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  • EUR 27692 EN

    AGRICULTURAL

    KNOWLEDGE AND INNOVATION SYSTEMS TOWARDS THE FUTURE

    A Foresight Paper

    Standing Committee on Agricultural Research (SCAR) Strategic Working Group AKIS-3 Report

  • EUROPEAN COMMISSION

    Directorate-General for Research and Innovation Directorate F Bioeconomy Unit F.3 Agri-Food Chain

    Contact: Hans-Jrg LUTZEYER

    E-mail: RTD-PUBLICATIONS@ec.europa.eu

    European Commission B-1049 Brussels

    mailto:RTD-PUBLICATIONS@ec.europa.eu

  • EUROPEAN COMMISSION

    AGRICULTURAL KNOWLEDGE AND

    INNOVATION SYSTEMS

    TOWARDS THE FUTURE

    A Foresight Paper

    Standing Committee on Agricultural Research (SCAR)

    Strategic Working Group AKIS

    Directorate-General for Research and Innovation 2016 Bioeconomy EUR 27692 EN

  • LEGAL NOTICE

    This document has been prepared for the European Commission however it reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

    This report should be cited as: EU SCAR (2015), Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation Systems Towards the Future a Foresight Paper, Brussels.

    More information on the European Union is available on the Internet (http://europa.eu).

    Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union, 2016.

    Print: ISBN 978-92-79-54547-4 doi:10.2777/388087 ISSN 1018-5593 KI-NA-27-692-EN-C PDF: ISBN 978-92-79-54548-1 doi:10.2777/324117 ISSN 1831-9424 KI-NA-27-692-EN-N

    European Union, 2016 Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.

    Cover image: Hans Vrolijk

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  • Table of Contents

    1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................... 8

    1.1 Setting the scene .......................................................................... 8

    1.2 Role of SCAR and the SWG AKIS ..................................................... 9

    1.2.1 Standing Committee on Agricultural Research ...................... 9

    1.2.2 Background on the work on AKIS ....................................... 9

    1.2.3 Mandate and working methods of the SWG AKIS ................. 10

    1.3 Structure of the report .................................................................. 11

    2 INNOVATION AND THE ROLE OF AKIS ..................................................... 12

    2.1 Innovation .................................................................................. 12

    2.1.1 Definition ....................................................................... 12

    2.1.2 Role of research .............................................................. 12

    2.1.3 Stimulating innovation ..................................................... 13

    2.2 AKIS to support the innovation process in the agri-food sector .......... 16

    2.3 The interactive innovation model.................................................... 18

    2.3.1 Two types of research ...................................................... 19

    2.3.2 EIP as an concept to stimulate interactive innovation ........... 20

    2.3.3 Experiences with the interactive innovation model ............... 22

    2.3.4 Incentivising relevant actors ............................................. 23

    2.3.5 Cross-border collaboration ............................................... 24

    2.3.6 Role of ICT and social media ............................................. 24

    2.4 Are AKIS fit for purpose? .............................................................. 25

    2.5 References .................................................................................. 27

    3 AR AND ARD: WORLDS THAT COULD COME TOGETHER ............................. 28

    3.1 Fading differences between ARD and AR ......................................... 28

    3.2 Bridging AR and ARD .................................................................... 29

    3.3 Best strategies for intercontinental research and innovation partnerships - towards greater impact on global challenges ............... 29

    3.3.1 Opportunities to align research themes for AR and ARD ....... 29

    3.3.2 Innovation Partnership Approaches ................................... 30

    3.3.3 Strategies for aligning funding for research and innovation ...................................................................... 31

    3.3.4 Concluding remarks from the Joint ARCH AKIS Workshop ....................................................................... 32

    3.4 Additional issues .......................................................................... 33

    4 ICT AS A DRIVER OF CHANGE IN THE AGRI AND FOOD SECTOR ................. 34

    4.1 Summary .................................................................................... 34

    4.2 The importance of ICT .................................................................. 35

    4.3 Topics in programming research and innovation ............................... 35

    4.4 Organising research and innovation on ICT ...................................... 37

    4.4.1 Supporting Science on ICT ............................................... 38

    4.4.2 Supporting R&D on ICT .................................................... 38

  • 4.4.3 Multi-actor R&D projects .................................................. 39

    4.4.4 Supporting innovation processes on ICT ............................. 41

    4.5 ICT will change the research and innovation process ........................ 42

    4.6 Concluding remarks ...................................................................... 43

    4.7 References .................................................................................. 44

    5 THE ROLE OF E-SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE: HOW E-SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY ASSISTS PARTICIPATION IN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH........ 45

    5.1 Introduction ................................................................................ 45

    5.2 Participation in agricultural research ............................................... 45

    5.3 E-Science .................................................................................... 47

    5.4 E-Science in agriculture ................................................................ 49

    5.4.1 Providing and collecting data for science ............................ 50

    5.4.2 Participating in experiments ............................................. 51

    5.4.3 Contributing field knowledge to science .............................. 53

    5.4.4 Accessing expert knowledge from science .......................... 54

    5.5 Issues and opportunities ............................................................... 60

    5.5.1 How to collect and share data ........................................... 60

    5.5.2 How to collect knowledge ................................................. 64

    5.5.3 Accuracy and reliability of data ......................................... 64

    5.5.4 Data ownership ............................................................... 66

    5.5.5 Bridging the divide .......................................................... 67

    5.5.6 Awareness, training and education .................................... 68

    5.5.7 Incentives, support and sustainability ................................ 69

    5.5.8 Learning from existing initiatives ....................................... 71

    5.6 Conclusion .................................................................................. 72

    5.7 References .................................................................................. 74

    6 FORESIGHT TOWARDS THE AKIS OF THE FUTURE .................................. 76

    6.1 SCAR Foresight on the bioeconomy ................................................ 76

    6.2 Foresight for AKIS ........................................................................ 79

    6.3 Scenario HighTech ....................................................................... 80

    6.3.1 Society and agriculture .................................................... 80

    6.3.2 Impact on AKIS .............................................................. 83

    6.4 Scenario Self organisation ............................................................. 85

    6.4.1 General and agricultural characteristics .............................. 85

    6.4.2 Impact on AKIS .............................................................. 89

    6.5 Scenario Collapse ......................................................................... 91

    6.5.1 General and agricultural characteristics .............................. 91

    6.5.2 Impact on AKIS .............................................................. 93

    6.6 AKIS in three scenarios: quo vadis?................................................ 94

    6.7 REFERENCES ............................................................................. 103

    7 INTERACTION WITH AND GOVERNANCE OF INCREASINGLY PLURALISTIC AKIS: A CHANGING ROLE FOR ADVISORY SERVICES ........... 104

    7.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 104

  • 7.2 Roles of public administration in governing increasingly pluralistic AKIS....

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