1 rich fermented coconut palm sap products
Post on 30-Jun-2015
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DESCRIPTIONFermented Coco Sap Products
- 1. Products: nata de coco, vinegar, tuba, lambanog Substrates: coconut sap/water/milk, nipa sap,kaong sap, and buri sap
2. Nata de coco Glucoacetobacter xylinus(formerly Acetobacter xylinum)Vinegar Acetobacter spp. and Gluconobacterspp.Tuba Saccharomyces cerevisiae, otherSaccharomyces species; LAB and AABLambanog bubod, a mixed microflora of molds,yeasts and bacteria 3. Nata de Coco A chewy, translucent, jellylike foodstuff produced bythe fermentation of coconut water by acetic acidbacteria specifically Gluconacetobacter xylinus Nata is a Spanish word derived from the Latin wordnatare meaning to float Highly regarded for its highdietary fiber, low fat content,and zero cholesterol content Was started in Pagsanjan, Lagunafrom juice of pineapple paringsused in bleaching pinya cloth 4. Nata de Coco Production Extraction of coconut water Fermentation of coconut water with a bacterialculture Separation and cutting of the produced mat ofnata de coco Cleaning and washing off the acetic acidproduced Cutting and packaging 5. Vinegar Product of the alcoholic fermentationof starchy or saccharine materialsfollowed by the acetification of thefermented liquor by acetic acidbacteria Acetic acid produced by the bacterialfermentation of ethanol Now mainly used as a cookingingredient for flavoring and preservingfood, but historically as the most easilyavailable mild acid for industrial,medical and domestic uses 6. Etymology From the French words vin meaning wineand aigre meaning sourSo vinegar is simplySOUR WINE 7. Chemical Process of VinegarProduction1. Fermentation of sugar to ethanol2. Partial oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde3. Conversion of acetaldehyde to acetic acid(acetification)yeastacetic acid bacteriaCHO CH3CH2OH 2 HCH3CHO 2 CH3COOH 8. Points in Vinegar Production1. Alcoholic fermentation Favorable temperature: 24-27C Best to add yeast as a starter culture Generates an anaerobic or partiallyanaerobic environment to produce alcohol Normal fermentation period: 7-10 days Optimum alcohol content: 10-13%2. Acetification Right strain of acetic acid bacteria Right choice of raw materials Acidity of the substrate should not exceedpH 5.0 Generates an aerobic condition 9. Methods of Vinegar Production1. Natural or spontaneous fermentation Occurs in nature Requires no culture inoculation Substrate undergoes simultaneousalcoholic fermentation followed by naturalacetate fermentation 10. 2. French Orleans process Also called the continuous method Fresh alcoholic substrate is added to bringthe volume to ~1/2 of the barrel andacidified with fresh vinegar Under aerobic condition, Acetobacter spp.grow as a thin film on the surface of thealcoholic substrate and oxidize ethanol toacetate. As the substrate turns to vinegar, itis withdrawn and fresh alcoholic liquor isadded. 11. 3. Submerged fermentation method Commonly used in wine vinegar production Requires the use of large stainless steeltanks called acetators, which are fitted withcentrifugal pumps at the bottom for pumpingair bubbles. As the bubbles stir the alcohol,acetozym nutrients are piped into the tank,spurring the growth of acetobacter species onthe oxygen bubbles, which convert thealcohol to vinegar, which is then piped to afiltering machine and then to a dilution station. Tank temperature: 26-38C 12. 4. Highly sophisticated rapid vinegar fermentation Use of Frings generator, which has automaticcontrols for temperature, aeration, andrecirculation of substrate A fine mist of Acetobacter and alcoholicsolutions are sprayedinto the chamber untilethanol is completelyoxidized to acetate. 13. Kinds of Vinegar1. Cider vinegar - from apple juice2. Wine vinegar - from wine3. Balsamic vinegar - from Trebbiano andLambrusco grapes4. Malt vinegar - from barley malt or cereals5. Sugar vinegar - from sugar syrup, molasses,or refined sugar6. Glucose vinegar - from glucose solution7. Spirit/distilled/grain vinegar - from dilutedistilled alcohol (by acetous fermentation) 14. Philippine Vinegar Substrates: fruit juices (particularly pineapple),sugar cane, coconut water, nipa, buri, and kaongsap Uses: condiment, for manufacture of pickles,tomato catsup, chili sauces, and sauces forcanning fish. 15. Coconut Water Low sugar content, thus sugar is adjusted to 15Brix to produce ~7.5% alcohol v/v and ~6%vinegar Vinegar fermentation requires 7-10 days, plusacetification of 2-3 weeks. 16. Coconut/Palm Sap Vinegar A cloudy white liquid with a particularly sharp,acidic taste with a slightly yeasty note Produced by collecting palm sap and placing itin earthen jars, allowing it to fermentspontaneously Used extensively in Southeast Asian cuisine 17. Iloko Vinegar (Sukang Iloko) Prepared from sugarcane wine (basi) Fermentation requires a year; final acidity ofvinegar is 6% and has excellent quality Dark yellow to golden brown; has a mellowflavor similar torice vinegar Has no residualsugar Often labeled assukang maasim 18. Quality ControlGrowing Acetobacter spp. requires vigilance. In the Orleans method, bungholes must beroutinely checked to ensure that insects have notpenetrated the netting. In the generator method, great care is taken tokeep the temperature inside the tank in the 26-38C range. Thermostats on the tanks areroutinely checked. Because a loss of electricity can kill Acetobacterspp. within seconds, many vinegar plants havebackup systems to generate electric power in theevent of a blackout.