Archibald, Zosia Halina [en] - Economies of the Northern Aegean. Fifth to First Centuries BC [Oxford]

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Economies of the Northern Aegean from 5th to 1st century BC


<ul><li><p>ANCIENT ECONOMIES OF THENORTHERN AEGEAN</p><p>OUP CORRECTED PROOF FINAL, 8/10/2013, SPi</p></li><li><p>Map 1. The east Balkan and north Aegean area</p><p>OUPCORRECTEDPROOFFIN</p><p>AL,</p><p>8/10/2013,SPi</p></li><li><p>Ancient Economies ofthe Northern Aegean</p><p>Fifth to First Centuries bc</p><p>ZOSIA HALINA ARCHIBALD</p><p>1</p><p>OUP CORRECTED PROOF FINAL, 8/10/2013, SPi</p></li><li><p>3Great Clarendon Street, Oxford, OX2 6DP,</p><p>United Kingdom</p><p>Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.It furthers the Universitys objective of excellence in research, scholarship,</p><p>and education by publishing worldwide. Oxford is a registered trade mark ofOxford University Press in the UK and in certain other countries</p><p> Zosia Halina Archibald 2013</p><p>The moral rights of the author have been asserted</p><p>First Edition published in 2013Impression: 1</p><p>All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored ina retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the</p><p>prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press, or as expressly permittedby law, by licence or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics</p><p>rights organization. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the scope of theabove should be sent to the Rights Department, Oxford University Press, at the</p><p>address above</p><p>You must not circulate this work in any other formand you must impose this same condition on any acquirer</p><p>Published in the United States of America by Oxford University Press198 Madison Avenue, New York, NY 10016, United States of America</p><p>British Library Cataloguing in Publication DataData available</p><p>Library of Congress Control Number: 2013938814</p><p>ISBN 9780199682119</p><p>As printed and bound byCPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon, CR0 4YY</p><p>Links to third party websites are provided by Oxford in good faith andfor information only. Oxford disclaims any responsibility for the materials</p><p>contained in any third party website referenced in this work.</p><p>OUP CORRECTED PROOF FINAL, 8/10/2013, SPi</p></li><li><p>Preface</p><p>Most visitors to the northern Aegean today approach it (whether phys-ically or in virtual and abstract terms) from the south, that is, from theAegean Sea. In this book I have attempted not just to look at this part ofsouthern Europe from the familiar, southerly perspective, but to imagineit from other angles. The chapters are organized to reect these differentapproaches, which do deliver different impressions. They are compatibleimpressions, but nonetheless rather unfamiliar to most Classicists andhistorians, those of classical antiquity as of more recent times.I might begin with maps. The map that forms the frontispiece to</p><p>the book is a unique creation. I could not nd a map that provided thephysical environment of my story, so it had to be created. Modernnational boundaries are powerful drivers of the available geographicalinformation, so most attempts to make use of what is available tend tofollow patterns created by convenient, readily accessible parameters.These parameters are of little use when mapping the remote past,which blissfully ignores modern boundaries. Older maps are anothermatter. Nineteenth-century maps of southern Europe give a far broaderperspective, but populate the landscape with unfamiliar names andhabits of mind. Travelling about the region certainly helps to provide abetter sense of local ecologies; but modern geography conceals as muchas it reveals. The great river courses of the east Balkan area have changedtheir beds and altered the immediate landscape in ways that require bigteam projects to disentangle. What we see is not what used to be there.So this book is consciously arranged like a series of successive stage</p><p>sets, which gradually reveal the full perspective of the remote past. First,there is a preliminary summary, in Chapter 1, intended to explain whatthe story is about. The players are not just characters and choruses fromantiquity, since the story is told through the voices of contemporaryhistorians, geographers, and archaeologists. We need to hear theiraccounts, but must also manage to discern the fact that they speak indifferent registers. Modern political congurations of the region havedivided up its history into a mass of separate, sometimes quite contra-dictory interpretations. The stories are not the same, nor are the inter-pretations compatible. They cannot all be equally valid. Somehow,choices have to be made and readers need to know what these choicesare. The introductory chapter tries to see the past through the eyes of a</p><p>OUP CORRECTED PROOF FINAL, 8/10/2013, SPi</p></li><li><p>number of key modern personalities, whose research has created muchof the modern architecture of the subjects explored here.Other themes introduced in Chapter 1 are gradually developed in later</p><p>chapters. Political history is almost always a key component of bignarratives; but whose politics may be in question is not easy to discern.The politics of the powerful in southern Europe during the second half ofthe rst millennium bc is both more noticeable than it is in central andsouthern Greece and less so. The actions of powerful individuals, rulers,princes, and landowners are manifested in all kinds of ways, which alsoleave visible tracesstructures, monuments, public statements, in theform of stone inscriptions and funerary architecture. For a variety ofreasons, modern access routes into the region, even today, tend to avoidthe inland trajectories that linked the continental heartlands of princesand landowners to coasts and harbours, and thus to the more familiarlandmarks and place names of classical maritime itineraries. This mayexplain why some of these monumental power statements have onlybeen discovered comparatively recently. Yet the stories about the power-holders of the region do survive and can be reinstated, if we nd amethod by which this can be done.If we make an effort of imagination to resurrect the landward power-</p><p>holders of southern Europe, we can begin to see patterns in the geopoliticallandscape. The Greco-Persian wars emerge as a signicant driver of socialand economic changes that refashioned existing hierarchies and therebyintroduced new fashions and customs. Understanding the social param-eters of the region is therefore the rst task to be explored. This cannot, ofcourse, be done without also considering how these social entities havebeen described and interpreted as modern scholars have sought to glossand project the disparate evidence about ancient societies in the regioninto recognizable and coherent social forms. The communities thatemerge from historical accounts and archaeological vestiges in Chapter 2have thus to be made into identiable economic agents in Chapter 3,before the focus returns in Chapters 4, 5, and 6 towards the ways in whichthe landscape has become a canvas for human discovery and use.Most scholarly works on classical antiquity stick to a limited chron-</p><p>ology, well supported by ancient literary or other written texts. I havedelved much further back into the past. It is no longer uncommon to ndancient historians acknowledging the importance of long-term pro-cesses. I want to emphasize this deep perspective. Subsistence patternsin southern Europe have very deep roots indeed, which partly explain therobustness of the mixed agricultural economies that become discerniblein rural establishments of the fth to third centuries bc. The long-term</p><p>OUP CORRECTED PROOF FINAL, 8/10/2013, SPi</p><p>vi Preface</p></li><li><p>strategies also help to frame the particular events and relationships thatprovide some of the incidental detail that emerges from my story.The deeply rooted ecologies of the south-east Balkan and north</p><p>Aegean area have to be understood in terms of particular communitiesand traditions. Perhaps the hardest task for any historian who wants tomake this region better known is to create the kinds of associations thatcome so easily to more southerly and easterly locations, whose namesecho down the centuries through the poetry of Homer and the rhetoric oforators. The place names of this region are often strange modern ones,and rural mysteries at that. The best kept secret of the east Balkans are itsrural retreats. Modernity has gloried in the urban landscape of antiquity,whilst ignoring its equally impressive contributions to the managementand construction of the rural landscape.The scene-setting that each chapter tries to create results in a series of</p><p>lters through which various historical identiersethnic groups,peoples, archaeological sites, artefacts, and commoditiesare viewed inturn. These lters include demography, geology, ecology, languages, andepigraphy. Filters of this kind employ different methods and producedifferent results, which must nevertheless be factored into the overallnarrative of the past. Beyond these lters rises the broader discourseabout the nature of ancient societies, their organization and structure. Ihave tried to keep discussion of social matters rmly in touch witheconomic ones and have chosen paradigms that seem to reect theclose connection between the material and the social that is such astriking component of any encounter with the artefacts and monumentsthat these societies created. It makes a very different environment inwhich to evaluate some of the familiar and established models forconceptualising classical antiquityincluding the paradigms inventedby Moses Finley; the overriding preoccupation with coastal locationsagainst inland ones; the polis of the Copenhagen project; regionalism,national boundaries.</p><p>Handbridge, Chester, May 2013</p><p>OUP CORRECTED PROOF FINAL, 8/10/2013, SPi</p><p>Preface vii</p></li><li><p>OUP CORRECTED PROOF FINAL, 8/10/2013, SPi</p></li><li><p>Acknowledgements</p><p>The idea for this book was conceived about ve years ago, but it was mycolleague at Liverpool, Graham Oliver, who persuaded me, in 2010, thatthis was the right time to write it. Preparation of the text has coincidedwith a number of international projects and publications that make this aparticularly opportune time to consider the ancient economies of the eastBalkan/northern Aegean area as a single entity.My work has been immensely enhanced by the support and assistance</p><p>of many people. Figures 6.1 and 6.2 are reproduced with the kind permis-sion of Arthur Muller and Henri Trziny (Muller 2010, 212 g. 142; 221g. 143, respectively). Map 1 (frontispiece) was specially prepared for thisvolume in collaboration with Dr Richard Chiverrell, Department of Geog-raphy, University of Liverpool. A number of previously published mapsand plans have been redrawn, with modications, by Dr Esme Hammerle.These include Figure 2.1 (map of Macedonia, various sources); Figures4.14.2, which draw on information published in Ghilardi et al. 2008,113 g. 2 and gs. p. 122; Figures 4.3, 4.4, and 4.5, which represent, withnecessary modications, parts of the preliminary plans publishedin Adam-Veleni, Poulaki, and Tzanavari 2003: Tria Platania (p. 58),Komboloi (p. 65) and Vrasna (p. 95). Figure 4.6 has been redrawn, withmodications, from Christov and Lazovs report in AOR 2010, 192 g. 3;Figures 5.5 and 5.6, redrawn, with modications, from M. Madjarovsreports in AOR 2010, 189 g.1; Figure 4.7 reproduces data presented inAOR 2006, 231, map 2; Figure 4.8 reproduces data presented in AOR 2010,241, map 2. Figure 5.3 reproduces the data from Tzvetkova 2008, map 11.I am most grateful to Richard Chiverrell and Esme Hammerle for theirassistance; and to Katerina Tzanavari and Mitko Madjarov for their will-ingness to allow preliminary plans of their projects to be included here.I would also like to express particular gratitude to Lydia Domaradzka,</p><p>Lisa Kallet, Jack Kroll, Gavrail Lazov, Evi Margaritis, and Gary Reger,who have given me advanced access to new publications; and to themany friends and colleagues who have either read drafts of differentchapters, discussed various aspects of the contents, or otherwise contrib-uted to my perceptions: Alexandru Avram, Alexandre Baralis, ChaidoKoukouli-Chrysanthanki, John Davies, Vincent Gabrielsen, Bruce Gibson,Alexey Gotzev, Denver Graninger, Edward Harris, Chryssoula Karadima,</p><p>OUP CORRECTED PROOF FINAL, 8/10/2013, SPi</p></li><li><p>Maria Kostoglou, Jack Kroll, Louisa Loukopoulou, Mitko Madjarov,Dimitris Matsas, Cathy Morgan, Graham Oliver, Maria-Gabriella Par-issaki, Selene Psoma, Mustafa Sayar, Milena Tonkova. To Ian I owemuch more than gratitude; without him the book could not have beenwritten.</p><p>OUP CORRECTED PROOF FINAL, 8/10/2013, SPi</p><p>x Acknowledgements</p></li><li><p>Contents</p><p>List of gures, maps and tables xiiiList of Abbreviations xv</p><p>1. Introduction 1</p><p>2. Herdsmen with golden leavesnarratives and spaces 37</p><p>3. Societies and economies 85</p><p>4. The longue dure in the north Aegean 129</p><p>5. Regionalism and regional economies 193</p><p>6. The lure of the northern Aegean 249</p><p>7. Dining cultures 271</p><p>8. Continuity and commemoration 297</p><p>Bibliography 321Index of sources 367General index 374</p><p>OUP CORRECTED PROOF FINAL, 8/10/2013, SPi</p></li><li><p>OUP CORRECTED PROOF FINAL, 8/10/2013, SPi</p></li><li><p>List of gures, maps and tables</p><p>Map 1 The east Balkan and north Aegean area( R. C. Chiverrell/Z. H. Archibald) Frontispiece</p><p>1.1 Dion, Macedonia: sanctuary of Isis ( Z. H. Archibald) 91.2 Chalkidike, shing boat ( Z. H. Archibald) 18</p><p>2.1 Map of Macedonia from the sixth to second century bc( Z. H. Archibald) 47</p><p>2.2 Table showing comparative gures of documented poleis inthe northern Aegean 59</p><p>2.3 Chalkidike: wooded slopes ( Z. H. Archibald) 72</p><p>3.1 (ac) Bronze coins from Adjiyska Vodenitsa, used as smallchange ( Z. H. Archibald) 102</p><p>4.1 Geomorphological changes in the Thermaic Gulf around thelocation of Neolithic Nea Nikomedia, Classical Pella andHellenistic Thessaloniki (redrawn after Ghilardi et al., 2008) 134</p><p>4.2 Geomorphological changes in the Thermaic Gulf from the lateClassical period to the early twentieth century ad (redrawnafter Ghilardi et al., 2008) 138</p><p>4.3 Country house estate at Tria Platania, Macedonia (redrawnafter Adam-Veleni et al., 2003) 143</p><p>4.4 Country house estate at Komboloi, Macedonia (redrawn afterAdam-Veleni et al., 2003) 144</p><p>4.5 Country estate at Vrasna, eastern Macedonia (redrawnafter Adam-Veleni et al., 2003) 146</p><p>4.6 Country estate near Kozi Gramadi, central Thrace(redrawn after AOR 2009) 148</p><p>4.7 Archaeological sites in Bulgarian Thrace investigated in 2006(redrawn after AOR 2006) 151</p><p>4.8 Archaeological sites in Bulgarian Thrace investigated in 2010(redrawn after AOR 2010) 153</p><p>4.9 Olynthos, house mosaic showing the mounted Bellerophonwith his hunting dog ( Z. H. Archibald) 161</p><p>4.10 Greyware cup resembling a skyphos ( Z. H. Archibald) 1664.11 Horse grazing in Septemvri, Bulgaria ( Z. H. Archibald) 185</p><p>5.1 Bridge over the River Haliakmon near Aigeai (Vergina)( Z. H. Archibald) 195</p><p>5.2 Vineyard in the east Balkan region ( Z. H. Archibald) 1995.3 Distribution of coins from the Thracian Chersonese</p><p>(redrawn after Tzvetkova 2008, map 11) 229</p><p>OUP CORRECTED PROOF FINAL, 8/10/2013, SPi</p></li><li><p>5.4 Adjiyska Vodenitsa, near Vetren: approach to the easterngateway from the south-west ( Z. H. Archibald) 232</p><p>5.5 Krastevich, plan of the town, showing the storage complex(left); (redrawn after AOR 2010...</p></li></ul>


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