ancient rome. introduction to ancient rome -ancient egypt and mesopotamia 3500- 3000b.c. -ancient...

Download Ancient Rome. Introduction to Ancient Rome -Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia 3500- 3000b.c. -Ancient Greece 1750- 133 b.c. -Ancient Rome 509b.c. to 476 a.d

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  • Slide 1
  • Ancient Rome
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  • Introduction to Ancient Rome -Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia 3500- 3000b.c. -Ancient Greece 1750- 133 b.c. -Ancient Rome 509b.c. to 476 a.d.
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  • Location of Rome Rome is located on the Mediterranean. It became the major trading nation to carry products from the Middle East, Africa to Europe which was developing and had a demand for products outside of Europe. The Alps to the North served as a defense against attacks from the North. Rome replaced Greece as the center of trade and commerce. Because of geography easier to unite Rome
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  • Early Rome
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  • History of Rome The Kingdom of Rome. The Republic The Roman Empire Split of Roman Empire Fall of Roman Empire
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  • In the beginning Get idea from Estruscans Romans drive out Estrucan king in 509 b.c. and set up republic Pillars of republic-courage, loyalty, devotion to duty
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  • Early republic--government Most powerful governing body= Senate (300 men) Made up of all patricians (landholding upper class) served life terms Each senate member elected two consuls (voice for the public) rotated every year In the event of war a dictator could be chosen by senate 6 month term
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  • Early republic--government Plebians (middle class) wanted equality Laws of twelve tablets Tribunes set up (chosen by plebians and could veto senate measures)
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  • Early Expansion Expanded throughout Italy Roman army- made up of citizen/soldiers were well trained and fought in legions (groups of 5,000 men) Reward for courage punishment for cowardice
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  • Conquered lands Acknowledge Roman leadership Pay taxes Supply Roman soldiers Rome let them keep customs, money, and local government
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  • Conquered lands Some gained Roman citizenship status or partial Used Latin and supported Rome Rome left soldiers to protect conquest Rome built roads to help travel from area to home
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  • Rivalry with Carthage Carthage- city-state on N. coast of Africa (Tunisia) Trading empire across N. Africa and W. Mediterranean Conflict from 264b.c. to 146b.c. know as Punic Wars (3 wars) 1 st war Rome defeats Carthage and gets Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia
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  • Rivalry with Carthage 2 nd war Carthage seeks revenge led by General Hannibal In 218 b.c. sets out from Spain through France and over Alps into Italy Trip through Alps lasted 15 days and cost half of his army and almost all the elephants For 15 yrs moves across Italy winning many battles Rome outnumbered and outflanked Hannibals army at the same time attacking Carthage Rome wins and forces Carthage to give up all lands except in Africa Later.Hannibal drinks poison rather than surrender
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  • Rivalry with Carthage 3 rd War Rome attacks and destroys Carthage Survivors were killed or sold into slavery Rome expands to N. Africa Rome now all over Med. Sea region
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  • From Republic to Empire Effects of Expansionism- Romans gloried their successes and incredible riches flooded Rome Wealth from: looting, trading, taxing Social and economic consequences- new class of wealthy Romans emerge (build huge mansions and use slave labor) Huge gap opens between rich and poor driven by greed
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  • From Republic to Empire Attempts at reform Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus wanted many reforms (help poor) Senate was angry at attempts and had them killed.led to 100 yrs of civil wars Who should hold power? Senate or popular politicians? Rival generals marched their armies into Rome to advance their ambitions
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  • From Republic to Empire Out of Chaos> Julius Caesar For a time Caesar and Pompey (brilliant general) dominated Roman politics Caesar, in 59 b.c., gains control of Gaul (France) Pompey gets jealous has senate order Caesar to disband and return home Caesar defies order (treason) and secretly marches army towards Rome (civil war breaks out and Caesar beats Pompey and all opponents) Returns home and forces senate to make him dictator
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  • From Republic to Empire Caesars reforms 48b.c. to 44b.c. Public works to employ jobless Organized provinces and gave more citizenship Adopted Egyptian cal. To do so packed senate w/his own followers
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  • From Republic to Empire Caesars enemies worried that he would be king Beware of the Ides of March (March 15 th ) Caesar stabbed to death from enemies
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  • From Republic to Empire As he took his seat, the conspirators gathered about him as if to pay their respects, and straightway Tillius Cimber [7], who had assumed the lead, came nearer as though to ask something. When Caesar with a gesture put him off to another time, Cimber caught his toga by both shoulders. As Caesar cried, 'Why, this is violence!', one of the Cascas [8] stabbed him from one side just below the throat. Caesar caught Casca's arm and ran it through with his stylus, but as he tried to leap to his feet, he was stopped by another wound. When he saw that he was beset on every side by drawn daggers, he muffled his head in his robe, and at the same time drew down its lap to his feet with his left hand, in order to fall more decently, with the lower part of his body also covered. And in this wise he was stabbed with three and twenty wounds, uttering not a word, but merely a groan at the first stroke, though some have written that when Marcus Brutus rushed at him, he said in Greek, 'You too, my child?'78
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  • From Republic to Empire Mark Antony (Caesars chief general) and Octavian (Caesars grandnephew) join forces to hunt down murderers but both struggle for power Octavian defeats Antony and takes power in 31b.c. as Augustus or Exalted One 31b.c. to 14a.d. Age of Empire
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  • CaesarAugustus
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  • Imperial Rome--Augustus Set up stable govt kept senate, set up civil service to enforce laws, let provinces have self government Economic reforms- census, postal service, new coins, jobless to work building roads and temples Worked well for 200 yrs
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  • Imperial Rome Who would rule after the death of an Emperor? Bad and Good emperors Bad- Caligula-own horse to consul Nero- persecuted Christians and know for fires 96-180 a.d. Good- Hadrian- Roman law codes and wall /Marcus Aurelius-duty to people
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  • Imperial Rome 200 yr span begins w/ Augustus and ends w/Aurelius known as Pax Romana (Roman Peace Ideas and goods spread
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  • Life in Rome Family- Men were in charge (by law) Women- played a larger role in society compared to Greeks (public baths, dined out, theatre, public roles, ran shops) but most worked at home Education- girls and boys learned to read and writeeven the poor Religion Roman Gods- Jupiter (ruled over sky and other gods) wife Juno (marriage), Neptune- (God of sea) Mars (God of war) also later Christianity To hide social and economic problems- festivals, chariot races, and sporting events (gladiators)
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  • Greco-Roman civilization Art- Copy Greeks were idealistsRome- realism but use expressionism as well Architecture- used columns, the arch, and dome Engineering- worked to perfect roads, bridges, and aqueducts (bridgelike stone structures that brought water from the hills to Roman cities)
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  • Greco-Roman civilization Science-Left mostly to the Greeks Literature- Virgil wrote Aeneid Philosophers and Historians Roman Law- Two systems 1. civil law (applied to citizens) 2. law of nations (applied to conquered lands) later both merge Many laws visible today: innocent until proven guilty, accused allowed to face accuser
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  • Art and Architecture of Rome The Romans developed or improved there art by copying the art from the Greeks for the statues. Statues were made from clay or marble. They were sometimes reinforced with metal reinforcements. They were well made and were nude and they were made of gods or important leaders which were recognized and got statues carved. They made their statues well as they had religious significance.
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  • Roman Architecture Roman Architecture has the following characteristics: 1. Roman architecture is very utilitarian and simple. 2. The vault and arch are perfected. 3. Greatest artistic contribution was the development of cement.
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  • Arch of Titus
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  • Roman Arches Allow for Strength The development of the arch and dome gave the Romans the ability to build large structures that would span huge areas and hold up large amounts of weight. Concrete was heavy and needed the strength provided. The Arch of Trajan recognizes this Emperor for his achievements. He did a large amount of construction in bridges and roads to pull the Empire together.
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  • Arch of Trajan
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  • Roman Dome
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  • Construction began under Vespasian in 72 A.D., and it was inaugurated by his younger son Domitian in 80 A.D. A hundred days of festivities saw the deaths of 9000 wild animals and 2000 gladiators. It was the greatest and deadliest structure