Bhole ;Effect of pollution on soil water air quality and control measures

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  3. 3. POLLUTION Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Forms of Pollution Air pollution Noise pollution Soil pollution Thermal pollution Water pollution Plastic pollution Radioactive contamination Read more:
  4. 4. SOIL POLLUTION SOIL Soil is the natural medium for the growth of plants. Soil has also been defined as a natural body consisting of layers (soil horizons) that are composed of weathered mineral materials, organic material, air and water. Soil is the end product of the combined influence of climate, topography, organisms (flora, fauna and human) on parent materials (original rocks and minerals) over time. As a result soil differs from its parent material in texture, structure, consistency, color, chemical, biological and physical characteristics. According to FAO Soil Pollution The Soil Pollution is defined as the presence of materials in the soil which are harmful to the living beings when they cross their threshold concentration levels. Source :
  5. 5. Source of Soil Pollution Acid rain Excess application of pesticide and fertilizer Disposal of Industrial waste Urban solid waste
  6. 6. BIOLOGICALAGENTS The major sources of biological agents causing soil pollution are human excreta, animals and birds excreta, municipal wastes, faulty sanitation. The industrial parasites are among the most threatening biological agents, HEAVY METAL POLLUTANTS Heavy metal in soil are basically due to industrial discharge. E.g.. Zn,Cu,Ni,Cd,As and Pb are also present in significant levels in sewage sludge and reach the soil where they become part of life cycle and affects adversely.
  7. 7. Environmental Quality Standards for Soil Pollution Substance Target level of soil quality examined through leaching and content tests cadmium 0.01 mg/l in sample solution and less than 0.4mg/kg in rice for agricultural land lead 0.01 mg/l or less in sample solution chromium (VI) 0.05 mg/l or less in sample solution arsenic 0.01 mg/l or less in sample solution, and less than 15 mg/kg in soil for agricultural land (paddy fields only) total mercury 0.0005 mg/l or less in sample solution copper less than 125 mg/kg in soil for agricultural land (paddy fields only) dichloromethane 0.02 mg/l or less in sample solution carbon tetrachloride 0.002 mg/l or less in sample solution thiuram 0.006 mg/l or less in sample solution simazine 0.003 mg/l or less in sample solution benzene 0.01 mg/l or less in sample solution selenium 0.01 mg/l or less in sample solution source;
  9. 9. Phytoremediation Phytoremediation is the use of living green plants for in situ risk reduction and/or removal of contaminants from contaminated soil, water, sediments, and air. METHODS OF PHYTOREMEDIATION Phytovolatilization Phytodegradation Phytostabilisation Phytoextraction (Phytoaccumulation) Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences Online ISSN 2277-1808 Bull. Env. Pharmacol. Life Sci. Volume 2 [2] January 2013: 52- 63 2012, Academy for Environment and Life Sciences, India Website:
  10. 10. Best Plants For Phytoremediation Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) White Willow (Salix species) Poplar tree (Populus deltoids)Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans) Sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L.)
  11. 11. Bio remediation of Soil Pollution Microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi & plants to break down of chemical compounds that have accumulated in the environment Pseudomonas fluorescens HCN CO2 + NH2 It is a method that treats the soils and renders them non-hazardous, thus eliminating any future liability that may result from landfill problems or violations. Source
  12. 12. Control of Soil Pollution 3 Rs: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Reducing chemical fertilizer and pesticide use: Applying bio-fertilizers and manures can reduce chemical fertilizer and pesticide use. Biological methods of pest control Reusing of materials: Materials such as glass containers, plastic bags, paper, cloth etc. can be reused at domestic levels rather than being disposed, reducing solid waste pollution. Recycling and recovery of materials: Materials such as paper, some kinds of plastics and glass can and are being recycled. This decreases the volume of refuse and helps in the conservation of natural resources. For example, recovery of one tons of paper can save 17 trees.
  13. 13. Reforesting: Control of land loss and soil erosion can be attempted through restoring forest and grass cover to check wastelands, soil erosion and floods. Crop rotation or mixed cropping can improve the fertility of the land. Some other methods using in control of soil pollution 1. Use of pesticides should be minimized. 2. Use of fertilizers should be judicious. 3. Cropping techniques should be improved to prevent growth of weeds. 4. Special pits should be selected for dumping wastes. 5. Controlled grazing and forest management. 6. Wind breaks and wind shield in areas exposed to wind erosion 7. Planning of soil binding grasses along banks and slopes prone to rapid erosion. 8. Afforestation and reforestation. Application of organic manures, sludge and sewages in field for minimize of heavy metal presence in soil.
  14. 14. Water is a transparent and nearly colorless chemical substance Constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms. Water
  15. 15. Water Pollution Water pollution is contamination of water bodies . This form of environmental degradation occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. Water pollution occurs when energy and other materials are released into the water, contaminating the quality of it for other users.
  16. 16. Types of Water Pollution 1. Surface water pollution Found on the exterior of the earths crust ,oceans , rivers and lakes 2. Groundwater pollution In agriculture sector, used of highly amount of fertilizer, Pesticides heavy matal Cd, Pb,Zn Ni are leachable by heavy rainfall,water logged condition & high irrigation.
  17. 17. Thermal Pollution Thermal pollution is the rise or fall in the temperature of a natural body of water caused by human influence. Elevated water temperatures decrease oxygen levels, which can kill fish and alter food chain composition, reduce species biodiversity, and foster invasion by new thermophilic species. Eutrofication Refers to the bloom or great increase of phytoplankton in a water body due to the addition of nitrates or Phosphates from fertilizers or sewage. Effect of Thermal Pollution
  18. 18. Water Quality Indicators Physical indicators Chemical indicators Biological indicators Water temperature Specific conductance or electrical conductance (EC) Total suspended solids (TSS) Turbidity Total dissolved solids (TDS) Odour of water Color of water Taste of water pH Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) Chemical oxygen demand (COD) Dissolved oxygen (DO) Total hardness (TH) Heavy metals Nitrate Orthophosphates Pesticides Surfactants Biological integrity and Index of biological integrity Ephemeroptera Plecoptera Mollusca Trichoptera Source:
  19. 19. Water Quality Standards Parameter Concentration (mg/L) Alkalinity (as CaCO3) 50-300 Ammonia (NH3-N unionized)


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