agriculture: ias 41 wiecek and young ifrs primer chapter 9

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  • Agriculture: IAS 41

    Wiecek and YoungIFRS PrimerChapter 9

  • *Agriculture Related standardsIAS 41Current GAAP comparisonsIFRS financial statement disclosuresLooking aheadEnd-of-chapter practice

  • *Related Standards

    FAS 144 Accounting for the Impairment or Disposal of Long-lived AssetsFAS 157 Fair Value MeasurementsSOP 85-3 Accounting by Agricultural Producers and Agricultural Cooperatives

  • *Related Standards

    IAS 1 Presentation of Financial StatementsIAS 2 InventoriesIAS 18 RevenuesIAS 37 Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent AssetsIFRS 5 Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations

  • *IAS 41 Overview

    Objective and ScopeRecognition and MeasurementGovernment Grants Disclosure

  • *IAS 41 Objective and ScopeStandard deals with the accounting for agricultural activity specifically covering:Biological assetsAgricultural produce at the point of harvestRelated government grantsExcludes land and intangible assets

    IAS 41 is considered a significant addition to GAAP since the economies of many global countries rely on agriculture

    In general, agricultural activities have the following common characteristics: they are capable of biological transformation and this transformation is managed, facilitated, measured, and monitored by the entity

  • IAS 41 Objective and Scope*

  • *IAS 41 Objective and ScopeIAS 41 defines the following terms:Agricultural activity is the management by an entity of the biological transformation and harvest of biological assets for sale, or for conversion into agricultural produce or into additional biological assetsAgricultural produce is the harvested product of the entitys biological assetsA biological asset is a living animal or plantBiological transformation comprises the processes of growth, degeneration, production, and procreation that cause qualitative or quantitative changes in a biological assetA group of biological assets is an aggregation of similar living animals or plantsHarvest is the detachment of produce from a biological asset or the cessation of a biological assets life processes

  • *IAS 41 Recognition and MeasurementBiological assets are recognized when:Entity controls the asset as a result of past eventsFuture economic benefits are probable andFair value or cost is reliably measurable

  • IAS 41 Recognition and MeasurementAs biological assets grow and mature through biological transformation, they increase in value

    Biological assets are measured at fair value less estimated costs to sell on initial recognition, unless fair value cannot be reliably measuredCosts to sell include commissions, taxes, and duties

    Agricultural produce is measured at fair value less estimated costs to sell at the point of harvest. Where fair value is used, assets are remeasured at each reporting date

    *

  • IAS 41 Recognition and MeasurementFair value is felt to be the most relevant measure since many of these assets trade in active markets and therefore objective information on their current value is available

    Market values are more reliable and relevant than cost figures, which may be inconsistently accumulated from entity to entity due to differing choices regarding allocations

    In general, fair value is determined by reference to a market price if an active market exists for the asset in its present location and condition

    An active market is a market where the items traded are homogeneous and there are buyers and sellers and publicly available prices*

  • *IAS 41 Recognition and MeasurementWhere an active market does not exist or where markets do not exist at all, the entity would do the following in attemptingto estimate fair value:

    1. First, try to estimate current market prices by looking at the prices of recent market transactions, market prices for similar assets, or sector benchmarks such as the price ofcattle expressed by weight2. Second, if market-determined prices are not available for assets in their present condition, use a discounted cash flow approach to measure the valueThis need not be carried out by an independent valuator

    Cost may be close to fair value if there has been little or immaterial biological transformation

  • *IAS 41 Recognition and MeasurementWhen using a discounted cash flow approach, the entity would: Use a market-determined discount rate Exclude cash flows for financing, taxation, or replacing the asset after harvest Incorporate risk by either using probability weighted cash flows or adjusting the discount rate or some combination of the two; and Ensure assumptions for calculating the discount rate are consistent with calculating the cash flows to avoid double-counting

    Where the biological assets are attached to land, the fair value of the land and assets would be measured, and then the value of the land would be deducted since land is not covered by this standard

  • *IAS 41 Recognition and MeasurementContracts:

    If the entity has entered into a contract to sell the assets at a future date, the price fixed in the contract does not necessarily dictate the fair value since the contract price reflects an estimate of the future fair value and therefore includes a time value factor

    In addition, the locked-in contract price may be higher or lower than the fair value at any point in time (spot price) due to changing market conditions and expectations

    Where an entity has locked into a price to sell the assets at a price less than the current fair value, this would be reflected in the statements as an onerous contract and IAS 37 would apply

  • *IAS 41 Recognition and MeasurementCosts related to the biological transformation process:May include planting, weeding, fertilizing, and othersIAS 41 does not prescribe how to treat these costs Some feel that it is inconsistent to capitalize these costs in a fair value model and that they should be expensedOthers feel that they should be capitalized and only the net amount should be recognized as gain or loss in the statement of profit and loss

    Gains and losses:Gains or losses are recognized in income when they arise This may result in a gain or loss arising upon initial recognition such as the birth of a calf

  • *IAS 41 Recognition and MeasurementInability to Measure Fair Value Reliably:In general, the standard assumes that fair value is measurable

    This rebuttable presumption may be overcome for biological assets only if the market-determined prices are not available or fair value estimates are unreliable at the time of initial recognition

    As a default measurement method, the asset would be measured at cost (amortized if relevant) and would also be tested for impairment

    Once an asset is measured at fair value less point of sale costs it is assumed that fair value is reliably measurable thereafter (no going back)

    Agricultural produce is always presumed to have a reliably measurable fair value

  • *IAS 41 Government GrantsUnconditional government grants are recognized as income when receivable

    For conditional grants, conditions must be met before recognition of the grant

    If the biological asset is measured at cost or amortized cost, the government grant is accounted for in accordance with IAS 20

  • *IAS 41 DisclosureIAS 1 requires biological assets to be presented separately on the statement of financial position

    The standard requires the following disclosures: Recognized gains/losses (on initial recognitions and on revaluation) Description of each type of biological asset Nature of activities relating to the assets Non-financial measures or estimates of the physical qualities of the assets Methods and significant assumptions to determine fair value Fair value of harvested assets at point of harvest Any restrictions on title Commitments for the development or acquisition of biological assets Financial risk management strategies A reconciliation of changes in the carrying amounts of biological assets between the beginning and end of the period Additional disclosure if measured at cost Additional disclosures related to government grants

  • *IAS 41 DisclosureAn entity is also encouraged but not required to disclose the change in fair value due to physical changes (assets getting older) and price changes (e.g., the price of beef increases)

    Biological assets: Are categorized as being consumable (beef cattle) and bearer (dairy cows)Bearer biological assets are long-term assets that produce each year such as an orchard tree Entities are encouraged to provide a description of different types of assets differentiating between consumable and bearer biological assets

  • *Current GAAP Comparisons

    Pages 80 & 108 of 164 ofhttp://www.kpmg.co.uk/pubs/IFRScomparedtoU.S.GAAPAnOverview(2008).pdf

  • *IFRS Financial Statement DisclosuresDel Monte Pacific Limitedhttp://www.delmontepacific.com/ir/media/ar_ipo/AR2007.pdf

    Biological Assets accountingpolicy note page 62 of 108Biological Assets notepage 75 of 108

  • *Looking AheadThe use of fair value in this standard means that the standard is intertwined with the larger fair value measurement project

    The IASB has established an expert advisory panel to deal with the issue of fair value measurement in general; the panel met for the first time in June 2008

    To date, the IASB has completed a standard-by-standard review of existing measurements in IFRSs that are identified as fair value and has decided to delete the requirement to use a pre-tax discount rate

    Other than noted in footnote 6 and above, there are no other specific plans to make any changes in the standard in the near future

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