A Project Report On Consumer Behaviour of Hybrid Maize Seeds and Study of Hybrid Maize Market Potential of Solapur District

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A PROJECT REPORT ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR OF HYBRID MAIZE SEEDS AND STUDY OF HYBRID MAIZE MARKET POTENTIAL OF SOLAPUR DISTRICT AT KRISHIDHAN SEEDS LTD. PUNE BY AMOL PRABHAKAR JADHAV. Under The Guidance Of PROF.GANESH TANNU Submitted To UNIVERSITY OF PUNEIn Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the award of Degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA) ThroughADITYA INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT Narhe, Pune-411041 (A.Y. 20092011)DECLARATIONI, the undersigned, hereby declare that the Project Report entitled CONSUMERBEHAVIOUR OF HYBRID MAIZE SEEDS AND STUDY OF HYBRID MAIZE MARKET POTENTIAL OF SOLAPUR DISTRICT. Written and submitted by me to the University of Pune, inpartial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree of Master of Business Administration under the guidance of Prof. Ganesh Tannuis my original work and the conclusions drawn therein are based on the material collected by myself.Place: Pune Date:Amol P. Jadhav (Research Student)CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that, Mr. Amol Prabhakar Jadhav is a bonafied student of Aditya Institute of Management, Pune for the M.B.A program affiliated to University of Pune for the academic year 2009-2011. The Project entitled Consumer Behaviour of Hybrid Maize Seeds and Study of Hybrid Maize Market Potential of Solapur District is the original work student has carried out on the basis of authentic information under my guidance.Prof. Manoj. W. Megharajani DirectorProf. Ganesh Tannu Project GuideACKNOWLEDGEMNET Any accomplishment requires the effort of many people and this work is no different. It gives me an immense pleasure while submitting this dissertation. For partial fulfillment of award Master of Business Administration. Every trainee expects a lot thing from the eminent scholars and leading authorities of company and I am not an exception.I would first and foremost thank the Pune University for designing such a precise and practical course.I would like to express my sincere gratitude towards Mr. Sameer Jadhav (General Manager), for providing me with this opportunity to work with the esteemed organization, KRISHIDHAN SEED Ltd. and I would also like to thank Mr. Sachin Patil (Product promotion and extension manager) for guiding me throughout the course of this project.I would like to express my deepest sense of gratitude to Dr. Manoj Meghrajni and Prof. Ganesh Tannu for playing the ideal mentor and being a constant source of inspiration throughout at AIM. It is like a boon for me that I have got such kind of knowledgeable guide. I am unable to find words to convey my gratitude towards him contribution. I thank him from the depth of my heart.Last but not the least my sincere thanks to other staff members of Krishidhan seeds and all the Dealers and Farmers for their sincere co-operation in collection the necessary details required for the completion of this report. I would also like to thank all of my friends and all others who have directly or indirectly helped me in the successful completion of this project.EXECUTIVE SUMMARYIn todays competitive world for retaining in the market it is very necessary to have good knowledge of the consumer buying behaviour and the information regarding the activities of competitors existing in the market so that we can plan our each activity according to that. Also it is necessary to know the retailer expectation from the company. The project is CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR OF HYBRID MAIZE SEEDS AND STUDY OF HYBRID MAIZE MARKET POTENTIAL OF SOLAPUR DISTRICT. This project is carried out for Krishidhan Seeds Limited, Pune, one of the leading seed companies in India, engaged in production of different crop seeds. The study deals with different objectives. The first objective of the project was to study the consumer buying behaviour of hybrid maize consumer for that we have to understand the customer needs, Income, constraints, response and emotions. The second objective of this study was to analyze buying behaviour of existing customer of Hybrid maize in Solapur. It was essential to know the feedback of retailers and farmers in order to formulate effective marketing and sales strategies in future and improve the quality to increase the market share with better consumer satisfaction.The data has been collected by visiting to farmers and retailersto know the consumer buying behaviour and identifying the factors, which effect on consumer buying behaviour. For this purpose structured questionnaire has been usedThe descriptive design had been used to collect and analyze the data. In data analysis tools like table, bar chart, pie chart had been used. After the due analysis, it has been found that the most of farmer are preferring high yielding variety and they are changing seeds at every time of growing.With this in theresearcher can conclude that there is need to increase the awareness about Krishidhan maize seeds to increase market share.INDEXSr. No. Content Page No.Executive Summery1Introduction12Profile of Organization43Literature Review264Research Methodology405Analysis And Interpretation of Data516Observations And Findings727Suggestions748Conclusion769Bibliography7810Appendices80List of TablesTable No. Name of the Table 1 Product of Krishidhan Seeds Ltd. 2 Notified high yielding maize composites/hybrids3 Area, Production & Yield of Maize in India 4 Factors Influencing Buying Behaviour 5 Seeds Available in Shop 6 Company's maize seed available in shop 7 Ranking of company according to sale of seed 8 Reason behind Selection of Brand by farmer 9 Dealer Suggest KSL maize seeds 10 Dealers Margin satisfaction 11 Effect of Margin on dealer sale 12 Commonly Observed Promotional Activity 13 Ranking of company according to sales promotion 14 Farmers Purpose of Growing Maize 15 Season Of growing maize 16 Awareness of KSL maize seed 17 Effect of Promotional Activity on Farmer 18 Promotion activity affecting purchase behaviour of farmer 19 Source of information to farmer 20 Factor considered by farmer while purchasing hybrid maize seed 21 Frequency of seed change by farmer 22 Yield satisfaction of farmer with currently using variety 23 Maize Seed demand and supply (in Qt.) 24 Hybrid maizeMarket potential of Solapur districtPage No. 1419 24 29 52 53 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 71List of FigureFig. no. Name of Figure1 Karwa group of industries 2 Maize variety Maharaja 3 Maize variety Narendra 4 Maize variety Golden Gun 5 Maize variety Dhawal 6 Maize variety KDMH-017 7 Global Corn acerage and Production 8 Major corn Producing countries 9 Maize Area & Production in India 10 Yield of Maize in India 11 Black box model of consumer buying behaviour 12 Seeds Available in Shop 13 Company's maize seed available in shop 14 Ranking of company according to sale of seed 15 Reason behind Selection of Brand by farmer 16 Dealer Suggest KSL maize seeds 17 Dealers Margin satisfaction 18 Effect of Margin on dealer sale 19 Commonly Observed Promotional Activity 20 Ranking of company according to sales promotion 21 Farmers Purpose of Growing Maize 22 Season Of growing maize 23 Awareness of KSL maize seed 24 Effect of Promotional Activity on Farmer 25 Promotion activity affecting purchase behaviour of farmer 26 Source of information to farmer 27 Factor considered by farmer while purchasing hybrid maize seed 28 Frequency of seed change by farmer 29 Yield satisfaction of farmer with currently using variety 30 Hybrid maizeMarket potential of Solapur districtPage No.9 11 12 12 13 13 22 23 25 25 28 52 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71CHAPTER: 1 INTRODUCTION1.1BACKGROUND Consumer behaviour may be defined as the acts of individuals in obtaining and using goods and services including both the ultimate consumer and the purchaser of the industrial goods. Our approach is to view consumer behaviour, we must examine the events that precede and follow from the purchase act. Consumer behaviour results from individual and environmental influences. Consumer often influences goods and services with they want to accept is therefore determined by the individuals psychological makeup and influences of others. The duel influence has been summarized in the following simplified equation of the S. B = F (P, E) Consumer Behaviour (B) is, therefore the results of the interaction of the consumers personnel influences (P) and the environment (E), understanding consumer behaviour requires that we understand the nature of these influences. The four basic determinants of consumer behaviour are the individual needs motives, perception and attitudes. The interaction of these factors with the influences of the environmental cause of the consumer act. The starting point in the purchases decision process is the recognition of felt need. A need is the simply lack of something useful. Everybody is motivated by needs and wants. The consumer is typically confronted with numerous unsatisfied needs. Some needs are physiological while others are his relationship with others. Wants are basic these are learned during the courses of the individuals life. When a need or want is not satisfied, it needs to drive, the drive state is one of the satisfaction his drive, motives are inner attention that direct us towards the goal of satisfying a fall need.1.2 INTRODUCTION OF THE TOPICThe purpose of this research was to have practical experience of working within the organization, in the field of marketing and to have exposure to the important management practices in field of marketing.While writing this report the language has been keep simple and the entire discussion has been logical and has coherent outlines. The main motto of the project work wasCONSUMER BEHAVIOUR OF HYBRID MAIZE SEEDS AND STUDY OF HYBRID MAIZEMARKETPOTENTIAL OF SOLAPUR DISTRICT. It includes through market Research in. Itincludes consumer buying behaviour analysis, by surveying number of farmers and dealer. The project report is divided into two parts, first part consist market research for finding out the factor affect consumer buying behaviour, and second consist hybrid maize market potential of Solapur.1.3 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY:1. To know Consumer behaviour of hybrid Maize consumer at the time of seed purchase. To know the consumer behaviour of seed dealer towards Hybrid Maize seeds sales. 2. To know the sales potential of Hybrid maize seeds in different Talukas of Solapur District. 3. To find out opportunities in for increasing the KSL Hybrid Maize share. 1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. What are the factors which affect the consumer behaviour? 2. What is the purpose of growing maize? 3. What is the hybrid maize market potential of Solapur district? 1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY: The study carried out in Solapur so its scope is mainly limited to Pune. This project is helpful for company in following aspects:1. Consumer preference: by the market survey of dealer and consumer of Hybrid maize company can know preference of the consumer towards brand of milk products. Also can know the reasons for giving preference by them. 2. Market potential: through the Solapur hybrid maize market survey company can know the untapped market potential of hybrid maize It provides suggestions to the company to improve their products sales.CHAPTER: 2 PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION2.1 COMPANY PROFILE: Krishidhan was established in 1996 and has grown into a group of companies committed for excellence in an integrated seed business based on quality R&D, Production, Quality Control, Processing, Marketing, Sales and Extension with sole goal of ushering prosperity to farmers both at national and global level. Krishidhan has its registered office at Indore and corporate office at Pune and major infrastructure base is at "Jalna", the seed capital of Indian agriculture industry. Krishidhan Seeds is a pioneer and dynamic agricultural biotech company delivering high quality seeds for the Indian commercial seeds market. Krishidhan is a research-based organization. Its R&D activities and research stations are recognized by the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR), Govt. of India. The company is actively involved in research, production, processing, packing, and marketing of high quality seeds of Cotton, Cereals, Pulses, Oil seeds and Vegetables. Recently, it has incorporated a separate legal entity as Krishidhan Vegetable Seeds India Pvt. Ltd (KVSIPL), a company dedicated exclusively for vegetable seeds business. Krishidhan is one amongst the first three sub-licensees of M.M.B. India Ltd., which has commercialized Bollgard (BG-I) &Bollgard-II (BG-II) cotton hybrids in India. Introduction of other GMOs are on anvil. Krishidhan seeds are engaged in seed production of different crops seed. Production of genetically pure and good quality pedigree seed is an exacting task. It requires high technical skills and comparatively heavy financial investment. At Krishidhan, during seed production strict attention is given to the maintenance of genetic purity and other qualities of seeds in order to pass on maximum benefits to farmers by introduction of new superior crop plant varieties. Seed production activities at Krishidhan are carried out under standardized and well-organized conditions assisted by SAP.In India, seed production program of Krishidhan is spread over 1,00,000 acres of land in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Uttarakhand, Karnataka, and Haryana. Apart from India, Krishidhans production program is also spread in parts of Europe. KSL has taken up the exigent task of providing superior quality seeds of wide range of crops to the farmers within the settime frame. The company recognizes that this is possible only through Quality Seed Production. Krishidhan group of company is also have a biotechnology & research centre in which they can apply various techniques to improve the productivity. Biotechnology is committed not only to care human being but to care total ecology. The Krishidhan Group has a great belief that application of biotechnology can give quantum jump to productivity and quality of various field and vegetable crops. The Group has a team of highly skilled scientist involved in innovative research work using cutting edge technologies with focus on high value field and vegetable crops like cotton, paddy, sunflower, tomato, chilies, brinjal etc. By combining classical conventional breeding approaches with the state-of-the-art technologies scientists strive to deliver value added quality products that would ensure higher yields at lower cost to farmers. Krishidhan also encourages various not-for-profit organizations for promoting activities that would lead to additional wealth to Farmers. A team of high caliber and internationally experienced plant physiologist & breeders, molecular biologist, biotechnologist, entomologist and geneticists is working to develop antiviral, antibacterial, quality improvement and multistress resistance traits. We are promoting product development through biotechnology and have successfully transferred BG-I and BG-II in our elite cotton genotypes. The company has following major products already approved to various zones and several lines with improved agronomic traits are in pipeline. 2.2 VISION: To emerge as one of the biggest technology driven Indian agri input company with a significant global presence and provide access to the latest technologies and all required quality agri inputs for the socio-economic growth of farmers. 2.3 MISION: We at Krishidhan Seeds have professional business approach, State-of-art Infrastructure matching the global research standards to make our products technologically superior and eco-friendly. These superior products, shall, in turn improve the quality of farmers life and contribute towards their prosperity.2.4 COLLABRATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY PARTNERS: Krishidhan has extensively collaborated in several national and International research projects with academia and other leading Industry partners: 2.5 TECHNOLOGY CENTRE: KSL has a wide range of laboratories including Biotech Lab, Plant Molecular Biology Lab, Tissue Culture/Transformational Lab & Entomo0lgy Lab, and Seed Testing Lab & Quality Analysis Lab. It further has plans to add Molecular Marker / Genomics Lab & Bio control Agent Lab. i) KSL has the best brains in seed industry to conduct and guide its research. Very senior and eminent scientists and breeders with vast experience in public sector lead its R&D efforts in different crops. Research in each crop group is being led by an eminent breeder as Chief R&D. They are guided by VP (R&D) a person of international repute. KSL has 8 crop specific research teams which are supported by 51 scientists out of which 26 are Doctorates. ii) The diversity of germplasm is the backbone of any crop improvement program. KSL has about 18,000 entries in its collection in gene bank. iii) Knowing the potential of application of Biotechnology in crop improvement the company started its Biotechnology Division in 2002. The Biotechnology division has now moved to a new facility in the technology center (Approximate area: 30,000 sq.ft) with a group of 13 scientists. iv) KSL has also entered into research collaborations with various national &international institutes and universities benefits of which will be reaped in near future. v) KSL's, KVSIPL's and KRFPL's R&D are recognized by the DSIR which is an obvious indicator of its R&D standards. 2.6 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT:Seed is the most vital input that sets the potential for crop yield and so achieving the best seed quality standards is the KSL's prime goal. For this purpose, the quality specifications/norms for field and seed stages prescribed in the Indian Minimum SeedCertification Standards published by the Govt. of India are kept as the minimum base; and additional specifications are indicated and adhered to. Quality Management is a mechanism in-built in the entire seed production and handling chain; right from the choice of seed used for seed production up to the ultimate use of the final seed for commercial crop production. Hence, the company enforces strict Quality Management (QM) measures. The Company has well equipped QM Lab, strictly according to the Seed Testing Procedures/Rules of the International Seed Testing Association [ISTA].The Company also maintains elaborate Grow Out Testing Facilities in 4 different locations/ agro climates - about 30 ha in all - where , annually about 15000 samples are grown out for Genetic Purity confirmation as pre or post control as may be relevant for the seed in question.2.7 SALES AND DISTRIBUTION NETWORK:Krishidhan Group has widespread presence across different agro climatic zones in India. Its Sales and Distribution network covers 15 prominent agrarian states in India with a dedicated team of more than 250 Agribusiness professionals. To achieve its vision of improving socio economic status of the Indian Farmer Krishidhan Group has invested in creating outreach covering more than 1600 distributor with 25000 plus no of retailers across 30000 villages benefiting more than 600000 farmers Its warehousing space which is approximately 60000 sq.ft is managed by established Carrying and forwarding agents Krishidhan Seeds Ltd has also subsidiary companies which are dealing with fertilizer & micronutrient production. 2.8 KRISHIDHAN SEEDSLTD.: Krishidhan Seeds Limited (KSL) is a dynamic agricultural biotech company delivering high quality seeds for Indian commercial seed market. It is one of the top ten field crop seed companies in India. It was incorporated in 1996 and its registered office is at Indore (MP). Corporate office is in Pune (M.S.) and the operational office is spreadover 16 acres of land in Jalna (M.S.) which is also known as "the seed capital" of Indian agricultural Industry. A brief description of the progress of the group is given below: KSL belongs to Karwa group of industries. It is a closely held company wherein 100% ownership vests with the Karwa family. KSL is 100% holding company of four other companies in the group. Figure 1 Karwa group of industriesKrishidhan Seeds Ltd (100% Holding Company)Krishidhan Vegetable Seeds (I) Pvt. Ltd.Krishidhan Research Foundation Pvt. Ltd.Subhash Fertilizers Pvt. Ltd.Rajendra Seeds Company Pvt. Ltd.Krishidhan Seeds Europe B V2.8.1 KRISHIDHAN VEGETABLE SEEDS INDIA PVT. LTD.: Realizing the potential of vegetable seeds market the vegetable seed segment was separated from KSL and was vested to a separate new company was under the name KVSIPL in 2007. This company is headed by an independent director Mr. Mangesh Kadgaonkar who has more than three decades of experience in the vegetable seed business. The product portfolio comprise of a wide range of vegetable seeds of 38 crops and on an average four segment per crop. KVSIPL aims at doubling its business every year and is also exploring exports. In 2009, its research activities received the recognition of Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Govt. of India. 2.8.2 SUBHASH FERTILIZERS PVT. LTD.: Genesis of plant nutrition business in Krishidhan through its wholly owned subsidiary SFPL is to augment the growing needs of increasing crop productivity, improving crop quality, imparting crop tolerance to biotic and a-biotic stresses throughbalanced and integrated nutrient management. SFPL therefore, strategize to carefully map the farmer needs and identify innovative yet cost effective technologies and products to mitigate these nascent needs. SFPL through its associations with organizations of national and international repute aims at making available only the best to the Indian Farming Community. SFPL plans to produce Gluconate based environment friendly plant nutrient products at its proposed state-of-the-art manufacturing facility. SFPL is currently engaged in manufacturing and marketing of steam-granulated NPK mix fertilizers and specially plant nutrient products, respectively. SFPLs well qualified and skilled field force disseminates information on usage of these products to the trade channel partners and farmers.2.8.3 KRISHIDHAN RESEARCH FOUNDATION PVT. LTD.: KRFPL came into existence on account of separation of R & D activities from KSL in 2007-08. As on date it is a 100% subsidiary of KSL and operates under the expert guidance of an independent director Dr. Govind Garg an eminent scientist in India. The group is one of the first few companies in the Seed Industry, which has recognition of Department of Scientific & Industrial Research, Govt. of India and achieved significant development in GM Seeds. The Groups R & D philosophy is KRISHIDHAN RESEARCH-NEED BASE RESEARCH and so the group has sizeable investment in R & D which in turn helped KSL to produce superior products to meet the customer needs. Taking a step further, the group has entered into collaborative research projects with many national and international companies & agricultural institutions.2.8.4 RAJENDRA SEEDS COMPANY PRIVATE LIMITED: 100% subsidiary of KSL and is basically engaged in the development of agribusiness opportunities and marketing of agri-input products.2.8.5 KRISHIDHAN SEEDS EUROPE B V: Krishidhan Seeds Limited, One of the top five seed companies in India has opened its first European subsidiary from the 1st July 2010 under the name and styleKRISHDHAN SEEDS EUROPE B V having HQ at Enkhuizen, Holland. The company deals in high quality seeds in Field crops, Vegetable crops and Plant Nutritions Products. The group has State of the Art Infrastructure for R & D, Breeding, Biotechnology, Supply Chain and Marketing. The company is determined to implement the three Ps (Planet, People and Profit) in their International and Domestic Business. With this new subsidiary, Krishidhan Group became the first Indian seed company spreading its wings into High Tech, High Value and Attractive Market of International Seed Industry. 2.9 PRODUCT PROFILE: The company is having network of 1600 distributor with 25000 plus no of retailers all over India. Krishidhan seeds are involved in sales of BT Cotton, Hybrid Jowar, research multicut fodder Jowar, research maize, Hybrid Bajra (research), research gram, research mustard& notified varieties in moog, Udid, wheat, & soybean. These varieties are popular throughout the country. The list of product is as follows PRODUCTS OF KSL: Maize: Figure 2 Maize variety MaharajaMaharajaCharacteristics: Duration: 110-115 days Disease Resistant: Height: Productive Features: Medium Orange Yellow colour with semi flint grain texture. Yield: High yielding. Tolerant to major diseases and pest.Figure 3 Maize variety Narendra NarendraCharacteristics: Duration: 110-115 days Height: Medium Productive Orange Yellow colour Features: with flint grain texture.Disease Tolerant to MLB and TLB. Resistant: Yield: High yielding.Figure 4 Maize variety Golden GunGolden GunCharacteristics: Duration: 110-115 days Height: Medium Productive Yellow grain with semiFeatures: dent texture.Disease Tolerant to diseases and pests. Resistant: Yield: High yielding.Figure 5 Maize variety DhawalDhawalCharacteristics: Duration: Full season maturity (115 days) Height: Medium Productive White grain with semiFeatures: dent in texture.Disease Resistant: Yield: Other:Tolerant to major diseases and pests. High yielding. Suitable for major white corn growing area.Figure 6 Maize variety KDMH-017KDMH-017Characteristics: Duration: 90-95 days Height: 220-225 cm Productive Yellow semi-flint, Features: excellent tip filling, 1618 kernalDisease Resistant to common diseases. Resistant: Yield: 90 - 95 q/ha Rows 84-85 Shelling (%)Table No. 1 Other product of KSL Sr. No. 1. Cereals A. Bajra 1. Sujlam-68 2. KDBH-2561 3. KDBH-2095 4. Ratan-666 5. SBH-3333 6. Sujlam-810 7. KDBH-8272 8. Bajra KDBH-5013 B. Paddy 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. Chandrika-504 Sanskruti-621 KSL-1044 KSL 110001H KSL 210011H KSL 120007H KSL-810 Komal Hy Rize-307 Mankarna-504 Vimal-540 Sudama-333 Pandhari-296 KDSH-302 Harishakti-KDFSH-702 Balram-011 Ambar-28 KDW-3028 Maharaja Narendra Golden gun Dhawal Group of Crop Crop Name ProductsC. SorghumD. WheatE. Maize5. KDMH 017 3. Field Crops A. Cotton 1. KDCHH 9810 Bt (Dollar Maruti) 2. KDCHH 9632 Bt (Maruti) 3. KDCHH 9821 Bt (Pawan) 4. KDCHH 553 Bt (Green Ball) 5. KDCHB 407 Bt (Super Fibre) 6. KDCHH 441 BG II (Super Maruti) 7. KDCHH 621 BG II (Rakhi) 8. KDCHH 9632 BG II (KSL Pratik) 9. KDCHH 541 BG II (Pancham) 10. KDCHH 9810 BG II (Dollar) 11. KDCHH 641 BG II (Trinetra) 12. KDCHB 407 (Talam 4072) 13. KDCHB 407 (Super Fibre)(Nbt) 14. KDCHH 9632 (Maruti)(Nbt) 2. Oilseeds A. Soybean 1. KSL-441 2. KSL-20 1. KDM-1066(KM-1) 2. Aishwarya Gold 3. B-9 (YS) 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. KDFSH-635 Welcome-812 Kapil-111 Marshal 675 Castor Splendor KDCV-9B. MustardC. SunflowerD. Castor3.PulsesA. Green gram B. Tur/Pigeon Pea1. KDM6-19 (Lata-801) 1. Akshay (Uday-2788) 2. KDPH-2671 (Maroon-61)4.VegetablesA. Okra/Bhendi1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2. 3. 4.Anjali Selection 328 Selection 329 KVOKH RT 215 KVOKH RT 171 Nikita Hita Ishita Parinita Ruchita Santosh Shambhu Ramdev ShashiB. BittergourdC. BottlegourdD. BrinjalE. Cabbage1. Ankush 2. Namrata 3. Revati 4. Sarika 5. Sagarika 6. Mamta 7. Anurag 8. Chaman 9. Green Beauty 10. Sahana 11. Suchitra 12. Shalin 1. Durga 2. Harnil 3. Green Shot 4. Sourav 1. 2. 3. 4. Aprima Juliana Octinova PrathamaF. Cauliflower5. Dwitiya 6. Tritiya G. Sweet Pepper H. Chilli 1. Indian 1. Manaswini 2. Tufan 3. Japanese Hot 4. Ayesha 5. Rutuja 6. Tejal 7. Green Spice 8. Hot Spice 9. Rujala 10. Mugdha 11. Suteja 12. Shivangi 13. Ronny 14. Isha 1. Harshini 2. Kamini 1. Jaidev 1. White House 1. Murali 1. Nivedita 2. Nandita 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Kundal Mahalaxhmi Mahaveer Ameya YashikaI. CucumberJ. Pumpkin K. Raddish L. Ridgegourd M. SpongegourdN. TomatoO. Watermelon1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.Tambola Prince Black Sugar Black Honey Rasraj Savita Julie2.10 LOCATION OF THE COMPANY: Corporate Office: Krishidhan Seeds Limited, "Sai Capital," 9th floor, Opp.ICC Complex, Senapate Bapat Marg, Shivaji Nagar, PUNE - 411005 Maharashtra, India. Phone: +91-20-25714000, Fax: +91-20-25661207. E-mail: info@krishidhanseeds.com Head Office: Krishidhan Seeds Limited, "Krishidhan Bhavan" D3 to D6, Addln. MIDC, Aurangabad Road, JALNA - 431213 Maharashtra, India. Phone: 91 2482 222600, Fax: 91 2482 222611. E-mail: contact@krishidhanseeds.com Registered Office: Krishidhan Seeds Limited, 302, Royal House, 11/3 Usha Ganj INDORE - 452001 Madya Pradesh, India Phone: +91-731-2352093, Fax: +91-731-270321 E-mail: customercare@krishidhanseeds.com2.11 Table No.2 Notified High Yielding Maize Composites/HybridsName of State Maharashtra Hybrids Kharif cultivars Full Season Medium Ganga - II, Ganga- MMH 69 2, DHM 103, PRO311 (4640) Y-1402 KH 9451 K. SSF 9374 (3058) Bio 9681, JK 2492. Pusa 11 Rabi Early Extra Early Pusa Hybrid-1, Hybrids : Ganga Pusa Hybrid-2, 11, DHM 103, MMH 133 x Trishulata, 1123 G Ganga, Safed-2, (3342)Kiran KH 5991, Panch ganga 5981,Dhawal, Panch ganga ICI 705, X 1382 (3054)Composites Andhra PradeshDHM 109, Pusa Ganga II, DHM Hybrid-1,Pusa 103, 105, Hybrid-2, MMH Trishulata, KH Hybrids Pro 311 (4646) SSF KH 510 133 x 1123 G 5991, 5891, 9374 DHM 107 (3342) PAC 701 Bio 9681, Y-1402 K (3058)JK 2492 Composites Prabhat Navjot Karnataka, Hybrids DHM 103, Ganga DHM 107 DHM 109 Ganga II, DHM II, SSF 9374 103, 105, KH 755 Pusa Hybrid -1 Bio 9681, Pro 311 Trishulata, KH (4640) 5981, KH 510 Pusa Hybrid- 2 5991, DHM 1, CoH-2, 3 x 1382 (3054) MMH 69, Y-1420 Navjot 7 Renuka K (3058) Dhawal Co 1 (4840) KH 9451 Composites Prabhat Navjot Tamilnadu Hybrids DHM 103, DHM 107 DHM 109, MMH Ganga 11, DHM 133, 103, 105, Trishulata, KH Ganga II, KH 755 Pusa Hybrid -1 5991, 5981, PRO 311 (4640) KH 510, Bio 9681, SSF 9374 KH 9451, Pusa Hybrid -2 DHM 1, CoH 2, 3, x 1382 CoH 2, CoH3, JK MMH 69 2482, Y 1402 K X 1123 G (3342) (3054) (3058) PAC 701 Dhawal, Co 1 Composites Co.1, Prabhat Navjot KiranPrabhat Navjot DHM 103, Ganga-2 KH 755For all states Forage Maize Popcorn Sweet Corn Baby CornAfrican Tall, J 1006 Amber Popcorn, VL Amber Popcorn, Pearl Popcorn Madhuri IVL 42, Barly Composite Maizehttp://www.ikisan.com/links/ap_maizeSeed%20Varieties.shtml2.12 INDUSTRY PROFILE:The present research is done for Krishidhan seeds, a very well reputed company in the seed market in India.Seed is the basic and most critical input for sustainable agriculture. The response of all other inputs depends on quality of seeds to a large extent. It is estimated that the direct contribution of quality seed alone to the total production is about 15 20% depending upon the crop and it can be further raised up to 45% with efficient management of other inputs.Indian seed industry, comparatively young by world standards have expanded at a spectacular pace during last decades. Consequently it now occupies a place of pride in India's seed industry. The spectacular achievement reflects the maturity and dynamism of seed manufacturers and also the policies adopted by the government to enable it to meet the demand effectively. The seed industry in India has made a significant progress in terms of production. It is a typical sector where both imported technology and indigenous developed technology have developed towards meeting the overall national requirements. In India seed industry has played a vital role in the development. India's gross cropped area is next only to United States of America and Russia and along with fragmented land holdings has helped India to become the largest seed market in the world. India is second country in the world cotton production after China. The Indian seed industry is the eighth largest in the world with an estimated value of INR 49 billion (USD 1.06 Billion) and with an annual growth rate of 12% to 13 %. The industry has shown a buoyant growth over the last two years on well supportive monsoons. The development of private seed industry is no more confined to just production and marketing of seed. It has well acquired technological strength to cater to the varietal needs of tomorrow. Along with industries Indian farmers have in recent years adopted intensive cultivation practices in order to meet the growing demand foragricultural_produce. If we look at the production capacity 70% of Indias seeds sales come from farmer bred seeds, 26% from those bred in publicly financed institutions, and only 4% from researched hybrids. The domestic hybrid seeds market is placed at INR 4.9 Billion and is annually growing at 10% a year, against the 5% global growth rate. Here, majors players like Monsanto India and Syngenta India dominate the hybrid seed market. The home market works out to about 3.7% of the global market. As the organized Indian seed industry is just forty years old. Yet, its growth has been phenomenal. India is among the few countries where the seed sector is already reasonably advanced. http://www.barc.ernet.in/2.13 INDIAN SEED MARKET:Seed industry plays an important part as agriculture sector has a major contribution to Indias GDP. Seeds are part of agricultural industry. India is one of the country in the world where all the crops are cultivated because of different climatic conditions in different regions. In India varieties of crops are cultivated, for this there is great demand for seeds in India. Indian seed market has very wide scope in terms of its expansion in different varieties crops seeds. This market is expanded rapidly in last decade. Maize seed market has greater opportunities for its expansion. There are private seed companies and some public seed companys i.e. state seed corporations and National Seed Corporation. Due to this maize seed supply in the Indian market is there, but the increasing demand for quality maize is more for Food Industry Feed industry, Pharmaceutical, Manufacturing industries, Ethanol (Clean gas) production, etc. To increase the quality maize seed supply in the market there is need to enter private seed companies with quality seed in the maize seed market. So private seed companies have greater opportunity in Indian seed market.2.14 WORLD MAIZE SCENARIO: Maize is an important staple food in many countries of the world and the acreage and production of maize in the world have been increasing continuously. Though the acreages have not been so erratic, the production has been a bit volatile mainly due to the variations in the yield. The area under the maize is continuously increasing over the years. If we examine production figures, global maize production reached its high of 770.17 million tons during 2007-08.Acreage under corn cultivation increased to 157.1 million hectares in 2007-08 up by 14.5% from 137.19 million hectares in the year 200203. The US has the largest harvested area of corn and contributes one fifth of the world corn harvested area. China, Brazil, Mexico, India and Indonesia are the other countries which contribute significantly to the world harvested area. These six countries have around 60% of the world corn harvested area and the climatic conditions of these countries during the growth period of corn affect the yield and in turn the supply of corn in the world. Figure No. 7Source: www.karvycomtrade.com/.../karvysSpecialReports_20060727_01.pdfFigure No. 8Source: www.karvycomtrade.com/.../karvysSpecialReports_20060727_01.pdfFrom the above graph, we can infer that United States has the lions share by capturing 43% of the total world production followed by China(19%), EU-27(6%), Brazil (7%). These five countries production account to 75% of the total global production. India stands fifth in terms of production with 2% to the total world corn production. From below graph we can conclude that total global production is higher than global consumption during 2004-05 due to its utility in limited sectors. Thereafter condition has changed and witnessing the higher consumption than production due to rising global demand from new sectors like Ethanol production. 2.15 INDIANMAIZE SCENARIO: India is the fifth largest producer of maize in the world contributing 3% of the global production. In India, maize is grown in all the seasons i.e., Kharif, Rabi and summer. Of these three seasons, nearly 90% of the production is from Kharif season, 7-8% during Rabi season and remaining 1-2% during summer season. Since the maize is rain dependent, it is mainly grown during Kharif season.With the early onset of the South West Monsoon, maize sowing was started little earlier than normal planting period. According to Union Ministry of Agriculture, as on 10th July2006, area brought under maize in India was 35.22 lakh hectares up from 27.36 lakh hectares planted during the corresponding period last year. Higher acreage under the crop raised the hopes of higher production this year. Table 3 Area, Production & Yield of Maize in India Year 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Area (m.ha) 6.2 6.42 6.61 6.58 6.64 7.34 7.43 7.59 7.89 8.12 8.19 8.20 Production(m.tonnes) 11.15 11.51 12.04 13.16 11.15 14.98 14.17 14.71 15.1 18.96 19.29 12.61 Yield(kg/ha) 1797 1792 1822 2000 1681 2041 1907 1938 1912 2335 2355Figure No. 9 Maize Area & Production in IndiaMaize Area & Production in India25 20 15 10 5 0 Area million ha production million t.Figure No. 10 Yield of Maize in IndiaYield2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0yieldSource: http://www.karvycomtrade.com/disclaimer.aspCHAPTER: 3 LITERATURE REVIEW3.1 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND OF CONSUMER BEHAVIOR: -The term consumer refers to all the individuals and households who are going to buy or acquire goods and services for their final consumption. Consumers may vary and can be classified according to their age, sex, income group, social status, mobility pattern and their tests and preferences. In India the two terms consumers and customers are synonymously used but quite wrongly because the major significance is between their ways of usage. Customers are those who purchase the goods but not for their own consumption and consumers are those who are able to purchase that particulate good but these are meant for their final consumption. Baby feeds can prove the difference between these two terms and here the parents are the customers and those are the actual consumers. In earlier, time marketers could identify their customer or could make a fair undertaking through their daily practice and experience. But in today competitive world, as growth in size of firms and markets had removed many marketing decision makers from direct contact with their customers. So manager had turned to the consumer research. They are spending money to study consumers and trying to find out answers to the questions like who is buyer. What did they buy? How did they buy? Where did they buy? On any particular time, occasion or reason? Why did they buy? Where did the buy? etc. and on the basis of answers of above questions producer generally decides that, what to produce ? How to produce? When to produce? And how much to produce etc. The aim of marketing is to meet and satisfy target customers need and studies how individuals, groups and organization select, buy, use and dispose as to satisfy their need and desire. Understanding consumer behaviour and knowing customers are never simple. Customers may state their needs and wants but cannot also. They may not be in touch with deeper motivations. They may respond to influence that changes their mind at the last minute. Never the fewer marketers must study their target customers wants perceptions, preferences and shopping and buying behaviour. Consumer behaviour display in searching, purchasing using and evaluation products services and ideas which they expect will satisfy their needs."3.1.1 Consumer Buying Behaviour:The study of how and why people purchase goods and services is termed consumer buying behaviour. The term covers the decision-making processes from those that precede the purchase of goods or services to the final experience of using the product or service. Models of consumer buying behaviour draw together the various influences on, and the process of, the buying decision. They attempt to understand the proverbial 'black box' of what happens within the consumer between his or her exposure to marketing stimuli and the actual decision to purchase. In the next reading, Kotler et al. (2004) briefly explain the 'black box' model; however Figure shows the content and process involved much clearer.Figure:-11 Black box model of consumer buying behaviour Source: Kotler et al. (1992, p. 1993) The essence of the model is that it suggests consumers will respond in particular ways to different stimuli after they have 'processed' those stimuli in their minds. In more detail, the model suggests that factors external to the consumer will act as a stimulus for behaviour, but that the consumer's personal characteristics and decision-making process will interact with the stimulus before a particular behavioral response is generated. It is called the 'black box' model because we still know so little about how the human mind works. We cannot see what goes on in the mind and we don't really know much about what goes on in there, so it's like a black box. As far as consumer behaviour goes,we know enough to be able to identify major internal influences and the major steps in the decision-making process which consumers use, but we don't really know how consumers transform all these 3.1.2 MAJOR FACTORS INFLUENCING BUYING BEHAVIOR:Customers should not take their decision in vacuum. Their purchasers are highly influenced by Economic, cultural, social and psychological factors. Table No-4 Factors Influencing Buying Behaviour Economic Factors Cultural Factors Psychological Factors Disposable personal Income Size of family and family income Consumer income expectation Consumer liquid asset Consumer credit Family Reference Belief and attitudes Personality and self-concept Consumer discretionary income Roles and status Social Class Learning Economic circumstances Life style Sub-Culture Perception Culture Motivation Age and stage in life cycle Occupation Personal FactorsA] ECONOMIC FACTORS:Economic factors were first to advance formal explanation of consumer behaviour. Generally economists are assuming that the market is homogenous. Economic theory describes man as rational buyer who has perfect information obtain the optimum value for his buying effort and many price regarded as the strongest motivation. The buyer compares the prices charged by competing sellers and buys the product having the optimum quality and a reasonable price.The assumption that market is homogeneous is not correct. Heterogeneity is the main characteristic of markets. Market segmentation is based on the realization that all buyers are not alike. They differ in numbers of distinctive ways. Heterogeneity is seen on both supply and demand side of the market. The marketing problem is to match demand and supply sides to heterogeneous segments of the market.INCOME AND PERSONAL CONSUMPTION SPENDING:A number of economic factors influence consumers in respect of the way they spend their income for personal consumption. The various influencing factors are 1) DISPOSABLE PERSONAL INCOME:Disposable personal income is what is left with people to spend or save after they have paid their taxes. Goods and service are produced for purpose of consumption purchasing power is used to convert production into consumption and disposable personal income represents the potential purchasing powers in hands of consumers. The spending on personal consumption falls at slower rates than the disposable personal income but spending sometimes rises faster than that of income. However, when the income is higher, a higher proportion is saved, when income is low, the proportion of expenditure increases while the savings declines. 2) SIZE OF FAMILY AND FAMILY INCOME:Size of family and size of family income affect both spending and saving patterns. In families with lower incomes average personal income decreases. The average propensity to consume decline rapidly as the income rises over poverty line. The average annual household spending rises absolutely with increase in gross income per household. Persons with average income are normally below average spender. But contrary to what is assumed, it was observed that the number of people in a household appears directly related the number of people in a household increases, annual household income rises perhaps because more number of houses started earnings and because people with larger income can afford the larger families. Moreover as one's income go on increasing the size of his family also raises. High-income households account for the disproportionately high share of total expenditure. Such observations are very important to any marketing analyst.3) CONSUMER INCOME EXPECTATION:The income that consumer expect to have incoming is certainly influences the consumers present expenditure of spending pattern. Actually, spending on durable consumer goods and other expensive items is generally influenced the consumers idea or possession of his future income. Consumer's expectations about his lower or higher income have a direct effect on his present expenditure of spending plans. 4) CONSUMER LIQUID ASSET:Consumer spending plans or buying plans are influenced, those for luxurious items by the size of their holding liquid assets i.e. each asset can be easily convertible readily into cash. Such liquid assets are generally shares, fixed deposits in bank, Government bonds, marketable stocks etc. However, a consumer may buy the product out of his income, the freedom with which he or she spends, is influenced by his or her accumulations and stock of liquid assets. 5) CONSUMER CREDIT:Credit also influenced the pattern by which consumer spends. The purchasing power rise than the consumer's current income due the credit which his made available to them by different organizations. Availability of credit is the key factor in the rapid growth of markets for durable goods, such as refrigerators, automobiles etc. The credit cards like Master card, Citibank cards are good example for above description of consumers credit.6) CONSUMER'S DISCRETIONARY INCOME:The income that is left over after buying necessities such as food, shelter, clothing and transportation facilities are known discretionary income. Small fluctuations in income can show its effects sharply on consumers purchasing pattern of durable. The consumer turns to wants which are on lower level of priority after satisfying basic wants. Consumers are willing to increase debt for instalment purchases when income is rising and they are not ready to pay higher debt when income is declining.B] CULTURAL FACTORS:A cultural factor exerts and deepest influence on consumer behaviour. The role played by the consumer culture subculture and social class is particularly important.1) CULTURE:Culture is the most fundamental determinant of person's wants and behaviour. The consumers acquire a set of values. Perception, preference and behaviour through his and her family and other key institutions. Culture is defined as "Culture is what we are and civilization is what we have." 2) SUB - CULTURE:Each Culture contains smaller groups of subculture that provides more specific identification and socialization for of its members. Few types of subculture have been distinguished by American sociologists, Nationalities religious, Province as regional groups. 3) SOCIAL CLASS:Social classes are relatively homogenous and enduring divisions in a society. Which are hierarchically ordered and whose members share similar values interests and behaviour? A social classes are relatively homogenous i.e. group of people with similar levels of prestige, power and wealth who also share a set of related beliefs values and attitudes in their thinking and behaviour. Social classes also show distinct product and brand preferences in clothing, home furnishing and leisure activities and in America even in respect of automobiles. 4) REFERENCE:A person's behaviour is strongly influence by many groups. A persons reference groups are those which directly or indirectly influences person a person. These are groups to which the person belongs some are primary groups with which there is a fairly continuous interaction, such as family, friends, neighbour and co-workers or colleges primary formal relationship and they have less continuous interaction. They include religious organizations. Professional associations and trade unions.5) FAMILY:The family is most important consumer buying organization in society and it has been researched extensively. Family members constitute the most influential primary reference group.6) ROLES AND STATUS:Person participates in many groups throughout their life that are family, clubs, organization etc. The person and his position in different in each group can be defined in terms of role and status. A role consists of activities that a person is expected to perform according to expectations of persons around him or her. Each role carriages a status reflecting the general system to it by society. People often choose products to communicate their role and status in the society.C] PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS:A person buying choices are influenced by four major psychological factors motivation perception, learning and beliefs and attitudes. 1) MOTIVATION:The term motivation means an inner urge that makes or promptly persons to act. A need is not motive until is arranged. A need is a material recruitment basks to human life but these needs are not always 'activated' when the need is activated it becomes 'motive creation of wants' or revaluation of expectations from life is motivation. 2) PERCEPTION:A motivated person is ready to act. How a motivated person acts is influenced by his perception of the situation. To persons or subjected to the same motivation may act differently because he perceives the situation differently because he perceived the situation differently. Perception can be defined as 'The process by which on individual select organize and interpret information to create meaningful picture of the world.' 3) LEARNING:Learning involves changes of and individual behaviour arising from experience when people act; learn through experience, learning describes changes in an individuals behaviour arising from experience. Experience related to usage of product, shaping and exposure to the advertisement and other aspect of marketing. A person is attracted by package of a new product if the consumer is get satisfied by this new product, the buyer learns through the experience that the new product is good or acceptable to him. Learning knows something which you did not know before.4) BELIEF AND ATTITUDE:BELIEF - is a descriptive through that a person holds about something. ATTITUDE - is persons enduring favourable or unfavourable evaluation. Emotional feeling and action tendencies towards some objective or idea. Thus through doing and learning people acquire beliefs and attitudes and thus in turn these beliefs and Attitude greatly influences the buying behaviour of consumers.D] PERSONAL FACTORS:1) AGE AND STAGE IN LIFE CYCLE:People buy different goods and services throughout their lifetime and their buying behaviour in age related. Consumption is also shape by family lifecycle marketers after choose their customers life-cycle wise as their target market. 2) OCCUPATION:A person's occupation certainly influences his/her consumption pattern or buying behaviour. Marketers also try to identify the occupational groups that have above average interest in their product and services. A company can even specialize its products for certain occupation groups. 3) ECONOMIC CIRCUMSTANCES:Product choice is greatly influence by one's economics circumstances people's economic circumstances consists of their spendable income i.e. level, stability and time pattern, saving and assets including percentage that is liquid, debts borrowing power and attitude towards spending versus saving. 4) LIFESTYLE:A person coming from same sub-culture social classes and occupational groups may lead to different lifestyle. "Lifestyle can be defined as, a persons pattern of living as expressed in the persons activities interests and opinions." 5) PERSONALITY AND SELF-CONCEPT:Each person has distinct personality that influences his buying behaviour. Personality can be defined as a person distinguishing psychological characteristics that lead to relatively constitution enduring response to his environment. Personality is usually described interm of such traits as self-confidence dominance, autonomy, difference, sociability, defensiveness and adaptability. Personality can be useful in analysing consumer behaviour provided that personality types can be classified accurately and that strong correlation exists between certain personality types and products of brand choices self-concept is related to personality.3.1.3 BUYING BEHAVIOR:Consumer buying decisions making varies with the type of buying decision. As sale distinguished four types consumers buying behaviour based on the degree of buyers involvement and degree of difference among brands. 1) COMPLEX BUYING BEHAVIOR:Consumers engage in complex buying behaviour then they are highly involve in a purchase and aware of significance differences among brand. This is usually the case when the product is expensive brought infrequently, risky and highly self-expensive. 2) DISSONANCE REDUCING BUYING BEHAVIOR:Sometimes buyers are highly involve in purchase but sees little differences in the brands. The high involvement is based on the fact that the purchase is expensive, infrequently and risky. In this case buyer will shop around to learn what is available but will buy fairly quickly perhaps regarding primarily to good price as to purchase convenience. 3) HABITUAL BUYING BEHAVIOR:Many products are brought under conditions of low consumer involvement and absence of significance brand differences. Consumers have little involvement in this product category. They go to the store and reach for the salt. 4) VARIETY SEEKING CONSUMER BEHAVIOR:Same buying situations are characterized by low consumer involvement but significance brand differences. Here consumers do a lot of brand switching.3.2 Market potential3.2.1 DEFINITION: Estimated maximum total sales revenue of all suppliers of a product in a market during a certain period Market potentials the limit approached by market demand as industry marketing expenditures approach infinity for a given marketing environment. The phrase for a given market environment is crucial. Consider the market potential for automobiles in a period of recession versus a period of prosperity. The market potential is higher during prosperity. The dependence of market potential on the environment is illustrated in Figure 1-13(b). Market analysts distinguish between the position of the market demand function and movement along it. Companies cannot do Analysing 3.2.2 BENEFITS OF MARKET POTENTIAL ANALYSIS Understand market potential for a single store, network of stores or a new market Deploy resources effectively by ranking markets in priority order Forecast total opportunity in terms of number of customers and revenue potential Estimate your market shareEstimating market potential: Estimating the market or market potential for a new business or business expansion is critical in determining the economic feasibility of a venture. Estimating the market potential will determine if the market is large enough to support your business. Estimating the market potential for a business is critical in evaluating its viability and provides an estimate of the maximum total sales potential for a given market. Once the estimated market potential has been calculated, it is possible to determine if the market is large enough to sustain your proposed business or sustain an addition competitor in the marketplace. It is important to remember that the estimated market potential sets an upper boundary on the market size and can be expressed in either units and or sales. Unlessthere are no direct or indirect competitors, a business will capture a share of the total estimated market potential, not all of it.The following provide the steps and data necessary to estimate the market potential. Key Steps in Estimating Market Potential: 1. Define your target market and market segments. 2. Define the geographic boundaries of your market. 3. Derive an average selling price. 4. Determine the average annual consumption. Estimating the market potential for a business requires specific information on the number of people or potential buyers, an average selling price, and an estimate of consumption or usage for a specific period of time. 1. Target Market One of the most important components of estimating the market potential for a business is to determine its target market. A target market can be thought of as the customers who are most likely to buy from you and generally are described using demographic variables (gender, age, education) as well as psychographic variables (lifestyle and belief system variables). In many cases, a business may have more than one target market. Think about the automobile industry, automobile manufacturers have a number of target markets, i.e., truck buyers, luxury car buyers, economy buyers. Your business should be able to develop specific profiles for each of your target markets using demographic and psychographic variables.2. Market or Trade Area The market area can be thought of as the geographic area where the business intends to operate, i.e., a city block, between the rivers or the globe. Defining the market area is important because it defines the geographic area where potential consumers live and/or work. However, not everyone in the defined market area will be a customer. As a result, it is important to compare your target market profile, generally described using demographics, to the population in the market area. There are a number of ways to definea market area, some are easy and others are more difficult and require the services of a marketing professional. 3. Market Size Once the market area and target market has been defined, it is possible to determine the number of potential customers for your business. This total market potential will typically have to be adjusted downward to account for non-users. 4. Competitor Analysis One of the best sources of information is to investigate competing businesses. These businesses can provide a wealth of information that can be used in evaluating the potential for your business. By evaluating how a company markets its business, it is possible to determine the markets it is targeting. For example, if competing businesses are advertising in Southern Living, they are targeting affluent, middle age females. However, if they are advertising in the sports section of a metropolitan newspaper, they are most likely targeting males. In addition to collecting information on the markets they are targeting, a competitor analysis can reveal packaging preferences, target market information, pricing strategies, distribution channels and marketing strategies. Simply evaluate the products and services your competitor is providing5. Pricing A products pricing has a direct impact on the bottom line of your business and its success. You do not want to price yourself out of the market but you do not want to leave money on the table. However, it is important that your account for all of your costs associated with providing your product to the consumers and set your price high enough to cover this price and make a profit. Your products price must also be in line with competing products relative to its value. Value is a ratio of a customers expected level of quality and the price they pay for the product. If quality is low and price is high, it is a low value product. Therefore, investigate what others are charging and what the customer gets at that price when setting your price.Calculating Price: Cost-plus pricing. Used mainly by manufacturers, assures that all costs (fixed and variable) are covered and includes a desired level of profit. Demand pricing. Used by companies that sell their product through a variety of sources at differing prices based on demand. Competitive pricing. Price according to your competitors. Used in competitive markets with little product differentiation. Mark-up pricing. Adds a level of profit to the cost of the product being retailed. Also good for products that are co-packed.6. Market Share The percentage of a market (either in units or revenue) accounted for by an individual business This figure is important since it provides insight into how much of the total market potential a business might capture. If the market share is not large enough to support the business, then there is a problem. Also, if the number of units needed for the business to break-even financially is known, it is possible to determine what share of the market will have to be captured for the business to achieve this break-even point. If the market share estimation is too high or unrealistic, the business should be reevaluated. Estimating market share is difficult because of the lack of information. Some trade associations or market research publications will provide some basic market share information but finding directly applicable information for your business may be impossible. Market share information is very difficult to obtain and may need to be estimated using various scenarios. Examples: There are two existing agritourism operation in the identified market area. The new agritourism business wants to estimate what percent of the total market they can capture. Since data on agritourism in the area is not being collected, it is impossible to derive an accurate market share. However, for planning purposes, it is possible to crudely estimate market share.CHAPTER: 4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY4.1 INTRODUCTIONResearch is common parlance reference to a search for knowledge. Research is an academic activity and as such the term should be used in a technical since. Research is an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement. It is pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment. In short the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem in research. The systematic approach concerning generalization and the formulation of theory is also research. The term research refers to a systematic method consisting of enunciating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting the facts or data, analyzing the facts and reaching certain conclusion either in the form of solution towards the concern problem or in certain generalization for some theoretical formulation. The term research can be defined as a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. Redman and Mory defined research as a systematized effort to gain new knowledge.4.2 RESEARCH DESIGN:A research design is a specification of method and procedures or acquiring the information needed. It is the overall pattern or framework of the project that stipulates what is to be collected, from which sources, by what procedure. Research design is a detailed blueprint used to guide a research study toward its objective. Research design provides the glue that holds the research project together. A design to structure the research, to show how all of the major programmes and methods of assignment work together to try to address the central research questions. Research design is thus the plan, structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answers to research questions and to control variance. According to Pauline V. Young, a research design is the logical and systematic planning and directing a piece of research.Types of research 1. Exploratory research 2. Descriptive research 3. Experimental research1. Exploratory research design: it is normally based on secondary data. It does not have a formal and rigid design as the researcher may have to change his focus or direction, depending on the availability of new ideas and relationship among variables. The objective of it is to generate new ideas. 2. Descriptive research design: Descriptive research designs are well structured. This type of research designs are undertaken in various circumstances. Descriptive research designs are not always factual and simple; they can be complex also, demanding a high degree of scientific skill on the part of the researcher. 3. Experimental research design: experimental research is analogous tostratification; it ensures that each classification of test units and each classification of extraneous forces is applied equally to all test units. Considering the objectives and scope of the study the exploratory research design has been used for this project.4.3 RESEARCH METODOLOGY:Research always starts with a question or a problem. Its purpose is to question through the application of the scientific method. It is a systematic and intensive study directed towards a more complete knowledge of the subject studied. Marketing research is the function which links the consumer, customer and public to the marketer through information- information used to identify and define marketing opportunities and problems generate, refine, and evaluate marketing actions, monitor marketing actions, monitor marketing performance and improve understanding of market as a process. Marketing research specifies the information required to address these issues, designs, and the method for collecting information, manage and implemented the data collection process, analyses the results and communicate the findings and their implication.4.4 THE MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESSAs marketing research is a systemic and formalized process, it follows a certain sequence of research action. The marketing process has the following steps: Formulating the problems Developing objectives of the research Designing an effective research plan Data collection techniques Evaluating the data and preparing a research report Survey Procedure Surveys are a structured way to collect information using questionnaires. Typically surveys are conducted through the mail (surface or electronic) or by phone or by interview. A survey is used: To collect standardized information from large numbers of individuals When face-to-face meetings are inadvisable When privacy is important or independent opinions and responses are neededProcedure 1. Form team for designing and implementing the survey. 2. Develop questionnaire. 3. Find out area for survey 4. Determine the sample size 5. Make the corrections in the questionnaire 6. Arrange question in proper sequence 7. Take print of the questionnaire 8. Then contact to the respondents in the field 9. From this collected data sort out the useful data. 10. Then do the analysis and interpretation and come to result.4.5 SAMPLING The process of selecting number of units for a study in such a way that the units represent the large group from which they are selected.For this research the sampling unit referred is Retailers and farmers in the Solapur district dealing in agriculture inputs particularly sell maize seeds and purchase maize seeds respectively. The purpose of sampling is to draw conclusions about populations from samples. 4.5.1 Sample A finite subset selected from the population with the purpose of investigation of its properties is called as sample. For this research sample size used were 47 Retailers& 70 farmers from the selected population. 4.5.2 Universe/Population: The population means the large group from which the samples are drawn or the group of individual under study is called universe/population. For this research the population is the maize seeds dealer and farmer who growing maize crop from Solapur district. 4.5.3 Sampling design: It is definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. 4.5.4 Sample survey: A survey conducted by selecting the sample is called as sampling survey. 4.5.5 Sampling technique/Method of sampling:1. Probability sampling a) Simple random sampling b) Systematic random sampling c) Stratified sampling d) Cluster sampling e) Multistage sampling 2. Non probability sampling a) Convenience sampling b) Judgmental sampling c) Snowball sampling d) Quota samplingFor this research convenience sampling is used. This is probably the most common of all sampling technique with convenient sampling. The samples are selected because they are accessible to the researcher. This technique is considered easiest, cheapest and less time consuming. A finite subset select from the population with the purpose of investigation of its properties is called sample. This small group represents the total group. In the project the market research, which was ask to be studied Solapur market but as it was possible to approach all the respondents dealer & farmer of the district, hence a sample was selected which represents the whole area. The areas selected for the sample are present further in the appendix. Sampling method used is convenience sampling .It is non-probability sampling method .For this project convenient sampling has been used as it meet the constraints like economic and time. . 4.6.6 Sample Area:It is clear that probability sampling is more reliable and relevant but since time and money being major considerations non probability sampling is convenient. All the dealer and farmers were surveyed during the project belonging to population area. The areas covered were Madha, Karmala, Jeur, Akluj, Tembhurni, Pandharpur, Solapur city and villages like Vairag, Aran, Khandali, Wangi, Kandar, Karkamb, etc.4.7 DATA COLLECTION:The task of data collection begins after research problem has been defined & research design or plan checked out.4.7.1 Data to be collected. Data includes facts and figures, which are required to be collected to achiever the objectives of the project in order to understand consumer buying behaviour of hybrid maize seeds consumer and hybrid maize market potential.4.7.2 Types of Data:-4.7.2. i)Primary data:Primary data is the information collected in the form of facts and figures by the researcher as the first hand information. Primary data comes soon into existence with the efforts of the researcher. The data that is being collected for the first time or to particularly fulfill the objectives of the project is known as primary data. A] Observation Method: The observation method is most commonly used method specially in studies relating to behavioral science. In a way all observed things around us, but this sort of observation is not scientific observation. Under the observation method, the information is sought by way of investigators own direct observation without asking from the respondents. Advantages 1) Subjective bias is eliminated 2) The currently happening is not complicated by either the past behavior or future intension or attitude. 3) This method is independent of respondents willingness to respond and as such is relatively less demanding of active co-operation on the part of respondents. Limitations 1) It is an expensive method. 2) The information provided by this method is very limited. 3) Sometimes unforeseen factors may interfere with the observational task. B] Interview Method: The interview method of collecting data involves presentation of oral-verbal stimuli and reply in terms of oral-verbal responses. Personal Interview Personal interview method requires a person known as the interviewer asking questions generally in a face to face contact to the other persons. In the case of personalinterview the interviewer has to collect the information personally from the source concerned. He has to be on the spot and has to meet people from whom data have to be collected. The method of collecting information through personal interviews is usually carried out in a structured way. As such we call the interviews as structured interviews. Advantages a. More information and that too in greater depth can be obtained. b. Personal information can as well be obtained easily under this method. c. Observation method can as well be applied to recording verbal answers to various questions. d. Interviewer by his own skill can overcome the resistance, if any, of the respondents; the interview method can be made to yield an almost perfect sample of general population. Limitations a) It is very expensive method. b) There remains the possibility of the bias of interviewer as well as respondents. c) This method is relatively more time consuming.d) Interviewing at times may also introduce systematic errors. C] Questionnaire MethodThe questionnaire is the most commonly used method of gathering information about use and users. Questionnaires are easy to prepare and it is surprisingly easy to prepare a bad one. It is important to be able to avoid major pitfalls and to be able to identify them in the research done by others.Advantages a) It is free from the bias of interviewer; answers are in respondents own words. b) Large samples can be made use of and thus the result can be made dependable and reliable. c) There is low cost even when the universe is large and is widely spread geographically. Limitations a) It can be used only when respondents are educated and co-operating.b) It is difficult to know whether willing respondents are truly representative. c) The control over questionnaire may be lost once it is sent.Selected Data Collection Method For this research primary data was collected by preparing two separate questionnaires one for the farmer and other for the dealers. The questions were asked to the dealers which covered all the aspects pertaining to the project. The questions gave details about the Brand varieties, quality of the seeds, effect of advertisement, and opinion of the dealers. Similarly in the schedule for the customers the questions covered many aspects about their preferences, brand image, effectiveness of the advertisements, etc. Questionnaire design4.6.1 Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a form of question which can normally be answered using a simple "yes" or "no", a specific simple piece of information, or a selection from multiple choices. Close ended questions: This is the crucial part of the questionnaire. Close ended questions are the question in which options are given to the respondent in which they have to select one option.4.6.2 Open ended question: These are those questions that ask for unprompted opinions. In other words, there are no pre-determined set of responses, and the participant is free to answer however he chooses. Open are good for soliciting subjective data or when the range of responses is not tightly defined. This increase the likelihood of you receiving unexpected and insightful suggestions, for it is impossible to predict the full range of opinion.4.6.3 Scaling questions (Likert scale): A scale is any group of questions or items with a common theme. An additive scale(often called a likert scale)A scaling question is a way to find out what some one's subjective experience is by giving it a number. Scaling questions invite the clients to put their observations, impressions, and predictions on a scale from 0 to 10. Questions need to be specific, citing specific times and circumstances Scaling questions are tools that are used to identify useful differences for the client and may help to establish goals as well. The poles of a scale can be defined in a bespoke way each time the question is asked, but typically range from "the worst the problem has ever been" (zero or one) to "the best things could ever possibly be" (ten). The client is asked to rate their current position on the scale, and questions are then used to help the client identify resources (e.g. "what's stopping you from slipping one point lower down the scale?"), exceptions (e.g. "on a day when you are one point higher on the scale, what would tell you that it was a 'one point higher' day?") and to describe a preferred future (e.g. "where on the scale would be good enough? What would a day at that point on the scale look like?") For this research, the questions used were close ended questions and open ended &ranking questions.4.7.2 ii) Secondary dataIt was collected to add the value to the primary data. Data regarding history of Krishidhan seeds ltd., its profile and other necessary records and information was collected by referring to website (www.Krishidhanseeds.com), annual reports and daily newspapers and from Agri commissionaire office.4.8 ANALYSISThe data so collected were not simply accepted because it contained unnecessary information and over or under emphasized facts. Therefore only relevant data were included in the report, which helped in achieving the objectives of the project. Analysis is done on the basis of data collected by survey. Firstly sort out the data collected from survey. Take the important data. Draw the table and make a graph on the basis of data collected. Tool like table, bar chart, were used to interpreted the data. After that next step is interpretation of data.4.9 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:1. Duration of project is two month which one of major time constraint that will affect the scope of research and the size of sample. 2. The population to be surveyed was from only one district and this may not be representative of the entire population. 3. Responses from the respondent are solely dependent on their knowledge and use of the product i.e. seed. 4. Data is collected by using convenient sampling, which is not totally unbiased sampling method and may cause certain errors.CHAPTER: 5 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA5.1 DEALERS SURVEY: Q.1 which major crop seeds are available in your shop? Tabular representation Table 5 Seeds Available in Shop Seeds Available No. of respondent Yes Wheat Jowar Soybean G.nut Gram Cotton Vegetable Maize Sunflower Pulses 42 44 17 45 37 16 44 47 43 46 No 5 3 30 2 10 31 3 0 4 1Figure No.-12Seeds Available in Shop50 40 30 20 10 0 Seeds Available in ShopInterpretation: From the above graph it can be interpreted that most of dealer having maize seed available in their shop. This indicates that KSL has tremendous scope to increase their market share.Q.2 which companys maize seeds are available in your shop? Tabular representation Table No-6- Company's maize seed available in shopWhich companies seeds available No. of respondent Yes Mahyco Krishidhan PHI Ankur Syngenta JK Seeds Monsanto Kaveri Mahabeej Nirmal Ganga Kaveri 31 9 38 17 27 11 31 21 11 8 9 No 16 38 9 30 20 36 16 26 36 39 38Figure No.-13Company's maize seed available in shop40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0Mahyco Krishidhan PHI Ankur Syngenta JK Seeds Monsanto Kaveri Mahabeej Nirmal Ganga KaveriCompany's maize seed available in shopInterpretation: From the above graph it can be interpreted that most of the dealer having PHI Company maize seed available in their shop PHI Company is followed by Mahyco and Monsanto regarding market share KSL has very less market share in Solapur district for maize seedQ.3 which companys seed sale more (give ranking) Tabular representation Table No-7-Ranking of company according to sale of seed Company Mahyco Krishidhan PHI Ankur Syngenta JK Seeds Monsanto Kaveri Mahabeej Nirmal Ganga Kaveri Figure No.-14 Total of ranking 51 15 58 31 72 30 85 61 38 16 24 No. of respondent 21 5 34 6 21 5 27 21 12 5 6 MeanRanking 2.428571 3 1.705882 5.166667 3.428571 6 3.148148 2.904762 3.166667 3.2 4Mean ranking7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0Interpretation: From the above it can be interpreted that sale of PHI companys seed is morein Solapur district with Mean ranking 1.70. This is followed by the Mahyco, Kaveri, Monsanto, Mahabeej, etc.Mahyco Krishidhan PHI Ankur Syngenta JK Seeds Monsanto Kaveri Mahabeej Nirmal GangaAverage rankingQ.7 which promotional activities are commonly adopted by various companies? Tabular representation Table No-12-Commonly Observed Promotional Activity Contest, games, lotteries Premium & gift Sampling Fair & trade show Exhibitions Demonstration Coupons Rebates Low interest financing Entertainment Picnic Figure No.-19 1 41 4 0 19 7 22 4 0 2 1Commonly Observed Promotional Activity50 40 30 20 10 0Commonly Observed Promotional ActivityInterpretation: From the above chart it can be interpreted that 40% companies adopting premium and gift promotional activity it followed by coupons, exhibitionQ.8 Rank the companies according to their frequency of sales promotion? Tabular representation Table No-13-Ranking of company according to sales promotion Total of Company ranking Mahyco Krishidhan PHI Ankur Syngenta JK Seeds Monsanto Kaveri Mahabeej Nirmal Ganga Kaveri Figure No.-20 No. of respondent 58 14 75 39 78 37 72 62 32 13 21 29 5 30 10 25 7 31 18 10 4 4 Mean ranking 2 2.8 2.5 3.9 3.12 5.285714 2.322581 3.444444 3.2 3.25 5.25Mean ranking6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Average rankingInterpretation: From the above it can be interpreted that Mahyco Companys is at top regarding sales promotion activity with Mean ranking 2. This is followed by the Monsanto, PHI, Mahabeej, etc.CHAPTER: 6 OBSERVATION& FINDING1. From the research it is observed that 100% of dealer having maize seed available in their shop, so there is no problem to farmer regarding seeds availability. 2. It is observed that the PHI, Mahyco, Monsanto, Syngenta & Kaveri companies maize seeds available in their shop, so these are the top maize seeds selling companies in Solapur market. 3. From the market survey observed that 64% of dealer are satisfied with margin provided by company, 47% of 36% these are dealer which affect the sale. 4. It observed that while purchasing seed farmer considering factor like yield, price, promotion, water requirement, etc. 49% of the farmer preferring high yielding varieties. 5. It is found that, most of the farmers used maize as a commercial purpose. i. e. 71% of farmer growing maize for selling purpose. 6. Mahyco companys is at top regarding sales promotion activity 7. Maize crop is such crops which can be grow in all season but 59% of farmer growing maize in Kharif season as scarcity of water in other season. 8. It is observed that Most of farmers following the progressive farmers and their friends. 9. As the 84% of farmers are satisfied with varieties using currently it is observed that they are stick up that variety. 10. It is observed that there is tough competition of maize seed company in market. 11. It is observed that actual potential of hybrid maize is only 19%, so untapped potential is 81%.CHAPTER: 7 SUGGESTIONSSuggestions 1. Packaging plays an important role in marketing communication, it attracts theattention of customers, and packaging should be attractive every year. It should be unique. So it has been suggested that company should use the innovative packing for their product. 2. Maintaining quality retains the customers and it increases the repeat buying of customer. So company should maintain its quality standard of the product in the market. 3. It has been found in some of the district farmers are not aware about the product, so it has been suggested the company should promote their product in this district. 4. To retain existing customer base company should use point of purchase more actively like extending the discounts to their loyal customer. 5. It has observed that KSL dont single cross variety in maize, during interaction with dealer they insist that company should has this kind of seed in the market. 6. In order to improve sale company should have to give premium, gift or coupon to whom sale more seeds. 7. Supply should be as per demand with sale return. 8. Sometimes seeds do not germinate, so maintain physical and genetically purity of seeds. 9. During the interaction with farmers they suggested the company should develop high yielding & short duration variety of seed with low water requirement.CHAPTER: 8 CONCLUSIONFrom the entire study it can be conclude that hybrid maize is the one of the major cereal crop in the Solapur area The important factor, which has been recognized from the data, collected analysis regarding the Hybrid maize buying behavior of farmers are that, farmers give most important to yield of crop, so other factors price, water requirement, availability and promotion activity increases attractiveness of hybrid maize among the farmers. Due to high yielding some variety are very popular among farmers. In entire study of project it is observed that awareness of KSL hybrid maize seed is very low among the farmer i.e. KSL maize seed has captured very less Market in Solapur. As the farmer taking suggestion from progressive farmers, reading newspaper like agro one, Most of the big farmers are literate because of that they give Brand preference. So company can use print media for brand promotion. Most of the farmers near about 90% are believes in product performance. So for retaining and maintaining existing customer quality of product is one of important criteria. It is found that, most of the farmers used maize as a commercial purpose. In present year, Pioneer 30v92, MRM 3838, Kaveri are more popular variety So it is very important to redevelop their marketing strategies and try to cover maximum market in Solapur. Increase in promotion activity would be helpful to KSL to expand their market rapidly.CHAPTER: 9 BIBLIOGRAPHYBOOK1. 1. Philip Kotler,Principles of Marketing, 12th edition, PHI Learning Private Limited. 2. C R Kothari, Research methodology, 3. G C Beri, Marketing Research, 3rd Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited. Websites referred: 1. http://agricoop.nic.in /kharif10.htm 2. http://dacnet.nic.in/seednet/seeds/material/indianseedsector.htm 3. http://www.krishidhanseeds.com 4. http://agricoop.nic.in/agristatistics.htm 5. http:// napmc.co.in/products/groundnut.aspx 6. http://www.barc.ernet.in 7. http://www.ikisan.com 8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki 9. http://www.icrisat.org/vasat/learning_resources/cropsCHAPTER: 10 APPENDICESAPPENDIX-A1 Sample Questionnaire For DealerName of dealer: ________________________________Contact no._________________Address ________________________Q.1 which major crop seeds are available in your shop? 1. Wheat 6. Cotton 2. Jowar 7.Vegetables 3.Soyabean 8.Maize 4.Groundnut 9.Sunflower 5. Gram 10.PulsesQ.2 which companys maize seeds are available in your shop? 1. Mahyco 7.Monsanto 2.Krishidhan 8.Kaveri 3.PHI 9.Mahabeej 4.Ankur 10.Nirmal 5.Syngenta 6.JK Seeds 11.Ganga KaveriQ.3 Which companys seed sale more (give rating) 1. Mahyco 2. Krishidhan 3. PHI 4. Ankur 5. Syngenta 6. JK Seeds 7. Monsanto 8.Kaveri 9.Mahabeej 10.Nirmal 11. Ganga Kaveri Q.4what are the reasons behind selection of a particular brand given by farmers? 1. High yield 2. Easily available in the market 3. Price 4. Promotional activity 5. All of the aboveQ.5 which promotional activities are commonly adopted by various companies?1. 2. 3. 4. 5.Contests, games, lotteries Premiums & gifts Sampling Fairs & trade shows Exhibitions.6. Demonstrations 7. Coupons 8. Rebates 9 Low interest financing 10.EntertainmentQ.6 Rank the companies according to their frequency of sales promotion? 1. Mahyco 2. Krishidhan 3. PHI 4. Ankur 5. Syngenta 6. JK Seeds 7.Monsanto 8.Kaveri 9.Mahabeej 10.Nirmal 11. Ganga Kaveri Q.7 Do you suggest KSL hybrid maize seed to farmer? Yes NoQ.8 what your expectation from seed company? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Q.9Are you satisfy with margin you get from company? Is it effect on your sale? _______________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________Q.1 Q.10what is opinion about SKL maize seeds? Give suggestion. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________APPENDIX-A2 Sample Questionnaire For Farmer Name Address : ________________________________ : ____________________________________________________1. Size of land holding (In acre) __________________ 2. What is your purpose of growing maize crop? For selling for home use3. In which season are you taking maize crop? Kharif , Rabi , Summer4. Are you aware about KSL maize seed? Yes No5. Is the effect of promotion activity occurs on your purchase? If yes then which? ________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 6. From which source you gate information regarding seed & other News paper Friend Relative TV Krishi Seva Kendra 7. Points (factors) considering while purchasing hybrid maize seed8. Are you changing seed (if yes, then in how many years)9. Are you satisfied with yield from the seed you are using right now? If no then how much your expectation?10. Your suggestion to company

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