the data on metals dermal penetration and systemic toxicology. The eight metals of concern for this review were antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb). This was because they are banned as intentional ingredients in cosmetics, have draft limits as potential impurities in cosmetics and are known as toxic.abstrakBertahannya logam di lingkungan dan kejadian alam dalam batuan , tanah dan air menyebabkan mereka untuk hadir dalam pembuatan pigmen dan bahan baku lainnya yang digunakan dalam industri kosmetik . Dengan demikian , orang bisa terkena logam sebagai jejak kontaminan dalam produk kosmetik yang mereka gunakan sehari-hari . Kosmetik mungkin memiliki beberapa bentuk , penggunaan dan skenario paparan , dan logam yang terkandung di dalamnya dapat menyebabkan masalah kulit lokal tetapi juga efek sistemik setelah penyerapan mereka melalui kulit atau konsumsi . Bahkan ini , perusahaan kosmetik tidak diwajibkan untuk melaporkan jenis kotoran dan sehingga konsumen tidak memiliki cara untuk mengetahui tentang risiko mereka sendiri . Makalah ini terakhir kedua konsentrasi logam dalam berbagai jenis kosmetik yang diproduksi dan dijual di seluruh dunia dan data pada penetrasi dermal logam ' dan toksikologi sistemik . Delapan logam perhatian untuk ulasan ini adalah antimon ( Sb ) , arsen ( As) , kadmium ( Cd ) , chromium ( Cr ) , cobalt ( Co ) , merkuri ( Hg ) , nikel ( Ni ) dan timbal ( Pb ) . Ini karena mereka dilarang sebagai bahan disengaja dalam kosmetik , memiliki rancangan batas sebagai pengotor potensial dalam kosmetik dan dikenal sebagai beracun .</p> <p>A Simple method to assess the Hydrophilic Lipophilic Balance of Food and Cosmetic Surfactants using the Phase Inversion Temperature of C10E4/n-Octane/Water emulsionsSebuah metode sederhana untuk menilai Hidrofilik lipofilik Balance Makanan dan Kosmetik Surfaktan menggunakan Tahap Pembalikan Suhu emulsi C10E4/n-Octane/WaterAbstractThe modification of the Phase Inversion Temperature (PIT) of C10E4/n-Octane/Water emulsions was studied as a function of increasing amounts of additional second surfactants in order to rank them according to their hydrophilic lipophilic balance. Twenty five surfactants, selected from a wide range of chemical families, were studied. Well-defined polyethoxylated alkyl surfactants (CiEj) show a linear variation of the PIT with their concentration C and can be used as standards to calibrate a scale in terms of dPIT/dC. This parameter leads to a simple classification of surfactants with respect to C10E4. Positive and negative values correspond to more or less hydrophilic surfactants compared to C10E4respectively. Several industrial surfactants used in cosmetic and food industries (lecithins, sorbitan derivatives Spans and Tweens, sucrose esters, monoglycerides) were investigated and results are discussed with respect to the HLB scale of Griffin.</p> <p>abstrakModifikasi Suhu Tahap Pembalikan ( PIT ) emulsi C10E4/n-Octane/Water dipelajari sebagai fungsi dari peningkatan jumlah tambahan surfaktan kedua untuk peringkat mereka sesuai dengan keseimbangan lipofilik hidrofilik mereka. Dua puluh lima surfaktan , yang dipilih dari berbagai keluarga kimia , dipelajari . Yah - didefinisikan surfaktan alkil terpolietoksilasi ( CiEj ) menunjukkan variasi linier dari PIT dengan konsentrasi C dan dapat digunakan sebagai standar mengkalibrasi skala dalam hal dPIT / dC . Parameter ini menyebabkan klasifikasi sederhana surfaktan terhadap C10E4 . Nilai-nilai positif dan negatif sesuai dengan lebih atau kurang surfaktan hidrofilik dibandingkan dengan C10E4 masing-masing. Beberapa industri surfaktan yang digunakan dalam industri kosmetik dan makanan ( lesitin , derivatif sorbitan Rentang dan semi-remaja , sukrosa ester , monogliserida ) yang diselidiki dan hasilnya dibahas sehubungan dengan skala HLB Griffin .</p> <p>Synthesis and characterization of plate-like ceria particles for cosmetic application</p> <p>AbstractPlate-like cerium oxide particles were successfully prepared by a facile precipitation process of cerium carbonate precursor followed by calcination in air at 400 C. Ceria particles with the same morphology and slightly decreased particle size compare with those of plate-like cerium carbonate precursor were obtained. The particle size could be controlled by precisely adjusting pH value of the solution. In comparison with commercial ceria nanoparticles, the synthesized plate-like ceria particles showed lower oxidation catalytic activity, higher comfort of use and higher gloss value as well as excellent UV-shielding ability, indicating the potential application as a new cosmetic agent.Sintesis dan karakterisasi partikel ceria seperti pelat untuk aplikasi kosmetik </p> <p>abstrak Partikel seperti pelat cerium oksida berhasil dibuat dengan proses pengendapan lancar cerium prekursor karbonat diikuti dengan kalsinasi di udara pada 400 C. Partikel Ceria dengan morfologi yang sama dan sedikit menurun ukuran partikel dibandingkan dengan orang-orang dari prekursor seperti piring cerium karbonat diperoleh. Ukuran partikel dapat dikontrol dengan tepat menyesuaikan nilai pH larutan. Dibandingkan dengan nanopartikel ceria komersial, partikel ceria seperti piring disintesis menunjukkan aktivitas katalitik oksidasi yang lebih rendah, kenyamanan lebih tinggi penggunaan dan nilai gloss tinggi serta sangat baik kemampuan UV-melindungi, menunjukkan aplikasi yang potensial sebagai agen kosmetik baru.</p> <p>Chapter 11 - Approaches to the Development of Cosmetic Products to Counter the Effects of Skin Aging</p> <p>Publisher SummaryThis chapter focuses mainly on the treatments for face, as facial beauty and appearance are the most significant and recognizable yardstick of youth and aging in human societies. Antiaging cosmetic products are being developed with the most sophisticated cell and molecular biology techniques, including gene arrays, SAGE, and proteomics in scientific laboratories the world over, using isolated skin cells to pinpoint the beneficial effects of active ingredients. Such studies are followed by testing on three-dimensional skin equivalents, which alleviates the need for animal testing. An array of noninvasive techniques utilizing instrumentation to measure a wide array of skin responses, parameters, and physiological functions has aided the cosmetic scientist and the dermatologist in quantifying the biological effects for claim substantiation of antiaging products. True antiaging efforts should have a holistic approach, addressing not only skin care, but nutrition, wellness, balanced lifestyle, and stress management. The cosmetic industry is embracing such an approach, and with increasing consumer awareness industry investments in research and development efforts to meet this need, antiaging is no more just a buzzword.</p> <p>Bab 11 - Pendekatan Pengembangan Produk Kosmetik Counter Efek Penuaan Kulit</p> <p>Penerbit RingkasanBab ini berfokus terutama pada perawatan untuk wajah , kecantikan wajah dan penampilan adalah tolok ukur paling signifikan dan dikenali pemuda dan penuaan dalam masyarakat manusia . Produk kosmetik antipenuaan sedang dikembangkan dengan sel yang paling canggih dan teknik biologi molekuler , termasuk array gen , SAGE , dan proteomik di laboratorium ilmiah di seluruh dunia , dengan menggunakan sel-sel kulit terisolasi untuk menentukan efek menguntungkan dari bahan aktif . Studi tersebut diikuti oleh pengujian pada kulit setara tiga - dimensi , yang mengurangi kebutuhan untuk pengujian hewan . Array teknik noninvasif menggunakan instrumentasi untuk mengukur berbagai macam respon kulit , parameter , dan fungsi fisiologis telah membantu ilmuwan kosmetik dan dokter kulit dalam mengukur efek biologis untuk klaim pembuktian produk antipenuaan . Upaya antipenuaan sejati harus memiliki pendekatan holistik , tidak hanya menangani perawatan kulit , tetapi gizi , kesehatan , gaya hidup yang seimbang , dan manajemen stres . Industri kosmetik merangkul pendekatan semacam itu , dan dengan meningkatnya investasi industri kesadaran konsumen dalam upaya penelitian dan pengembangan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan ini , antipenuaan tidak lebih hanya sebuah kata kunci .</p> <p>Polar emollients in cosmetic formulations enhance the penetration and biological effects of Phytosphingosine on skin</p> <p>AbstractRecent cosmetic and dermatological science focuses on active ingredients in order to support the biological function of the skin such as protection against physical and chemical stress, UV-irradiation and microbes. Keratinocytes represent key elements of this barrier since they form the outer water-impermeable layers of the skin. To assure this function keratinocytes run through a special differentiation process from stratum basale to the stratum corneum, which is formed only of end-differentiated keratinocytes, now called corneocytes.</p> <p>The other main constituent of the water-impermeable barrier of the skin are barrier lipids i.e. ceramides, cholesterol and free fatty acids. Ceramides are formed by keratinocytes by amidation of sphingoid bases such as Phytosphingosine with fatty acids. Furthermore, Phytosphingosine is a natural anti-microbial compound and it is involved in several cellular processes such as cell differentiation and anti-inflammation.</p> <p>Based on this information the present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of Phytosphingosine as an active ingredient in cosmetic formulations. Furthermore, here we investigated whether the type of formulation influences the biological activity of Phytosphingosine. For this purpose cultured keratinocytes were incubated with Phytosphingosine and gene expression profiling was performed using DNA micro arrays. Gene expression profiling revealed that Phytosphingosine significantly promotes cell differentiation.</p> <p>Additionally penetration studies with Phytosphingosine formulated with cosmetic oils of different polarity were carried out using dermatomed pig skin in Franz cells. Penetration experiments clearly showed that the biological skin delivery of this active ingredient markedly depends on the polarity of the utilized emollient with best penetration abilities for polar oils.</p> <p>Further evaluation of the biological effects of Phytosphingosine was accomplished by applying the different formulations on in vitro reconstructed human epidermis with subsequent RT-qPCR analysis of selected genes that are typical for keratinocyte differentiation. Using this approach we were further able to demonstrate that the biological effect of Phytosphingosine on keratinocyte differentiation in reconstructed human epidermis is clearly dependent on the bioavailability, which in turn is determined by the polarity of the cosmetic oil.</p> <p>In conclusion, we here demonstrate that Phytosphingosine promotes keratinocyte differentiation and, therefore, is an ideal active ingredient for cosmetic applications whose biological activity can be enhanced by the use of an appropriate formulation.Emolien Polar dalam formulasi kosmetik meningkatkan penetrasi dan efek biologis Phytosphingosine pada kulit</p> <p>abstrakIlmu kosmetik dan dermatologis Te...</p>

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