BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE FUNDAMENTALS SCIENCE FUNDAMENTALS AND SYSTEMATICS CONTENTS VOLUME I Biological Science Fundamentals (Systematics) 1

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  • CONTENTS

    BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE FUNDAMENTALS AND SYSTEMATICS

    Biological Science Fundamentals and Systematics Volume 1 eISBN : 978-1-84826-304-8 (eBook) ISBN : 978-1-84826-754-1 (Print Volume) No. of Pages: 493 Biological Science Fundamentals and Systematics Volume 2 eISBN : 978-1-84826-305-5 (eBook) ISBN : 978-1-84826-755-8 (Print Volume) No. of Pages: 322 Biological Science Fundamentals and Systematics Volume 3 eISBN : 978-1-84826-306-2 (eBook) ISBN : 978-1-84826-756-5 (Print Volume) No. of Pages: 369 Biological Science Fundamentals and Systematics Volume 4 eISBN : 978-1-84826-189-1 (eBook) ISBN : 978-1-84826-639-1 (Print Volume)

    No. of Pages: 346 For more information of e-book and Print Volume(s) order, please click here Or contact: eolssunesco@gmail.com

  • BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE FUNDAMENTALS AND SYSTEMATICS

    CONTENTS

    VOLUME I Biological Science Fundamentals (Systematics) 1 Giancarlo Contrafatto, School of Life and Environmental Science, University of Natal Durban, Durban, South Africa Alessandro Minelli, Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy 1. Introduction 2. Life on Earth 3. The Geological Scenario and the Major Evolutionary Transitions

    3.1. Some Fundamentals of Geology 3.2. Geological Changes, Evolutionary Transitions, and Extinctions

    3.2.1. Major Evolutionary Transitions 4. The Cell

    4.1. The Procaryotic Cell 4.2. Autotrophs and Heterotrophs 4.3. The Eucaryotic Cell 4.4. The Emergence of Eucaryotes and the Kingdoms of Life

    5. Routes to Multicellularity 5.1. Aggregative 5.2. Plasmodial 5.3. Clonal 5.4. Soma and Germ Plasm

    6. Growth and Development 7. Life-Cycles

    7.1. Direct and Indirect Development 7.2. The Life-Cycles of Cnidarians, Rotifers, and Aphids 7.3. Plant Life-Cycles

    8. Individual, Colony, Society 9. Populations, Species, and Communities 10. The Continuity of Life

    10.1. Descent with Modification 10.2. Mutations 10.3. Gene Assortment: Inheriting Variation 10.4. Selection, Random Change

    11. Adaptation 12. Life Forms

    12.1. Living In the Sea 12.2. Nutrition 12.3. From the Sea to the Internal Waters 12.4. Water to Land

    13. Biodiversity 14. The Science of Taxonomy History and Scope of Biological Sciences 51 Alberto Mario Simonetta, Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e Genetica "L.Pardi", Universit di Firenze, Italy 1. Ancient and Medieval Times up to the 16th Century 2. Post-Renaissance Developments 3. Paleontology and Evolution 4. Morphology and Physiology 5. Genetics 6. Behavior

    Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) i

  • BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE FUNDAMENTALS AND SYSTEMATICS

    7. Ecology and Applied Ecology History of Biology 66 Alberto Mario Simonetta, Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e Genetica, L. Pardi, University of Firenze, Italy 1. Introduction 2. Antiquity 3. The Medieval and Renaissance Periods 4. The Development of Morphology 5. Palaeontology 6. Taxonomy and Evolution 7. Hystology, Reproduction and embryology 8. Physiology 9. Genetics 10. Ecology and Ethology 11. Pathology Characteristics of Living Beings 84 Pietro Omodeo, Department of Evolutionary Biology and Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Siena. Italy 1. Introduction

    1.1. Epistemology of Biology 2. Former Conceptions of Life

    2.1. The Birth of Biology 2.2. Metabolism, 'Irritability' and Cellular Organisation 2.3. The Becoming of Individuals and Species 2.4. Inadequacy of Mechanistic Interpretations and the Revival of Vitalism 2.5. The Gestation of the Concept of Biological Information 2.6. Information Flux is an Endowment of Every Living Being 2.7. First Conclusions on Living Beings

    3. Current Conceptions About Living Beings 3.1. The Rise of Genetics 3.2. The Mighty Advance of Dynamic Biochemistry 3.3. The Sources of Information Flux and the Self-Control in Living Beings 3.4. Limits and Peculiarities of the Sensory Flux 3.5. Self Regulation of Genetic Information 3.6. Information and Needs 3.7. Death and Life 3.8. Ontogeny and Morphogenesis

    4. Evolution 4.1. Is it Conceivable that a Living Being May Not Evolve? 4.2. The Darwinian Assumptions 4.3. The Subjects of Darwin's Evolution

    5. Conclusion 5.1. Summary of the Properties of Living Beings 5.2. Final Definition

    Levels of Biotic Organization 107 Alberto Mario Simonetta, Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e Genetica, L. Pardi, University of Firenze, Italy 1. Introduction 2. The Development of Organization at the Individual Level

    Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) ii

  • BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE FUNDAMENTALS AND SYSTEMATICS

    3. The Development of Organization: Embryology and Cycles 4. The Paleontological Account 5. The Intertaxa Organization and Evolution 6. Symbiosis and Parasitism 7. Conclusion Population, Species and Communities 118 Juergen Tomiuk, Institute of Anthropology and Human Genetics, University of Tbingen, Germany Lutz Bachmann, Zoological Museum, University of Oslo, Norway 1. Introduction 2. Populations and Species

    2.1. The Species Concept 2.2. The Population Concept

    2.2.1. Population Size 2.2.2. Constant Reproduction of Populations 2.2.3. Variation in Population Size

    3. Species Communities 3.1. General Aspects 3.2. Composition of Communities 3.3. Island Biogeography 3.4. Biological Invasions 3.5. Interaction

    3.5.1. Interspecific Competition 3.5.2. Mutualism 3.5.3. Host-parasite Relations 3.5.4. Predator-prey Relations

    4. Conclusion The Philosophy of Biological Sciences 137 Alberto Mario Simonetta, Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e GeneticaL. Pardi, University of Firenze, Italy 1. Introduction 2. Basic Issues in the Philosophy of Biology: Is Biology an Experimental or a Historical Discipline? 3. Methodological Debates 4. Realism versus Nominalism 5. The Population Concept: Problems and Inferences 6. Bioethics: Some Sample Problems The Origin and Evolution of Early Life 149 Martino Rizzotti, Department of Biology, University of Padova, Italy 1. Introduction 2. The Need for Organic Molecules 3. Asymmetry in Organic Molecules 4. The Need for Suitable Energy 5. The Rise and Fall of Organic Chemistry of Galaxies 6. Organic Chemistry on Orbiting Bodies 7. The Need for Liquid Water 8. The Evolution of Hydrospheres 9. Self-organization and Self-replication 10. Encapsulation and Translation 11. The First Ecosystems 12. The Probability and Stability of Biospheres

    Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) iii

  • BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE FUNDAMENTALS AND SYSTEMATICS

    Formation of the Building Blocks of Primitive Life 181 Andre Brack, Centre de Biophysique Molculaire, CNRS, Rue Charles Sadron, F-45071 Orlans cedex James P. Ferris, Department of Chemistry, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy NY 12180-3590, USA 1. Introduction 2. The role of water 3. Possible environments for the production of prebiotic organic molecules

    3.1. Production of CHONS in the atmosphere 3.2. Submarine hydrothermal systems 3.3. Delivery of extraterrestrial CHONS

    4. Availability of the primitive building blocks 5. Production of homochiral building blocks 6. Conclusion From The Building Blocks to Life 194 Andre Brack, Centre de Biophysique Molculaire, CNRS, Rue Charles Sadron, F-45071 Orlans cedex , FranceJames P. Ferris, Department of Chemistry, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy NY 12180-3590, USA 1. Introduction 2. A Primitive Cellular Life

    2.1. Prebiotic RNA 2.1.1. The Montmorillonite Clay-catalyzed Synthesis of RNA 2.1.2. Metal Ion Catalysis of RNA Synthesis 2.1.3. Template-directed RNA Synthesis

    2.2. Prebiotic Polypeptides 2.2.1. Polypeptide Formation on Clay Minerals 2.2.2. Peptide Elongation on Minerals 2.2.3. Polypeptide Formation via N-Carboxyanhydrides 2.2.4. Proteinoids 2.2.5. Polypeptide Formation Using Simulated Hydrothermal Conditions 2.2.6. Thermal Conversion of Amino Acid Amides to Polypeptides 2.2.7. Prebiotic Polypeptide Structure and Stability 2.2.8. Prebiotic Polypeptide Catalysis

    3. Primitive Life Based on RNA: The RNA World 3.1. RNA Analogs and Surrogates

    3.1.1. Nucleotides with a Pyrophosphate Backbone 3.1.2. Pyranosyl-RNA, a Hexose Nucleic Acid, and Threose-RNA, a Tetrose Nucleic Acid 3.1.3. Peptide Nucleic Acid

    4. Autocatalysis Preceding RNA 5. Conclusion The Earliest Anaerobic and Aerobic Life 212 Martino Rizzotti, Department of Biology, University of Padova, Italy 1. The First Cells 2. From Heterotrophy to Autotrophy 3. Ancient Oxygen-producing Photosynthesis 4. The First Aerobic Microorganisms 5. Origin of the Organelles of Bacterial Cells 6. Origin of the Nucleus 7. Origin and Evolution of the Mitochondrion 8. Origin and Evolution of Plastids 9. Origin of the Cilium 10. The Rise of Highly Differentiated Organisms

    Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) iv

  • BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE FUNDAMENTALS AND SYSTEMATICS

    Evolution 231 Saverio Forestiero, Department of Biology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy 1. Introduction: The Nature of Evolution

    1.1. Differentiating Replicators and Interactors 1.2. The Historical Nature of Evolution 1.3. Evolution Does Not Necessarily Mean Progress

    2. Major Transitions in Evolution 2.1. Natural Selection and Levels of Organization

    3. Different Approaches to the Study of Evolution 4. Microevolution

    4.1. The Causes of Evolution 4.2. Natural Selection

    5. Adaptive Evolution 5.1. Adaptation 5.2. Adaptations and Adaptive Responses 5.3. Adaptation and Exaptation 5.4. Coevolution

    6. Neutral Evolution 7. Species and Speciation 8. Macroevolution 9. Phylogeny 10. Evolution, Complexity, and the Information Content of Living Beings History of Evolutionary Theory 254 Barbara Co

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