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Breakthroughs in Bioscience. From NIH-Funded Basic Research to Improved Health. Illinois. National Institutes of Health (NIH). Nation’s medical research agency Funds the science that leads to medical advancement - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Breakthroughs in BioscienceFrom NIH-Funded Basic Research to Improved HealthIllinois

  • National Institutes of Health (NIH)Nations medical research agencyFunds the science that leads to medical advancementCampus in Bethesda, MD but most funding is distributed to university researchers throughout the United StatesIllinois received over $772M in NIH funding in FY2011

  • Research Is Critical to Illinois EconomyUniversity of Illinois (UI) spends over $560M on science and engineering research annually In 2007, UI established the $75M Institute for Genomic BiologyResearch parks associated with UI-Urbana and UI-Chicago together host more than 100 companiesUI has an annual economic impact of about $13B and supports 154,000 in-state jobsFor every $1 of state investment, UI produces $17 of returnChicago is the largest employer of high-tech workers in the USabout 29,000 life, social science and physical scientists28,000+ engineers and 13,500+ engineering and science technicians100,300+ computer and mathematical occupationsNIH funding to Northwestern increased 64.8% from 2001 to 2008

  • NIH Grants Support Many Programs in IllinoisUI Chicago received $20M and Northwestern received $30M to establish two Clinical & Translational Science Award (CTSA) institutions, which form a national consortium to improve the way biomedical research is conducted across the countryNIGMS awarded more than $15M to support the new Chicago Center for Systems Biology one of only 10 such centers in the USScientists from the University of Chicago, Northwestern, and UI joined forces to establish the Chicago Tri- Institutional Center for Chemical Methods, with the support of a $9.2M grant from NIH$4.7M in federal stimulus (ARRA) funds was used for an important Alzheimers study, examining cognitive decline in older African-Americans at Rush University Medical Center

  • NIH: Saving Lives Through ScienceCurrent annual budget (FY2012) of around $30.6BGreater than 80% distributed throughout the countryAlmost 50,000 grantsMore than 325,000 scientists at over 3,000 research sitesHow much money is being spent in your local area?http://report.nih.gov/award/organizations.cfmPortfolio of basic, translational, and clinical research

    NIH has been involved in nearly all the major medical & health related discoveries of the past fifty years

  • How NIH Makes Science HappenMost researchers working at local universities, hospitals, and research institutions are dependent on federal support to fund their research, hire lab personnel, and train young scientistsResearchers write grant proposals to compete for fundingMust explain why they think its a good idea, how theyre going to do the experiments, and what impact it will have on science and medicineProposals are reviewed in a two-tier systemPeer-reviewed by scientists to ensure highest quality scienceReviewed again for applicability to scientific or health priorities, by NIH officials and other stakeholders, including public membersNIH review system is the envy of the world!Very competitive! Only 1 in 4 proposals funded in the 2008 fiscal yearLots of high quality research not being done for lack of funding

  • Basic Research: From Bench to BedsideA portion of NIH funding goes to basic or fundamental researchBasic research is driven by interest in a scientific questionThe main motivation is to expand knowledge and understandingHowever, the insight into how the human body works and understanding of how diseases and disorders operate provides the foundation for medical progress

    "People cannot foresee the future well enough to predict what's going to develop from basic research. If we only did applied research, we would still be making better spears." Dr. George Smoot, Berkeley National Lab

  • What About Medical Breakthroughs?Medical breakthroughs often come from unrelated areas of science or medicineResearch on cancer biology has led to drugs for heart disease, osteoporosis, and viral diseases like influenza, herpes & AIDSPhysicists studying the effects of magnets on atomic particles made the discovery that gave us magnetic resonance imagining (MRI) It often takes years or decades of fundamental knowledge to solve or find different pieces of the puzzleThis makes it difficult to predict where the next breakthrough will come fromMakes it imperative to support a broad range of scientific researchToo risky for the private sector, federal funding is critical for research

  • Evolution of Research to HealthcareSome recent examples

  • Cardiovascular DiseaseInformation on the biochemical structure and synthesis of cholesterol led to the development of statins, a class of drug used to lower cholesterol

    Discoveries in basic kidney biology and an increased understanding of the molecular regulation of blood pressure converged with an unexpected finding involving snake venom to give us ACE inhibitors, one of our most effective hypertension medications

    Research into the mechanism of how blood forms clots, together with the search to find a new cancer treatment and the first commercial use of recombinant technologies, resulted in rt-PA, a clot-busting drug that can prevent death from heart attack or stroke

  • Results of Cardiovascular Disease ResearchAmericans can expect to live an average of four years longer due to the reductions in deaths due to cardiovascular disease, largely as a result of NIH research.CVD disease death rates (United States: 1900-2006)

  • Future DirectionsGenome-wide associations studies (GWAS) are providing unprecedented insight into the intricate role genetics plays in the development of heart disease and identifying possible targets for novel drug therapies

    Research on the effect of air pollution on blood vessel constriction is helping scientists understand how environmental factors effect cardiovascular health Innovative imaging systems are being developed to allow for simultaneous evaluation of electrical activity and metabolic properties in the heart, allowing for the study of the complex mechanisms which lead to sudden cardiac arrest

  • HIV / AIDSFundamental knowledge of how viruses replicate gave scientists targets for therapy that led to the discovery of a way to block replication, resulting in the development of azidothymidine (AZT)

    Increased understanding of how HIV operates at the cellular and molecular level identified more targets, and eventually led to the combination of drugs knows as the triple cocktail

  • Results of HIV / AIDS ResearchThe number of cases has remained relatively stable while the number of deaths has decreasedAIDS has been transformed from an acute, fatal illness to a chronic, manageable condition

  • Future DirectionsTopical antimicrobial products, or microbicides, offer one of the most promising avenues to primary prevention of HIV transmission A number of HIV vaccine clinical trials have begun, which depend on fundamental research of the human immune response and on understanding of the way in which HIV infects cells

    Investigators have identified the existence of HIV reservoirs that persist despite antiretroviral therapy, and efforts are now being focused on understanding and eliminating these reservoirs

  • CancerThe discovery that estrogens role in breast cancer, together with basic research into the shape and characteristics of the estrogen receptor, gave us tamoxifen, which can reduce breast cancer incidence among women at risk by over 45%

    The breakthrough finding that human papillomavirus (HPV) could cause cervical cancer led to a new vaccine that NIH estimated could reduce cervical cancer incidence by as much as 90%

    While investigating the cellular machinery controlling cell growth, scientists found the 26S proteasome, the inhibition of which is the power behind bortezomib now used to treat patients with multiple myeloma

  • Results of Cancer ResearchOverall cancer survival rates have improved significantly, from about 50% in the 1970s to 66% in recent years. This is due, in part, to both earlier detection and advances in treatment.

  • Future DirectionsMedical researchers have found certain antibodies that are present only in tumors and may enable early detection and diagnosis of certain cancers

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), a project dedicated to accelerating our understanding of cancer genetics, has enabled deeper understanding of the most common form of adult brain cancer, glioblastoma multiforme

    By suppressing the action of a certain cellular receptor, CD47, researchers have developed a method to protect healthy tissue from radiation therapy while making cancerous cells more vulnerable

  • Infant MortalityResearch on the fundamental biology of lung function enabled the discovery of surfactant, a protein crucial for survival of premature infants, and enabled a decrease in the number of infant deaths from respiratory distress from 15,000 per year to less than 1,000 by 2002

    The use of anti-virals to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission reduced the rate from 25% to nearly 1%

    Studies on a metabolite of progesterone led to the finding that injections of this compound, progesterone 17P, could prevent pre-term delivery by as much as 30%, which is particularly significant in African American women

  • Results of Research on Infant MortalityIn less than a century, infant mortality in the United States has been reduced by 90%

    This translates to almost 500,000 babies saved per year

  • Future DirectionsIn order to better diagnose and treat congenital heart defects, a leading cause of infant mortality, scientists are developing new non-invasive imaging technologies for prenatal heart studies

    Novel diagnostic technique

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