Animal Diversity and Evolution

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  • 1.Animal Diversity I

2. Animal characteristics Distinct set of genes that uniquely control body plans different from fungi and plant body plans Heterotrophs Develop from a fertilized egg Internal means to digest food Motile in at least one stage of life cycle 3. Phylum Porifera Sponges Spicules: gives structure and is a form of defense to predators Mostly asymmetrical Sessile (immobile) adults, free-swimming larvae 2 cell layers: Outer cell layer is the epidermal layer Inner cell layer is lined with choanocytes flagellated cells used to bring in food and water through ostia Brings food and water inside via ostia (filter feeder) Expels waste and water via osculum 4. Phylum Porifera Filter feeding in sponges 5. Phylum Porifera Observe slide of Grantia or Scypha 6. Phylum Cnidaria sea jellies, sea anemones, and corals Two body forms, many show both forms during their lifecycle: Sac-like gut with one opening (no anus)( Dead End digestive tract) Have radial symmetry Two cell layers (diploblastic): Sessile polyp Motile larva and medusaEctodermic layer Endoderm layerStinging nematocysts along tentacles to capture prey and for defense 7. Phylum Cnidaria Nematocysts 8. Phylum Cnidaria Typical life cycle 9. Major Classes of Cnidarians Hydrozoa Scyphozoa Hydroids (hydra-like), some are jelly-like True sea jelliesAnthozoa Includes corals and sea anemones Lack medusa phase, onlypolyps 10. Phylum Cnidaria Hydra: observe slide Observe two tissue layers (diploblastic): ectoderm endodermSingle opening for feeding and extruding waste No free-swimming medusa phase 11. Phylum Cnidaria Obelia: observe medusa and polyp slidemedusa stagepolyp stage 12. LOPHOTROCHOZOA Lophophore of a brachiopodOrganisms having a lophophore (a specialized tentacle structure) or have a trochophore larval form Protostomes: have mouth and anus, but mouth forms before the anus Bilateral symmetry Complete digestive tract (except Platyhelminthes) Three distinct cell layers (triploblastic): Ectoderm, mesoderm, and endodermTrochophore larva (annelids and mollusks) 13. Phylum Platyhelminthes Flatworms, planarians, flukes, and tapeworms Only have one opening for digestive tract Can be parasitic, carnivorous, or herbivorous Advances include: More specialized tissues Several, well-developed organ systems Cephalization:developmenta head Localization of sense organs First group to have bilateral symmetryof 14. Phylum Platyhelminthes Diversity within Platyhelminthess Flatworms Mostly free-living: predators or scavengers (dead, organic matter) Many are brightly colored Cilia or muscular movementPlanarians Free-living: feed on small animals or scavenge Cilia for movement 15. Phylum Platyhelminthes Diversity within Platyhelminthes Flukes Parasitic in liver, lungs, bladder, or blood vessels of vertebrates Primaryhost for adult fluke: vertebrate Intermediate host for larvae: usually a snail Tapeworms Specialized parasites for life in intestine (predigested food) Attach to host by scolex (suckers & hooks) 16. Phylum Platyhelminthes Observe slide of liver fluke, Opisthorchis Parasitic flatworm 17. Phylum Platyhelminthes Tapeworms 18. Phylum Annelida segmented worms, marine worms, earthworms, leeches Advancements Segments: repeating units Hydrostatic skeleton: fluid filled cavity in which pressure can be changed to allow the animal to move Setae (bristles) for movement Simple diffusion for gas exchange (no respiratory system) Well-developed digestive, circulatory, reproductive, and nervous systems 19. Phylum Annelida Class Polychaeta: bristle worms Mostly live in marine environments Have many setae (bristles) that extend from their parapodia (appendages) Typically either filter feeders or carnivorous 20. Phylum Annelida Class Oligochaeta: earthworms Found in terrestrial & freshwater habitats Herbivorous or detritivorous Few setae and no parapodia Hermaphroditic Observe prepared slide Dissect Lumbricus 21. Phylum Annelida Lumbricus (earthworm) dissection Basic anatomy terms Anterior: head end Posterior: tail end Dorsal: back Ventral: bellyPin anterior end to dissecting pan Cut body open along the anterior-posterior axis Separate body wall from animal and pin to dissecting pan Use water to flush body cavity 22. Phylum Annelida Class Hirudinea: leeches Live in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats Leeches have no bristles and no parapodia Can be free-living (carnivorous) or parasitic 23. Phylum Mollusca chitons, snails, slugs, clams, octopus, squid, nautilus Body plan Muscular foot Visceral mass: contains organs(digestive, circulatory, reproductive) and is protected by a hard outer shell Mantle that secretes protective shell Gills to obtain oxygen from water Head with sensory structures Veryadvanced in cephalopods 24. Phylum Mollusca Class Polyplacophora: chitons Marine omnivores that scrape algae and other organisms with radula Clings tightly to rocks with foot 25. Phylum Mollusca radula 26. Phylum Mollusca Class Gastropoda: snails and slugs Name means stomach foot Radula for feeding Glide by moving muscular foot Some slugs have aposomatic coloration (warning colors) Are either carnivorous or herbivorous 27. Phylum Mollusca Class Bivalvia: clams, mussels, scallops, oysters 2-part shell Foot used for anchoring and burrowing Do not have a head, radula, or eyes Use gills for oxygen and filter-feeding 28. Phylum Mollusca Class Cephalopoda: squid, octopus, nautilus Name means head foot Lack outer shell (except nautilus) Uses modified mantle to jet through the water Use tentacles to capture prey Very complex sensory systems 29. Squid tentacle with hooks 30. ECDYSOZOA Protostomes These organisms have an exoskeleton Must molt in order to grow Complete digest tract Bilateral symmetry Three distinct cell layers: Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm 31. Phylum Nematoda Roundworms Can be parasitic or free-living (carnivorous or herbivorous) One of the most widespread and diverse animal Complete digestive system, has a mouth and an anus False body cavity present Filled with reproductive organs No protective lining around organs, but some separation of organs Some parasites of plants and animals Observe prepared slide Dissect Ascaris 32. Phylum Nematoda Ascaris dissection Use same techniques used for dissecting Lumbricus Make comparisons between the two dissected specimens 33. Phylum Arthropoda Chelicerates, myriapods, hexapods, and crustaceans Arthropods united by having: Segmentation Exoskeleton Basic body plan: head, thorax, abdomen Made of chitin, molt to growUsed for feeding, movement, senses, and reproductionSpiders, mites, and ticksSubphylum Myriapoda Shrimp, lobsters, barnacles, and relativesSubphylum Chelicerata Jointed paired appendages Subphylum CrustaceaMillipedes and centipedesSubphylum Hexapoda Insects and relatives 34. Phylum Arthropoda Subphyla of ArthropodaCrustacea: crayfishChelicerata: tarantulaMyriapoda:Hexapoda: beetle