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  • Slide 1
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU1 Neutrino Geophysics in Hawaii Presentation by Steve Dye Associate Professor of Physics Hawaii Pacific University January 20, 2005
  • Slide 2
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU2 Outline of Presentation Neutrinos Geophysics Neutrino Geophysics HANOHANO
  • Slide 3
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU3 Neutrinos Discovery Place in nature Properties Detection Astrophysics Nuclear reactors http://www.flyingneutrinos.com
  • Slide 4
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU4 Discovery of Neutrino W. Pauli proposes undetected particle in -decay (1931) E. Fermi develops theory of -decay with little neutral one (1934) C. Cowan and F. Reines detect neutrinos at nuclear reactors (1950's) http://www.ps.uci.edu/physics/reinesphotos.html
  • Slide 5
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU5 Neutrinos Place in Nature http://www.particleadventure.org/particleadventure/frameless/chart.html
  • Slide 6
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU6 Neutrino Properties Come in three flavours e, , No electric charge Stable Weak interactions Massive (slightly) Flavour oscillations
  • Slide 7
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU7 Neutrino Detection http://www.ps.uci.edu/physics/reinesphotos.html http://www-sk.icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp/doc/sk/photo/normal.html http://www-personal.umich.edu/~jcv/IMBdiverbig.jpg
  • Slide 8
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU8 Neutrino Astrophysics Neutrinos are excellent astrophysical probes Stable, uncharged, weakly-interacting Low energy (eV scale) Detection of Big Bang neutrinos difficult Medium energy (MeV scale) Detection of stellar neutrinos established High energy (TeV to EeV scale) Detection of extragalactic neutrinos progressing
  • Slide 9
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU9 Neutrino Astrophysics- SN1987a http://www-personal.umich.edu/~jcv/imb/imbp5.html
  • Slide 10
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU10 http://elvis.phys.lsu.edu/svoboda/superk/cossun.pdf http://elvis.phys.lsu.edu/svoboda/superk/sun.gif
  • Slide 11
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU11 Neutrinos from Nuclear Reactors http://www.insc.anl.gov/pwrmaps/map/world_map.php
  • Slide 12
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU12 Underground Neutrino Detector KamLAND in Japan 1000 tonnes of liquid scintillator ~2000 PMTs Rate in 400 tonnes ~1/(2 days) from reactors at 180 km
  • Slide 13
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU13 Anti-Neutrino Detection from John G. Learned Monitoring All Earth Reactors
  • Slide 14
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU14 Neutrinos in Japan KamLand signal primarily neutrinos from nuclear reactors Neutrinos from Earth detected! Raghavan hep-ex/0208038
  • Slide 15
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU15 Summary Point #1 Neutrinos exist with measured properties Neutrinos carry information from deep inside stars, galaxies, and Earth Neutrinos of energy ~1 MeV can be detected using proven techniques
  • Slide 16
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU16 Geophysics http://www.solarviews.com/cap/earth/earthfg2.htm
  • Slide 17
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU17 Seismology Earthquake waves Pressure waves P (primary) waves Shear waves S (secondary) waves Solids Transmit P and S waves Fluids Transmit only P waves http://www.mantleplumes.org/Energetics.html
  • Slide 18
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU18 Earths Interior http://mantleplumes.org/Energetics.html
  • Slide 19
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU19 Geodynamo Magnetic field Dipole Convection in outer core Rotation of Earth Magnetic field required for life to exist Deflects radiation Helps retain atmosphere http://www.es.ucsc.edu/~glatz/geodynamo/html
  • Slide 20
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU20 Global Heat Flow http://www.geo.lsa.umich.edu/IHFC/heatflow.html >24,000 field measurements
  • Slide 21
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU21 Earth Radioactivity Long-lived radioactive isotopes Decay of heavy elements heats the Earth How much heat and from where are the main questions U/Th/K distribution in the core, mantle, crust http://neutrino2004.in2p3.fr/slides/monday/fiorentini.pdf
  • Slide 22
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU22 Summary Point #2 Much to be learned in geophysics Composition of mantle and core Origin of Earth Source of heat flow Mechanism of geodynamo
  • Slide 23
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU23 Geo-neutrinos Anti-neutrinos from the Earth Arise from decay of radioactive elements (U+Th+K) in crust, mantle, and maybe core Detection above 1.8 MeV proven (U+Th) Domogatsky et al., hep-ph/0409069 Rothschild, Chen and Calaprice: nucl-ex/9710001
  • Slide 24
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU24 Geo-neutrinos Contributions from continental crust, oceanic crust, and mantle Possible observational sites Japan Italy Canada Russia Curacao Hawaii
  • Slide 25
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU25 Geo-neutrinos at Curacao Dutch project Long, narrow underground shafts Instrumented with nuclear detectors Strives to measure neutrino direction Goal: Neutrino tomography of Earth R.J. de Meijer EARTH Info-001
  • Slide 26
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU26 Anti-Neutrinos from the Core J. Marvin Herndon Breeder (fission) reactor deep within inner core Explains heat flow, geomagnetic field variability, He3/He4 Power output 3-10 TW Observable through neutrino emission
  • Slide 27
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU27 Geo-reactor neutrinos Test of geo-reactor hypothesis requires special location for clear signal Far from man-made reactors Far from continental crust Hawaii is excellent site Raghavan hep-ex/0208038
  • Slide 28
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU28 HANOHANO (Hawaiian for magnificent) Hawaii Anti-Neutrino Observatory New initiative in Hawaii for neutrino geophysics project Objectives are: Measure geo-neutrinos from mantle and U/Th Test geo-reactor hypothesis Method: Deploy KamLAND-like detector in the deep (4-5 km) ocean near Hawaii and operate for about 1 year Funding: Submitting proposal to CEROS next week for design study If successful, propose CEROS follow-on for prototype testing Next go for order of $100M from NSF for full detector
  • Slide 29
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU29 Deep Ocean Technology Hawaii-2 Observatory Deployed in 1998 Another off Japan 93 Neutrino detector possible in 3-5 years http://oceanusmag.whoi.edu/images/v42n2-chave1en.jpg
  • Slide 30
  • 20 January 2005Steve Dye, HPU30 Summary and Conclusion Neutrino detection is a viable (only?) method for learning what is inside Earth Various neutrino geophysics projects being considered around the globe Hawaii is an excellent site for a project Deep ocean technology sufficiently advanced HANOHANO