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- 1. Civilizations ofLatin America
2. The Aztec Civilization
- The Aztecs lived in the Valley of Mexicoin the A.D. 1100s.
- The Valley of Mexico is in central Mexico and includes the site of present-day Mexico City.
3. 4. Aztec Civilization
- The Aztecs wandered the Valley of Mexico looking for a permanent home until A.D. 1325.
- They finally settled on an island in Lake Texcoco.
- They changed the swampy land into a magnificent city, which they called Tenochtitln (the site of present-day Mexico City).
5. 6. Tenochtitln
- The Aztecs built floating islands by piling rich earth from the bottom of the lake onto rafts made of wood.
- After a while, the roots of plants and trees grew down to the lake bottom, anchoring the rafts.
- Some of these floating islands were the size of football fields.
- In the center of the city was the Great Temple.
- Upper-class dwellings were made of stone and ordinary dwellings were made of reeds and mud.
- Canals, laid out in a grid system, connected all parts of the city.
- Causeways, or raised earthen roads, connected the city to the mainland.
8. 9. 10. 11. 12. The Incas
- About A.D. 1200, the Incas settled in Cuzco, a village in the Andes (now a city in Peru).
- Most Incas were farmers, growing maize and other crops.
- Through wars and conquest, the Incas won control of the Cuzco Valley.
13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Pachacuti
- In 1438, he became ruler of the Incas.
- The name Pachacuti means he who shakes the earth.
- He conquered the people who lived near the Pacific Ocean.
- He demanded loyalty from the people he conquered.If disloyal, the people were forced off their land and replaced with loyal Incas.
18. 19. The Lost City
- Pachacuti built many cities.The most famous is the lost city of Machu Picchu.
- Machu Picchu is located high in the Andes Mountains, 54 miles northwest of Cuzco.
20. 21. 22. 23. Incan Accomplishments
- The Incans were excellent farmers, builders, and managers.
- The capital, Cuzco, was the center of government, trade, learning, and religion.
- In the 1500s, one of the first Spaniards to visit Cuzco described it as large enough and handsome enough to compare to any Spanish city.
24. Roads and Aqueducts
- The Incas built more than 19,000 miles of roads.The roads went over some of the most mountainous land in the world.
- The Incas built canals and aqueducts to carry water to dry areas.One stone aqueduct carried water from a mountain lake almost 500 miles to its destination.
25. 26. Government and Records
- The Incas organized their government carefully.
- The Incas did not have a written language.Incan government officials and traders recorded information on knotted strings called quipus.
27. 28. Religion
- The Incas worshipped many gods.
- The sun god, Inti, was an important god of the Incas.They believed Inti was their parent and they referred to themselves as children of the sun.
- Another important Incan god was Viracocha, the creator of all people of the Andes.
29. Quechua Descendants of the Incas
- The Spanish conquered the Incan empire in the 1500s.
- The Incan descendants live in present-day Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, Chile, and Colombia.
- They speak Quechua, the Incan language.