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  • Atmospheric / Topographic Correction for Satellite Imagery

    (ATCOR-2/3 User Guide, Version 8.2 BETA, February 2012)

    R. Richter1 and D. Schläpfer2 1 DLR - German Aerospace Center, D - 82234 Wessling, Germany 2ReSe Applications, Langeggweg 3, CH-9500 Wil SG, Switzerland

    DLR-IB 565-02/12

  • 2

    The cover image shows a true color subset of a Landsat-7 ETM+ scene with lake Constance at the Austrian-German-Swiss border (top left), acquired 2 June 2000. The top right image is the atmospherically corrected scene employing a haze removal over land and water. The haze removal over water is one of the new features of the 2011 release. The bottom part presents a zoomed view. The water mask is derived from the DEM file of this scene, because a unique water classification with exclusively spectral criteria is not possible in this scene. A correct water/land mask is critical for the quality of the separate haze removal algorithms over land and water.

    ATCOR-2/3 User Guide, Version 8.2.0, February 2012

    Authors: R. Richter1 and D. Schläpfer2 1 DLR - German Aerospace Center, D - 82234 Wessling , Germany 2 ReSe Applications, Langeggweg 3, CH-9500 Wil SG, Switzerland

    c© All rights are with the authors of this manual.

    Distribution: ReSe Applications Schläpfer Langeggweg 3, CH-9500 Wil, Switzerland

    Updates: see ReSe download page: www.rese.ch/download

    The MODTRAN R© trademark is being used with the expressed permission of the owner, the United States of America, as represented by the United States Air Force.

    http://www.rese.ch/download/index.html

  • Contents

    1 Introduction 11

    2 Basic Concepts in the Solar Region 14 2.1 Radiation components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.2 BRDF correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.3 Spectral calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.4 Inflight radiometric calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.5 De-shadowing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

    3 Basic Concepts in the Thermal Region 27

    4 Workflow 29 4.1 Menus Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 4.2 First steps with ATCOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 4.3 Survey of processing steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 4.4 Directory structure of ATCOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 4.5 Convention for file names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 4.6 User-defined hyperspectral sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

    4.6.1 Definition of a new sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 4.7 Spectral smile sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 4.8 Haze, cloud, water map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 4.9 Processing of multiband thermal data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 4.10 External water vapor map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

    5 Description of Modules 48 5.1 Menu: File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

    5.1.1 Display ENVI File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 5.1.2 Show Textfile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 5.1.3 Select Input Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 5.1.4 Import . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 5.1.5 Plot Sensor Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 5.1.6 Plot Calibration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 5.1.7 Show System File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 5.1.8 Edit Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

    5.2 Menu: New Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 5.2.1 Define Sensor Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 5.2.2 Create Channel Filter Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 5.2.3 BBCALC : Blackbody Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

    3

  • CONTENTS 4

    5.2.4 RESLUT : Resample Atm. LUTS from Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 5.3 Menu: Atm. Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

    5.3.1 The ATCOR main panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 5.3.2 ATCOR2: multispectral sensors, flat terrain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 5.3.3 ATCOR3: multispectral sensors, rugged terrain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 5.3.4 ATCOR2: User-defined Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 5.3.5 ATCOR3: User-defined Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 5.3.6 SPECTRA module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 5.3.7 Aerosol Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 5.3.8 Visibility Estimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 5.3.9 Inflight radiometric calibration module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 5.3.10 Shadow removal panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 5.3.11 Panels for Image Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 5.3.12 Start ATCOR Process (Tiled / from ∗.inn) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

    5.4 Menu: Topographic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 5.4.1 Slope/Aspect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 5.4.2 Skyview Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 5.4.3 Shadow Mask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 5.4.4 DEM Smoothing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

    5.5 Menu: Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 5.5.1 Resample a Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 5.5.2 Spectral Polishing: Statistical Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 5.5.3 Spectral Polishing: Radiometric Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 5.5.4 Spectral Smile Interpolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

    5.6 Menu: Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 5.6.1 TOA/At-Sensor Radiance Cube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 5.6.2 At-Sensor Apparent Reflectance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 5.6.3 Resample Image Cube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

    5.7 Menu: Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 5.7.1 Solar Zenith and Azimuth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 5.7.2 SPECL: Spectral Reflectance Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 5.7.3 SPECL for User Defined Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 5.7.4 Nadir normalization (Wide FOV Imagery) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 5.7.5 Quick Topographic (no atm.) Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 5.7.6 Add a Blue Spectral Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 5.7.7 Spectral Smile Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 5.7.8 Spectral Calibration (Atm. Absorption Features) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 5.7.9 Calibration Coefficients with Regression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 5.7.10 Convert High Res. Database (New Solar Irradiance) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 5.7.11 Convert .atm for another Irradiance Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

    5.8 Menu: Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 5.8.1 Help Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

    6 Batch Processing Reference 100 6.1 Using the batch mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 6.2 Batch modules, keyword-driven modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

  • CONTENTS 5

    7 Value Added Products 108 7.1 LAI, FPAR, Albedo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 7.2 Surface energy balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

    8 Sensor simulation of hyper/multispectral imagery 116

    9 Implementation Reference and Sensor Specifics 121 9.1 The Monochromatic atmospheric database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

    9.1.1 Visible / Near Infrared region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 9.1.2 Thermal region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 9.1.3 Database update with solar irradiance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 9.1.4 Sensor-specific atmospheric database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 9.1.5 Resample sensor-specific atmospheric LUTs with another solar irradiance . . 124

    9.2 Supported I/O file types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

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