autokey ciphers. history the autokey cipher is almost identical to the vigenère cipher – only...

Download Autokey Ciphers. History The Autokey Cipher is almost identical to the Vigenère Cipher – only it’s more secure It was first invented by Girolamo Cardano

Post on 24-Dec-2015




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  • Slide 1
  • Autokey Ciphers
  • Slide 2
  • History The Autokey Cipher is almost identical to the Vigenre Cipher only its more secure It was first invented by Girolamo Cardano and was made more secure by Vigenre
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  • Encryption Start by choosing plain text and a keyword of any length Write the keyword over the plain text, and then immediately after the keyword, begin writing the plain text Key: RESTAURANTMEET Plaintext: MEETMEFORLUNCH
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  • Encryption II After you assign a keyword to all of the plain text, you are going to need a tabula recta.
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  • Encryption III In order to encrypt plain text, you locate the row with the first letter to be encrypted, and the column with the first letter of the key. The letter where the line and column cross is the ciphertext letter
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  • Example Key: RESTAURANTMEET Plaintext: MEETMEFORLUNCH Cipher letter = D Continue this for the rest of the message.
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  • Example, cont. You should now have this encrypted text: Key: RESTAURANTMEET Plaintext: MEETMEFORLUNCH Ciphertext: DIWMMYWOEEGRGA Now, if someone gave you the message DIWMMYWOEEGRGA, would you know how to decrypt it?
  • Slide 8
  • Decryption secret messageAssuming the buddy who sent you the secret message likes you, he probably sent you the keyword, too. With a key of RESTAURANT and ciphertext DIWMMYWOEEGRGA, find the key characters in the top-column header and the ciphertext characters in the table
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  • Example, Cont. Key: R ESTAURANTMEET Ciphertext: D IWMMYWOEEGRGA Plaintext = M Repeat! The secret message: Meet me for lunch.
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  • Cryptanalysis secret messagesecret passwordNow, say your buddy sent you the secret message, but didnt give you the secret password - you now have a wonderful problem!
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  • How to solve it Choose common trigrams or bigrams in all possible positions for the key. Here, we use the. Try it in all possible positions for the key
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  • Example Ciphertext: WMP MMX XAE YHB RYO CA Key: THE THE THE THE THE.. Plaintext: DFL TFT ETA FAX YRK.. Ciphertext: W MPM MXX AEY HBR YOC A Key:. THE THE THE THE THE. Plaintext:. TII TQT HXU OUN FHY. Ciphertext: WM PMM XXA EYH BRY OCA Key:.. THE THE THE THE THE Plaintext:.. WFI EQW LRD IKU VVW Promising!
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  • Example Cont. We also know that some of the plain text is also in the key, to the right of the keyword In the previous slide, we marked the possible plain text fragments ETA, OUN and FAX as promising Now we will use these, plus THE to try and guess the keyword length
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  • Example Cont. Shift by 4: Ciphertext: WMPM M XXA E YHB R YOC A Key:...... ETA. THE. OUN. Plaintext:......THE. OUN. AIN. Shift by 5: Ciphertext: WMPMMXXAEYHBRYOCA Key:.....EQW..THE..OU Plaintext:.....THE..OUN..OG Unlikely to have a Q in the keyword. Plain text looks good!
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  • Example Cont. Now we have to use our brains The four letter shift looks good, so we can guess that the keyword is probably about 4 characters long Through the guess-and-check method, we can fill in some blanks
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  • Almost done! You should now have something like this: ciphertext: WMPMM X XAE YHB R YOC A key:.. LTM. ETA. THE. OUN. Plaintext:..ETA. THE. OUN. AIN.
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  • The secret message? Meet at the fountain. and no, Mr. Evans, that wasnt relatively pain-free.
  • Slide 18
  • Sources tokey.html tokey.html