*} 7 }-i} Writing Strategy Cue Card #1 . PRETEST SAMPLE . Assignment: Describe what your life will be like in two years. In two years, I will be cramming for

Download *} 7  }-i}  Writing Strategy Cue Card #1 . PRETEST SAMPLE . Assignment: Describe what your life will be like in two years. In two years, I will be cramming for

Post on 21-Mar-2018

215 views

Category:

Documents

3 download

TRANSCRIPT

Paragraph Writing StrategyPARAGRAPH TOPIC LIST My Favorite Sport The Problems of Old Age The Life of a Teenager The Perfect Job The "MUSTS" for a Healthy Body The Best Season of the Year 264 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #1 PRETEST SAMPLE Assignment: Describe what your life will be like in two years. In two years, I will be cramming for final exams while I finish my freshman year in college. In order that I do well on the exams, I will review my past exams. I will pick my most important goal, and I will decide on a major. I will relax and look forward to next year. UNIVERSIlY OF KANSAS 265 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #2 PRACTICE SAMPLE Assignment: Describe Someone My Special Friend Eric is very special to me. One reason Eric is special is that he is my best friend; he is always there for me. When I am upset, he listens and helps me solve my problems. In fact, he is my sunshine on a rainy day; he always lifts my spirit when it is down. Another reason he is very special is that he always shows me respect. He never forgets my feelings, and he often puts my feelings first. A third reason Eric is special is that he is a very kind person, and he spreads his kindness generously. He is always doing favors for people without being asked. To summarize, Eric is special because he is always there for me, respects my feelings, and is very kind. 266 UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS m-c iil ""C',',', , , , ,F, ,~,~,~,~,~,~,~,~,~,~, , , , .,;' ;' ". ,. ". ". '" ". ,. ". '" ". ,,' ". ,. ,,' ". ". ". ". " "L-'" m".'".'".'".'".'/',.'".'".'".'".'".'/'".'".'/'/'".'/'/',.'/~". :t> (Q "C/~".~".~/~".~/~".~".~".~".:".:/~/:/~/:/~/:".:/:/~/~/~". :::r "',"',","',"',","',"',"',"',/,',',',"',"',',',"',"',',",'"". ". ;' ". ,. ". ". ,. ". ". ;' ". ". ". ". ;' ;' ". " ". ,. ". ". :e ". ;' ". ,. ,. ". ". ;' ". ". ". ". ". ". ". ;' ,. ;' , '" ,. ". ". , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , :II .,, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ". ;' ". ". ". ". ". ;' ". ". ". ". ". ,. ". ;' ,. ". ". ". ". ". ". ~ , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ". ". ". ". , ". ". ;' ". ;' ". ,. ;' ". ". ;' ". ". , ". , ". ;-::l, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , -I". , ;' ". , ". ". ;' ;' , ". ". ;' , ;' ". , , , ". ". (Q;' ". ' , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,,. ;' ". ". ". ". ". , ;' ;' ;' ,. , ". ;' ;' ". ". ". ;' , ;' ;, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , en ;' ;' ;' ". ". , ". ". ". ;' ;' ". , ". ". ;' ". ;' ". ;' ". ;' ;-..., , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .,en, , ". ". ". ". , ". , ". ;' , , ". ". ". ". ". ". ". ". , "., , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , m ". ;' ". , ". ". ". , ;' ;' ". ;' ". ". ". ". ". ". ". ". , ". ". ..., , ... ... ... ... ... , , ... ... , , , , , , , ... ... ... , / / ~ ~ / / ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ / " ~ '" ~ ~ / " ., eD ... ... ... ... , , ... ... , ... ... ... ... ... ... , , ... , ... ... ... ., ~ ~ / ~ ~ ~ '" / " / / / ~ ~ / / ~ / / / '" / (Q, , , , , , , ... , ... , , , ... ... , ... , , ,... ... ., ~ , ~ ~ ., " '" " ~ / / / ~ / / / ~ '" / ., '" , ' , ... , ... , , , , , ... , , ... , , , , , ... , ... ,' , , , ., , ~ , , " , , , , , / '" , , , , ,0 ... , , , , , , ... , , , , , , ... , ,/ ... , , ... ... ",",",~,'...",',',~,/,",",',',",/,',/,/,','...~... ;",",",",',',',',",',"',/,',"',"',/,"',"',"',"',',',' 0 :II::J ",",',",",',",',',"',"',',',',"',',"',"',"',"',',",'',",",",",",',',"..."... ,j',/,,j',/,/,',","',/,',',"~;'" , , , , , , , , '" '" '" , , '" , '" , , , , ,~-, ::J :t>c::: "'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''/'/'''''~IZ ,'"'"',,',,',,',',,',,',',,',',,',,',,,',,',,',,',,',,"',,',,,~, ,,',,',,',,',,',"',,',','/'/'/'/'/'/"',',"'/',',',,"',,~, C)~ ~'~'~"',,"',',,'~'~','~',,"',,',,',,',,"',,'~'~',,"'~'~',,~, ~ "~~~~~,,~,,~,,~,,~,,~,~~~,,~,,~,~,,~~~,~~~,~,,~,~~~,,,~, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~, , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ... , ... , 0~ C',",',"... ',',~.../,",",",",',",",/,',","...",",",' :II0 ",",'...~,~,~,'...',~,","...~,",",~... '...",'... ",/...',/,' eD 'Tl ',",",~,',~,',',','..."...",",","... ',",~...',",'...",I 0 /,',/,',~,',/,",/,",',','...",",",",',','.../,','" m:t>"'...','.../ ...~.../ .../,',~,/.../ ...',',",",/,",',","...",',' ~ ~ ~ , , , , , , , / / / , , " / / , / , , '.1 a ~ ::tI:-CUl ~ tv OJ l::t-.::J00~ en Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #4 SENTENCE TYPES USED IN PARAGRAPHSPARAGRAPH PART SENTENCE TYPEIntroduction Topic SentenceBody Detail Sentences Conclusion Clincher Sentence UNIVERSI1Y OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #5 THE PARAGRAPH WRITING STRATEGY PUZZLE: PART I TOPIC SENTENCE UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS 269 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #6 TOPIC SENTENCE Is usually the first sentence. Introduces the main idea. Sometimes introduces the details. 270 UNNERSITI OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #7 TYPES OF TOPIC SENTENCES General Topic Sentences Clueing Topic Sentences Specific Topic Sentences UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS 271 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #8 GENERAL TOPIC SENTENCE Names the main idea of the paragraph. 272 UNIVERSfIY OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #9 GENERAL TOPIC SENTENCE CANDY UNIVERSTIY OF KANSAS 273 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #10 EXAMPLES OF GENERAL TOPIC SENTENCES The hot trend in advertising these days is to hire real, live stars. Kevin James would have been 20 years old this September. Not much is left of a town known as Nora, Nebraska. Democracy is thriving at Hillsboro High School. 274 UNIVERSIlY OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #11 CLUEING TOPIC SENTENCE Names the main idea. Gives a clue about the details. UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS 275 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #12 CLUE WORDS Many Several A number of Number ("Three") Kinds Types Parts Elements Pieces Members Divisions Components Different 276 UNIVERSITI OF KANsAS Various Classes Categories Groups Steps Stages Ways Roles Features Examples Characteristics Functions Assortment Differences Similarities Advantages Disadvantages Jobs Uses Causes Effects Reasons Sources Products Variety Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #13 EXAMPLES OF CLUEING TOPIC SENTENCES The four seasons spice up our lives. Tents come in a variety of shapes and sizes. The citizens of Lawrence have several reasons for building a new high school. Jesse Flynn is my best friend because of his many fine characteristics. UNNERSIlY OF KANsAS 277 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #14 CLUEING TOPIC SENTENCE CANDIJ 278 UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #15 SPECIFIC TOPIC SENTENCE Names the main idea. Names the specific details to be covered in order. UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS 279 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #16 SPECIFIC TOPIC SENTENCE CANDIJ 280 UNIVERSITY OF KANsAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #17 EXAMPLES OF SPECIFIC TOPIC SENTENCES Air pollution is caused by vehicles and industries. Charles Darwin lived an interesting life as an explorer, writer, and scientist. Diseases caused by vitamin deficiencies are beri beri, pellagra, scurvy, and rickets. UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS 281 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #18 STEPS FOR WRITING A TOPIC SENTENCE Step 1: ~ick a sentence type and a formula. Step 2: Explore words to fit the sentence type and formula. Step 3: Note the words. Step 4: ,S,earch and check. 282 UNIVERSIlY OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #19 THE PARAGRAPH WRITING STRATEGY PUZZLE: PART II TOPIC SENTENCE PARAGRAPH DIAGRAM DETAIL SENTENCES UNIVERSITI OF KANsAS 283 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #20 DETAIL SENTENCE Discusses one of the details in the paragraph. Sometimes shows the relationship between a detail and the rest of the paragraph. 284 UNIVERSI1Y OF KANSAS ~ C'I *= 'E m 0 I"U)G) C") Q::J ..J 0 ~ cen ~ en w a: U) w 0 W t>< Z W ('IIc.. z ..J U) ~ ..J W ~ w C w c J: c.. a: ,..Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #22 TRANSITION Signals the introduction of a new detai I. Shows the relationship between the detail and the rest of the paragraph 286 UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #23 TYPES OF DETAIL SENTENCES Lead-off Sentences Follow-up Sentences UNNERSIlY OF KANSAS 287 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #24 LEAD-OFF SENTENCE Introduces a new detail. Contains a transition. 288 UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #25 FOLLOW-UP SENTENCE Provides more information about the detail. UNIVERSIlY OF KANSAS 289 N o ~ Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #26THE PARAGRAPH EXPRESS TOPIC SENTENCE DETAIL SENTENCES DETAIL 1 DETAIL 2 DETAIL 3C=:J DS1 DS 2 DS3 DS4 DS S DS S DS 7 UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #27 EXAMPLE DETAIL SENTENCES Topic sentence: Turtles could not survive without their marvelous shells. Detail sentences: Most importantly, turtles' shells serve as the base for their skeletons. Their backbones and ribs are attached to the flat bony plates of their shells. This skeleton provides shape for their bodies. Somewhat importantly, turtles' shells serve as their portable homes. Turtles can live anywhere because they carry their homes with them. This is important for turtles since they move so slowly. Finally, turtles' shells are important because the shells protect turtles from their enemies. Turtles who are in danger can pull their heads and legs into their hard shells to protect themselves from animals who might try to eat them. UNIVERSI1Y OF KANSAS 291 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #28 REQUIREMENTS FOR A DETAIL SENTENCE Each detail sentence must: Contain related information. Be in a logical sequence with other sentences. Include a transition if it introduces a new detail. Be written from the same point of view as other sentences. Be written in the same tense as the other sentences. 292 UNIVERSIlY OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #29 DETAIL SENTENCE SEQUENCES Size Sequence when details are larger/smaller than each other. Time Sequence when some details occur before others in time. Space Sequence when details are arranged in space in relation to each other. Importance Sequence when some details are more important than others. Chain-Link Sequence when details are related in pairs or not related in any of the above sequences. UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS 293 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #30 TRANSITIONS CHART .s..IZE TRANSITIONS The largest Larger than The smallest The small-sized The tallest The next largest Equal to The next smallest The medium-sized The shortest The smallest Smaller than The lara est The larae-sized ~TRANSITIONS First, Then, Next, At last, Now Soon Then Later At the beginning of In the middle of At the end of Thereafter, Presently, After a short time, Soon thereafter, By this time, At the same time, At that instant, Immediately, Simultaneously, Before In the meantime Meanwhile During After Afterwards Fi rst, Second, Third, Finally, In the morning, Before noon, In the afternoon, In the evening, Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow, The day after tomorrow, The first A more recent The most recent In the past, In the present, In the future, The next day, Two weeks later, Six months later. This year, Next year, In the next few years. The earliest The next earliest The most recent SPACE TRANSITIONS behind over under on the edge of toward throughout beside around near in front of facing in back of west of east of north of high aga.inst alongside below to the right of side by side in the center south of ahead of beneath to the left of close to inside at the here low down on top of next to outside in there on the bottom at the top down at the end of on beyond on the corner by up between above farther on IMPORTANCE TRANSITIONS The best The most important The first The best The next best Equally important More important than The next best The least best The next important Most important The worst The least important CHAIN-LINK TRANSITIONS On the one hand, One example of In the first place, In other words, The first On the other hand, For instance, In the second place, In fact, The second Another example In the third place, Also, The third Again, A further example Besides, For example, Moreover, For another example, a-e Because Fi rst, Another Since Second, Still another A further /Js Third, In addition, Further, Still, Specifically, In the same way, Furthermore, While More specifically, In fact, Instead In particular, The opposite oC is_ Additionally, On the contrary side Lastly, The last Indeed, As a result, To the contrary, Similar to_ is _ Last Although Consequently, In contrast, Another similar_ is Even though Naturally, In spite of Likewise, Nevertheless, Even if After all, Despite the Similarly, Nonetheless, A dissimilar_ is CONCLUplNG TRANSITIONS To conclude, To sum up As you can see, In conclusion, In sum, To summarize, As a result, In summary, In brief, Thus, Finally, In short, Therefore, 294 UNIVERSI1Y OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #31 POINTS OF VIEW FIRST PERSON SECOND PERSON The Writer The Reader(s) We THIRD PERSON The Others They ,\ 11/,,-r\~ He She -\~--\~ Abstract 'c:7 Concepts Objects,o 0 Places it UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS 295 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #32 . EXAMPLE SENTENCES WRITTEN IN FIRST PERSON POINT OF VIEW I went to the beach for a vacation with several friends. We sunbathed, fished, watched the surfers, and swam. I have solved a number of mysteries lately. We recently moved to the country from the city; we love our new home. 296 UNNERSITI OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #33 EXAMPLE SENTENCES WRITTEN IN SECOND PERSON POINT OF VIEW You should be sure to pack light when you go backpacking. You will have a good trip if you are aware of some safety tips. Never take heavy objects like extra shoes or cast iron fry pans on a backpacking trip. UNIVERSI1Y OF KANSAS 297 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #34 . EXAMPLE SENTENCES WRITTEN IN THIRD PERSON POINT OF VIEW The boys went to a movie and then to a dance; they enjoyed themselves. Scott, Chris, and Wallis became the best of friends. The garden was filled with many fragrant and colorful flowers. Ea.ch Detail Sentence must be related to the Topic Sentence. 298 UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #35 POINT OF VIEW CHARTFIRST PERSON SECOND PERSON THIRD PERSON -The house HeYou One idea Subjects I She The boysWe You (understood) It Marie, Jamie, They Chris II I I Him Themselves Me Us I Your I I Sometimes I Her Itself in rest of My Our Yours I His..:.. ..... Them sentence Mine Ours YourselfI I Himself Hers Myself Ourselves I Yourselves I I Herself Their I I I Theirs II UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS ~ (,!) (,!) Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #36 WHAT POINT OF VIEW? My house is brown and white, and it has a big porch on the front. Your photograph of the mountains is beautiful. You can come over to my house tomorrow night. Yesterday, I visited my best friend and his brother. My sister's family includes her husband, her daughter, and her two sons. 300 UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #37 TENSES Past Present Future UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS 301 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #38 TENSE CHART Tense Past Present Future 302 UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS Verb painted was painting had painted is painting paints will paint shall paint Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #39 EXAMPLE SENTENCES FOR TENSE PAST Yesterday, the sun rose at 5:30 A.M .. On her vacation, Kathy swam in the ocean every day, and she ran along the beach each evening. PRESENT The sun is rising early this morning. Kathy loves to swim in the ocean. FUTURE Tomorrow, we will watch the sun rise. Next summer, Kathy will swim in the ocean again, and she will stay fit. UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS 303 w o *"" Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #40 A FINISHED PARAGRAPH DIAGRAM@J [I] [2J SEQUENCE P.O.v. TENSESpace 3 Present[!J TOPIC: I My room I L ..... R~DETAILS: [I] TRANSITIONS: ~ORDER: G) _B_u_nk_b_e_d____ On the left wall G) Posters Against the left wall Dresser In the middle Bookshelf On the right side Pennants To the far right UNIVERSIlY OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #41 STEPS FOR WRITING A DETAIL SENTENCE Step 1: f.ick a sentence type and a formula. Step 2: .Explore words to include the detail and a transition word if it introduces a new detail the point of view the tense Step 3: Note the words. Step 4: Search and check. UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS 305 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #42 THE PARAGRAPH WRITING STRATEGY PUZZLE: PART III TOPIC SENTENCE PARAGRAPH DIAGRAM CLINCHER SENTENCE DETAIL SENTENCES 306 UNIVERSIlY OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #43 CLINCHER SENTENCE Is the last sentence in the paragraph. Closes the paragraph. Names the main idea of the paragraph. Sometimes summarizes or names the details of the paragraph. Is different from the Topic Sentence. UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS 307 ~ ~ =1:1: "E ea 0 Q) ::l 0 Q)... ~ e U) C) c ~ 'I: ~ J:: c. ea \,. C) ea \,. ea D.. 308 en en w a: c.. >< w ::I: C. Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #45 EXAMPLE PARAGRAPH Nonviolent protest has been a major force in the world. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, Mahatma Ghandi and his followers used nonviolent protest to gain independence for India from Britain. For the first time in decades, Indians had their own country_ In the 1960s, Martin Luther King and his followers used nonviolent protest to gain rights for Blacks in America. Through nonviolent protest, they obtained rights that had been denied to them since the slaves had been freed, such as the right to sit anywhere on a bus, eat in any restaurant, and vote in elections. Thus, nonviolent protest has been successfully used by oppressed people to gain independence from other nations; it has also been used to gain personal rights and freedoms. UNIVERSI1Y OF KANSAS 309 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #46 CONCLUDING TRANSITIONS Words that tell the reader that the paragraph is finished. 310 UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #47 TYPES OF CLINCHER SENTENCES General Clincher Sentence Clueing Clincher Sentence Specific Clincher Sentence UNIVERSIlY OF KANSAS 311 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #48 GENERAL CLINCHER SENTENCE Summarizes the main idea of the paragraph. Makes the reader think more about the topic. 312 UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #49 EXAMPLE GENERAL CLINCHER SENTENCES In summary, these car models are my favorites. To summarize, these are my favorite car models; what are yours? In conclusion, when life gives you lemons, make lemonade. Thus, if a person has approval from others, he may be less happy than if he has his own approval. To conclude, this woman had many qualities that people should imitate daily. UNNERSITI OF KANSAS 313 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #50 GENERAL CLINCHER SENTENCE 314 UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #51 CLUEING CLINCHER SENTENCE Names the main idea. Ties the details together with a clue word. UNIVERSIlY OF KANSAS 315 C'\I Lt) =1:1: "E co () Q) :::l () >C) Q)... co "... (/) C) s:::: ~ 'i: 3: .c Q. co "C) co "co a. 316 W 0 Z W IZ W en. D: w J: 0 Z-..J 0 Cl -Z W :::l ..J 0 (fJ (;j ~ 0 ~ t: iQ ~ z ;:J Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #53 EXAMPLE CLUEING CLINCHER SENTENCES In sum, these four events served as the spark that ignited the war. To conclude, life can deal you many cards; it's how you play them that counts. In other words, several issues need to be considered before a person accepts a job offer. In conclusion, plenty of serious reasons exist for staying away from drugs; ignoring them can endanger one's health and life. UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS 317 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #54 SPECIFIC CLINCHER SENTENCE Names the main idea. Names the specific details that were covered in the paragraph in order. 318 UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #55 SPECIFIC CLINCHER SENTENCE UNIVERSI1Y OF KANSAS 319 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #56 EXAMPLE SPECIFIC CLINCHER SENTENCES To conclude, making a snowman involves rolling the parts of his body, stacking the .parts, and creating his face and clothes. In effect, the people followed a clear course: they wrote a petition, held rallies, demanded a vote, and caused the law to be changed. In summary, the environment is in danger because of our vehicles, our mountains of waste, and our lack of attention to nature's need to replenish itself. 320 UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #57 STEPS FOR WRITING A CLINCHER SENTENCE Step 1: f.ick a sentence type and formula. Step 2: .Explore words to fit. Step 3: N.ote the words. Step 4: Search and check. UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS 321 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #58 CLINCHER SENTENCES MODEL PARAGRAPH 1 A football team can score points in several ways. Anytime during a game, a football team can make six points by scoring a touchdown. A touchdown occurs when a player carries the football across the goal line or when the ball is successfully caught in the end zone. After a touchdown, a team can score additional points. One point can be made by kicking the ball through the goal posts; two points can be made by running the ball across the goal line or by successfully passing the ball into the end zone. Another way a team can score any time is by kicking a three-point field goal. A field goal is scored when a player kicks the football through the goal posts. Something that happens less often is that a team can score two points for a safety. This involves tackling the player who has the ball when he is inside his own team's end zone. 322 UNNERSIlY OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #59 CLINCHER SENTENCES MODEL PARAGRAPH 2 People are endangering the future lives of wild animals on our planet by taking land away from the animals, by taking the animals away from the land, by polluting the land and water, and by killing too many animals. First, people take land away from the animals to make room for houses and other buildings. They also use the land for farms and ranches. Second, people trap many animals each year for pets, and they put the animals in zoos or circuses. Third, people put tons of waste and garbage into the land, air, and water. This pollution is killing the animals that live on the land, breathe the air, and drink the water. Finally, people are killing too many wild animals for food, for sport, for their furs, and for other parts of their bodies. UNNERSITI OF KANSAS 323 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #60 CLINCHER SENTENCES MODEL PARAGRAPH 3 How the dinosaurs died out is one of the greatest mysteries of all time. Some scientists think that a giant meteor from outer space hit the earth about 65 million years ago. Its impact could have caused many changes on the earth that might have killed the dinosaurs. For example, the meteor's impact might have raised tons of dirt and dust into the atmosphere so that sunlight could not reach the earth, or it might have started the eruptions of many volcanoes or created tidal waves. Other scientists theorize that when flowering plants appeared in the world, the plant-eating dinosaurs could not digest these plants and died. In turn, the meat-eating dinosaurs also starved because there were no plant-eating dinosaurs left to eat. Still other scientists propose that a strange disease wiped out the dinosaurs. Finally, other scientists think that the climate of the world became too cold for the dinosaurs' survival. 324 UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #61 THE PARAGRAPH WRITING STRATEGY PUZZLE: PART IV THE PARAGRAPH WRITING STRATEGY TOPIC SENTENCE PARAGRAPH DIAGRAM DETAIL CLINCHER SENTENCES SENTENCE UNNERSI1Y OF KANSAS 325 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #62 STEPS FOR WRITING A PARAGRAPH Step 1: ~et up a diagram. Step 2: C reate the title. Step 3: Reveal the topic. Step 4: Iron out the details. Step 5: Bind it together with a clincher. Step 6: .Edit your work 326 UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #63 TYPES OF PARAGRAPHS Sequential Paragraph Narrative Paragraph Step-by-Step Paragraph Descriptive Paragraph Expository Paragraph Facts Paragraph Reasons Paragraph Examples Paragraph Compare and Contrast Paragraph Compare Paragraph Contrast Paragraph Compare and Contrast Paragraph UNIVERSIlY OF KANSAS 327 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #64 SEQUENTIAL PARAGRAPH DEFINITION: Describes details in a special order. TYPES: Narrative paragraph: Tells a story about a sequence of events. Step-by-step paragraph: Tells how to do something in a stepby-step manner. 328 UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #65 NARRATIVE PARAGRAPH: TELLS A STORY 1. Topic Sentence: Introduces the story to be told. 2. Detail Sentences: Tells the reader about the events in the order that they happen, happened, or will happen. 3. Clincher Sentence: Tells the reader the story is finished. Points out the significance of the story. 4. Transitions: Time transitions. 5. Point of view: First person. Third person. 6. Tense: Usually past tense. Sometimes present tense. Sometimes future tense. UNIVERSI1Y OF KANSAS 329 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #66 STEP-BY-STEP PARAGRAPH: TELLS HOW TO DO SOMETHING 1. Topic Sentence: Tells the reader that a sequence of steps for a specific task or process will be described. 2. Detail Sentences: Each tells the reader specific information about a step. The steps must be described in the correct order to get the job done right. 3. Clincher Sentence: Tells the reader the job is done. 4. Transitions: Time transitions. 5. Point of view: Usually second person. Sometimes third person. 6. Tense: Usually present tense. Sometimes past or future tense. 330 UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #67 DESCRIPTIVE PARAGRAPH Tells about people, places, events, and things through what the writer: sees hears tastes smells feels UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS 331 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #68 DESCRIPTIVE PARAGRAPH: PROVIDES A "PICTURE" OF A PERSON, PLACE, OR THING 1. Topic Sentence: Tells the reader that a specific person, place, or thing will be described. Sometimes limits the topic by telling time, and/or place, and/or senses used. 2. Detail Sentences: Each provides a detai I for the "picture". Each mentions a detail derived by at least one of the senses (sight, hearing, smelling, tasting, feeling). Include modifiers (adjectives, adverbs). 3. Clincher Sentence: Sums up the overall impression of the subject. 4. Transitions: Usually Space Transitions. Sometimes Chain-Link or Importance Transitions. 5. Points of view: Usually third person. Sometimes first person. 6. Tense: Present. Past. Future. 332 UNIVERSI1Y OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #69 EXPOSITORY PARAGRAPH Definition: Explains something. Types: Facts Paragraph Explains something through facts. Reasons Paragraph Explains something through reasons. Examples Paragraph Explains something through examples. UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS 333 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #70 FACTS PARAGRAPH: EXPLAINS SOMETHING THROUGH FACTS 1. Topic Sentence: Introduces the main idea. 2. Detail Sentences: Each provides information about a related fact. 3. Clincher Sentence: Sums up the facts. 4. Transitions: Importance, Time, or Chain-Link. 5. Point.Q! view: Usually third person. Sometimes first or second person. 6. Tense: Usually past or present tense. Sometimes future tense. 334 UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #71 REASONS PARAGRAPH: PERSUADES THROUGH REASONS 1. Topic Sentence: Introduces the side of the issue to be supported. Tells the reader reasons will be given. 2. Detail Sentences: Each provides information about a related reason. 3. Clincher Sentence: Sums up the reasons. 4. Transitions: Importance Transitions. Chain-Link Transitions. 5. Point of View: Second person. Third person. 6. Tense: Past, present, or future tense. UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS 335 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #72 EXAMPLES PARAGRAPH: EXPLAINS SOMETHING THROUGH EXAMPLES 1. Topic Sentence: Introduces the main idea. Tells the reader examples will be given. 2. Detail Sentences: Each provides information about a related example. 3. Clincher Sentence: Sums up the examples. 4. Transitions: Chain-Link Transitions. 5. Point of View: Third person. 6. Tense: Usually present tense. Sometimes past or future tense. 336 UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #73 COMPARE AND CONTRAST PARAGRAPH Definition: Shows how people, places, things, or ideas are alike and/or different. Types: Compare Paragraph Shows how they are alike. Contrast Paragraph Shows how they are different. Compare and Contrast Shows how they Paragraph are alike and different. UNNERSITI OF KANSAS 337 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #74 COMPARE PARAGRAPH: SHOWS HOW THINGS ARE ALIKE 1. Topic Sentence: Introduces the two subjects. Tells that they will be compared. 2. Detail Sentences: Each tells one way they are alike. 3. Clincher Sentence: Sums up the similarities. 4. Transitions: Chain-link, importance. 5. Point of View: Usually third person. Sometimes first or second person. 6. Tense: Present or past tense. 338 UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #75 CONTRAST PARAGRAPH: SHOWS HOW THINGS ARE DIFFERENT 1. Topic Sentence: Introduces the two subjects. Tells that they will be contrasted. 2. Detail Sentences: Each tells one way in which the subjects are different. 3. Clincher Sentence: Sums up the differences. 4. Transitions: Chain-link, importance. 5. Point Q! View: Usually third person. Sometimes first or second person. 6. Tense: Past or present tense. UNIVERSITI OF KANsAS 339 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #76 COMPARE AND CONTRAST PARAGRAPH: USED TO SHOW HOW THINGS OR IDEAS ARE ALIKE AND DIFFERENT 1. Topic Sentence: Introduces the two subjects. Tells that they will be compared and contrasted. 2. Detail Sentences: Each tells at least one way in which the subjects are alike or at least one way they are different. 3. Clincher Sentence: Sums up similarities and differences. 4. Transitions: Importance, chain-link. s. Point 21 view: Usually third person. Sometimes first or second person. 6. Tense: Present or past tense. 340 UNIVERSl1Y OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #77 GENERALIZATION INSTRUCTION Orientation Phase Activation Phase Adaptation Phase Maintenance Phase UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS 341 Paragraph Writing Strategy Cue Card #78 AFFIRMATIONS I write with ease when I use the Paragraph Writing Strategy. My ideas are well organized when I make a Paragraph Diagram. I look for ways to use the Paragraph Writing Strategy every day. I am comfortable with writing, now that I use the Paragraph Writing Strategy_ I am creating a new image of myself as a competent writer by using the Paragraph Writing Strategy. I am a successful writer when I use the Paragraph Writing Strategy_ I can achieve my goal when I use the Paragraph Writing Strategy_ My goal is: ___________342 UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS -- -- --PARAGRAPH SCORE SHEET Pretest: ____ Sequential: ____ Descriptive: ____Student Name: _______________ Expository: ____Date: __________________ Compare & Contrast. ____ Paragraph Topic: _______________ Posttest: ____ Generalization:Topic ClincherDetail SentencesSentence Sentence LineNumbers For Points Sentences Earned ForTransitions Mastery Score: Sentence points Transition points Sentence for basic parafor basic paraPoint of Tense Title Format variety Mastery graph (T+4D+C) graph (3T & 1CT) view points points points points points Score 0+0+0+0+0+0+0=0 (24) (8) (4) (4) (2) (2) (6) (50) Bonus Score: (Maste{score x2)Points for extra Points for extra COMMENTS: appropriate appropriate Mastery Bonus Detail Sentences Transitions Score Score Mastery Percentage0+0+0 D D% (Mastery= 90% or above) UNIVERSITY OF KANSASw *"" W w *'" *'" MANAGEMENT CHART FOR THE PARAGRAPH WRITING STRATEGY Student Name UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS 5 MANAGEMENT CHART FOR WHOLE PARAGRAPHS Advanced Practice Student Name UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS w c.n *"" W .+::0 m MANAGEMENT CHART FOR INSTRUCTION IN PARTS I, II, AND III Paragraph Writing Strategy Topic Sentences Detail Sentences Clincher SentencesStudent Name UNIVERSI1Y OF KANSAS Name:________________ Paragraph Writing Strategy WHOLE PARAGRAPHS PROGRESS CHARTParagraph Types Compare &Goal-Setting Section Narrative Step-by-Step Descriptive Facts Reasons Examoles Compare Contrast ContrastGoal Date Date Completed > a: 100 w t; c( 90 :::E c a: 80 c( ;: e 70 c w z a: 60 ~ 50 en !z 40 ~ II. 30 0 w 0 20 c( !z w 10 () a: w D. 0 Pre-test 1 2 3 Narrative 1 2 3 Step-by-Step 123 Descriptive 1 2 3 Facts 1 2 3 Reasons123 Examples 123 Compare1 2 3 Contrast1 2 3 Compo & Contrast Posttest~ UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS --J --00eN *'" Student Name: _______________ Paragraph Writing Strategy PROGRESS CHART FOR PARTS I, II, & III Topic Sentences Detail Sentences Clincher Sentences STAGE STAGE STAG E---Goals Section 3 4 5 Goals Section 3 4 5 Goals Section 3 4 5 Goal Date Goal Date Goal Date Date Completed Date Completed Date Completed100 I I I I I I I I 00 90 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 9080 1 I 1 I I 1 _I I 80 -70CJ CD ... ... 0 600 CD I 1 I I I I I I I 1 I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I 1 I I I I I I 70 60 C') as -c::: 3 ... CD Il. 50 40 I I I I I 1 1 I I j I I 1 I I 1 I I -' I I 1 I 1 5040 30 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 3020 I J I 1 I I 1 I 20 I I I I I I I I 10 I I . I 10I I I I I I I I 0 ABC D ABC D ABC D ABC D ABC D ABC D ABC D ABC D ABC D ABC D ABC D o 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 Topic Sentences Detail Sentences Clincher Sentences UNIVERSITY OF KANSASName: Paragraph Writing Strategy GENERALIZATION PROGRESS CHART --------.. _-----------. ---Goal-Setting Section 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 Goal Date I I I' I I I I I I Date Completed I I I I I I I I I 100 90 80 i ...c 70as LIJ til 60-c '0 D.. 500 - CI) C) 40 S c u CI) 30... CI) D.. 2010 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 Assignments Reports Maintenance Probes Activation Products Maintenance Goal: ~ UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS (,0 Name:~_________________________________ TOPIC SENTENCES VERBAL PRACTICE CHECKLIST Attempts 1 2 3 4 5 6 Describing the strategy in own words Naming the steps: f.ick a sentence type and formula Explore words Note the words Search and check Naming the types: General Clueing Specific Defining the types: General Clueing Specific Other questions: a.________ b.________ c.________________ Total Percentage correct % % % % % % Date 350 UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS Name:~__________________________________ DETAIL SENTENCES VERBAL PRACTICE CHECKLIST Describing the strategy in own words Naming the steps: Pick a sentence type and formula Explore words Note the words ~earch and check Definitions: Lead-off Sentence Follow-up Sentence Transitions Questions: Name requirements in "E" step Name 3 pOints of view Give examples of pOints of view Name 3 tenses Give examples of tenses Other questions: a.________________ b.________________ b.________________ Total Percentage correct Date Attempts 61 2 3 4 5 % % % UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS 351 Name:~________________________________ CLINCHER SENTENCES VERBAL PRACTICE CHECKLIST Attempts 1 2 3 4 5 6 Describing the strategy in own words Naming the steps: Pick a sentence type and formula Explore words Note the words Search and check Naming the types: General Clueing Specific Defining the types: General Clueing Specific Other questions: a._________ b._________ c.________ Total Percentage correct % % % % % % Date 352 UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS Name:.___________________________________ WHOLE PARAGRAPHS VERBAL PRACTICE CHECKLIST Attempts 1 2 3 4 5 6 Describing the strategy in own words Describing writing a Narrative Paragraph Naming the steps: Set up a diagram c.reate the title Reveal the topic Iron out the details Bind it with a clincher Edit your work Other questions: a.________ b._________ c ..________________ Total Percentage correct % % % % % % Date UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS 353 Paragraph Writing Strategy Name: ASSIGNMENT SHEET FOR TOPIC SENTENCES Topic Sentence Feedback Lesson Date Assigned Corrected Provided Comments 1A 18 1C 10 2A 28 2C 20 3A 38 3C 30 354 UNIVERSIlY OF KANSAS Paragraph Writing Strategy Name: ASSIGNMENT SHEET FOR DETAIL SENTENCES Detail Sentence Feedback Lesson Date Assigned Corrected Provided Comments 1A 18 1C 10 2A 28 2C 20 3A 38 3C 30 4A 4B 4C 40 5A 58 5C 50 UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS 355 Paragraph Writing Strategy Name: ASSIGNMENT SHEET FOR CLINCHER SENTENCES Clincher Sentence Feedback Lesson Date Assigned Corrected Provided Comments 1A 18 1C 10 2A 28 2C 20 3A 38 3C 356 UNIVERSnY OF KANSAS 30 Paragraph Writing Strategy Name: ASSIGNMENT SHEET FOR WHOLE PARAGRAPHS Paragraph Type! Feedback Assignment Date Assigned % Corrected Provided Comments UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS 357 00w CJl Name: __________________________ D~e: PARAGRAPH DIAGRAM @] . [I] . II] SEQUENCE I P.O.V. I TENSE!IITOPIC: I [I] DETAILS: [I] TRANSITIONS: ~ORDER: _____0 0----0----0----0----UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS Name: _____________________________ D~e: COMPARE AND CONTRAST PARAGRAPH DIAGRAM [!J [I]L.:.:J [!J [9 TOPIC: I I ______.ICE P.O.v. TE oDETAILS: l!:] TRANSITIONS: Similarities Differences Sim i larities Differences ~ORDER: 0 ________0-0--0-0--0-0--0-0--0-w UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS CJ1 (,D Name: Paragraph Checklist Do I have . a title? a Topic Sentence that fits the details? at least 4 Detail Sentences? a Clincher Sentence that is different from the Topic Sentence? Have I used .. a variety of sentence types (Simple, Compound, Complex, Compound-Complex)? the same point of view throughout? the same tense throughout? the correct paragraph format? at least three transitions and a Concluding Transition? Name: Paragraph Checklist Do I have . a title? a Topic Sentence that fits the details? at least 4 Detail Sentences? a Clincher Sentence that is different from the Topic Sentence? Have I used ... a variety of sentence types (Simple, Compound, Complex, Compound-Complex)? the same point of view throughout? the same tense throughout? the correct paragraph format? at least three transitions and a Concluding Transition? 360 UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS MODEL DIAGRAM AND PARAGRAPH FOR NARRATIVE PARAGRAPHS: LEVEL II ASSIGNMENT: Describe a vacation you've taken. PARAGRAPH DIAGRAM: SEQUENCE P.O.v. TENSE E1 TOPIC: My vacation at the lake Time 1 Past lI1 DETAILS: o TRANSITIONS: ~ ORDER: CD sat on beach, swam On the first day, sailing On the second day, o On the third day, river raft ride climbed a mountain On the fourth day, o For the fifth day, read inside cabin MODEL PARAGRAPH: My Sporty Vacation I had an enjoyable vacation this year since I filled each of the five days with my favorite sports activities. On the first day, I went to the beach and swam, and I got a wonderful sun tan. On the second day, I went sailing with a friend. We took our lunch, and we anchored in an isolated cove for a swim in the late afternoon. On the third day, since it rained all day, I stayed inside the cabin and read a good book about my favorite sports star. On the fourth day, my friend and I rented a rubber raft and went down the river in it. Because the river had lots of rapids, we had an exciting ride as well as a lot of exercise. We even capsized the raft and got soaking wet. For the fifth day, my friend and I decided to climb a mountain. Again we packed our lunch, and we ate it as we sat on the top of the mountain enjoying the view of the mountains, streams, and lakes spread out before us. To conclude, although I probably will not return to this vacation spot again, I will remember my athletic activities there for a long time. UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS 361 MODEL DIAGRAM AND PARAGRAPH FOR STEP-BY-STEP PARAGRAPHS: LEVEL II ASSIGNMENT: Describe how to make a sandwich. PARAGRAPH DIAGRAM: SEQUENCE P.O.V. TENSE [!] TOPIC: Making a peanut butter and jelly sandwich Time 2 Present [il DETAILS: I!l TRANSITIONS: ~ ORDER: CD get out ingredients & egui~ment To get started, 0 butter bread Next. G) ~eanut butter on one slice For the third ste(;!. 0 iell~ on other slice Fourth, 0 (;!ut together You're ready for the fifth step, 0 cut and serve Finall~! MODEL PARAGRAPH: A Yummy Sandwich You will find that the steps for making a peanut butter and jelly sandwich are as easy as pie. To get started, gather the ingredients and equipment. You need to find bread, peanut butter, butter, jelly, and a knife. Next, you should butter the bread. To do this, put two slices of bread on a clean part of the counter, and carefully spread butter on one side of each slice using the knife. Make sure the butter goes all the way to the edge of the bread and is evenly spread. Take care not to tear the bread. For the third step, you need to put peanut butter evenly across one slice and to the edge of the bread. Make the peanut butter about 3/8 of an inch think. Fourth, spread the jelly on the other slice of bread. You can make the jelly as thick as the peanut butter. Be sure the whole slice is covered with the jelly. When you have finished spreading the jelly, you're ready for the fifth step, putting the sandwich together. Take one of the slices of bread, and put it on top of the other slice, making the peanut butter and jelly touch each other. Finally, cut the sandwich in half with the knife and put both halves on a plate to serve it. In sum, if you follow these six steps carefully, the result will be a very delicious sandwich. 362 UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS MODEL DIAGRAM AND PARAGRAPH FOR DESCRIPTIVE PARAGRAPHS: LEVEL II ASSIGNMENT: Describe a beach. PARAGRAPH DIAGRAM: I!I TOPIC: I..__T_h_e_B_e_a_ch____... SEQUENCE Space P.O.V. 3 TENSE Past mDETAILS: [II TRANSITIONS: II] ORDER: @ silver-orange ocean The backdrop waves rolling in In front of @ shells Grouped along @ birds in groups Over ~ white sand MODEL DIAGRAM AND PARAGRAPH FOR FACTS PARAGRAPHS: LEVEL II ASSIGNMENT: Define criticism. PARAGRAPH DIAGRAM: III SEQUENCE P.O.V. TENSE mTOPIC: Criticism Chain-link 2 Present mDETAILS III TRANSITIONS [il ORDER: G) what it is Typically, / --~~-------------------- who gives it Usually. why it's helpful Additionally. when it comes Regardless. how it comes MODEL PARAGRAPH: Criticism: A Blessing in Disguise You can think of criticism as a blessing in disguise if you keep several important points about criticism in mind. Typically, criticism involves one person telling you what you have done wrong. Usually, you have hurt someone physically, hurt someone's feelings, done some things incorrectly, done something that is illegal or against the rules, or done something that makes the other person angry or upset. Additionally, you should remember that people who really care about you, including your parents, friends, teachers, and bosses, are the only ones who will give you criticism. They may give you criticism in a quiet, thoughtful way, or they may give it in a loud, furious way. Regardless of how the criticism is delivered, be sure to remember that criticism is a gift to you that you can use to build a successful future. If you take criticism to heart and follow suggestions, you will lead a happier life than if you ignore criticism. Thus, when you are in the midst of receiving criticism, remember that you probably have done something wrong, that the person cares enough about you to tell you, and that you can use this gift to give yourself a better future. 364 UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MODEL DIAGRAM AND PARAGRAPH FOR REASONS PARAGRAPHS: LEVEL II ASSIGNMENT: Explain why a person should accept criticism calmly. PARAGRAPH DIAGRAM: SEQUENCE P.O.V. TENSE Reasons for accepting Chain-Link & 3 Future[!] TOPIC: Importancecriticism calmly [] DETAILS: [] TRANSITIONS: r::-1 17\ others think you are L!J ORDER: \V mature and responsible First, @ don't make others angry Second, learn to avoidCD problems in future More important, can understand how the problem occurred Most importantly, MODEL PARAGRAPH: Cool. Calm. and Collected Accepting criticism in a calm manner will yield dividends for four major reasons. First, by listening carefully and calmly to the criticism, a person will usually learn something about how to avoid problems in the future. Second, when the criticism is unfair, and the person has not done anything wrong, by listening carefully and asking calm questions, the person receiving the criticism will be better able to understand and explain how the problem occurred. More important, if a person refrains from becoming angry and abusive while receiving criticism, she will avoid making the person who is giving the criticism even more angry or upset. Usually a person who gets angry while receiving criticism will receive some sort of punishment from the other person. The more angry the other person gets, the more severe the punishment will probably be. Most importantly, if a person receives criticism calmly and makes a genuine attempt to understand or to change, others will think that person is mature and responsible. They will be more likely to let the person do what he or she wants to do, and they will be more likely to trust the person and to give the person more responsibility. In conclusion, the calm acceptance of criticism will payoff by allowing a person to avoid similar problems in the future, to understand how a mistake was made, to avoid punishment, and to make a good impression on others. UNNERSITI OF KANSAS 365 MODEL DIAGRAM AND PARAGRAPH FOR EXAMPLES PARAGRAPHS: LEVEL II ASSIGNMENT: Provide several examples of sources of criticism. PARAGRAPH DIAGRAM: SEQUENCE P.O.V. TENSE []TOPIC: Examples of criticism Chain-link 3 Present ~ DETAILS: [!] TRANSITIONS: [i] ORDER: o parents- -breaking house rules, poor For example, grooming. acting inappropriately '1' friend- -hurting feelings or not Another example ~ returning borrowed item t3' boss- -coming late to work, A further example \.V poor job, mistakes 1"4' teacher- -not doing aSSignment A final example ~ correctly. poor grade MODEL PARAGRAPH: Criticism Has Many Different Faces Criticism can come from a variety of people. For example, criticism can come from a friend for hurting her feelings or for not returning a borrowed item. Another example of a source of criticism is parents. They often give their children criticism for such things as breaking house rules, poor grooming, or acting inappropriately. Teachers are a further example of people who often give criticism. They tell their students what they have done wrong on assignments, and they give out low grades to students. A final example of a source of criticism is bosses. They tell their employees when they have done a poor job, when they are late to work, and when they have made a mistake. In summary, friends, parents, teachers, and bosses are some of the people who are likely to provide criticism. 366 UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS MODEL DIAGRAM AND PARAGRAPH FOR COMPARE PARAGRAPHS: LEVEL II ASSIGNMENT: Compare two animals. PARAGRAPH DIAGRAM: SEQUENCE P.O.V. TENSE The similarities of toothed []TOPIC: Chain-link 3 Presentwhales & baleen whales [il DETAILS: [!] TRANSITIONS: r:-1 '2' ..!.!m~a~m~m.:..l:::a..!.lllls"--____ First.IJ:J ORDER: \.!,I lungs &breathe air Also. G) live in sea One of most interesting o babies born live &drink milk "see" with ears MODEL PARAGRAPH: Brother Whales The two kinds of whales, toothed and baleen whales, have five important similarities. First, they both live and swim around in the sea, but this does not mean that they are fish. They are mammals, just like humans are mammals. Because they are mammals, both types of whales have lungs and breathe air. This means that they must swim up to the surface of the water each time they need to breathe. Also, because both types of whales are mammals, their babies are born alive; they are not hatched from eggs. All baby whales are called calves and drink their mother's milk. One of the most interesting facts about both types of whales is that they can "see" with their ears. They send out clicking sounds that bounce off of objects. When these sounds return to the whales, they can hear them and know what the object is and how far away it is. They also communicate with each other using these clicking sounds. In all, these similarities between toothed and baleen whales provide an interesting picture of two of the world's most hunted and endangered creatures. UNIVERSIlY OF KANSAS 367 MODEL DIAGRAM AND PARAGRAPH FOR CONTRAST PARAGRAPHS: LEVEL II ASSIGNMENT: Contrast two animals. PARAGRAPH DIAGRAM: SEQUENCE P.O.v. TENSE The differences between toothed [1J TOPIC: Importance 3 Present whales &baleen whales III DETAILS: II] TRANSITIONS: GJ ORDER: 0......-si..ze_________ Most important o way they catch their food Another important o food they eat Least important CD teeth and baleen MODEL PARAGRAPH: Distant Cousins A number of differing characteristics make toothed and baleen whales distant cousins. The most important difference is indicated by their names. The toothed whale has many sharp teeth; the baleen whale has a huge "mustache-like" piece of equipment called a "baleen" inside its mouth. Because of this difference, another important difference between the two whales is the way they catch their food. The toothed whale must actively chase after its food and catch it. The baleen whale just opens its mouth, swims along, and strains its food out of the water with its "mustache." Toothed whales eat larger fish; they swallow them whole, one at a time. In contrast, baleen whales eat very small sea creatures, and they swallow many at one time. Probably the least important difference between the two whales is their size. Most baleen whales are huge; they can be over 100 feet long. Most toothed whales are between 10 and 20 feet long. Thus, toothed whales and baleen whales are easy to tell apart even though they are cousins. 368 UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MODEL DIAGRAM AND PARAGRAPH FOR COMPARE AND CONTRAST PARAGRAPHS: LEVEL II ASSIGNMENT: Compare and contrast two animals. PARAGRAPH DIAGRAM: SEQUENCE P.O.v. TENSE E]TOPIC: Toothed and baleen whales Importance 3 Present ~ DETAILS: III TRANSITIONS: Similarities: Differences:EI ORDER: CD .;.;.M;....a;.;..m;.;..m.;.;.al;.;..s___ CD size Similarities: Most important Differences: Most Important f2\ lungs & breathe air t3\ ways they catch food \.::..J \::./ Other similarities Another differenceo babies born alive CD food they eat Lesser importanceCD live in sea CD teeth and baleen "see" and talk witho clicking sounds MODEL PARAGRAPH: Toothed and Baleen Whales: Very Different Brothers Toothed and baleen whales come from the same family and are similar in some ways, but, just like brothers, they are different, too. The most important similarity is that they are both mammals. This means they both breathe air with their lungs, and their babies are born alive. Other similarities are that they both live in the dark depths of the sea, and they can "see" objects and communicate with each other using clicking sounds. The most important difference is that toothed whales have teeth, and baleen whales have baleens which are big "mustaches" inside their mouths. Their teeth allow toothed whales to eat large fish up to 50 pounds in weight. Baleen whales must eat the very small creatures they strain out of the water with their "mustaches." Another difference is that toothed whales must chase after and catch their food, but baleen whales simply open their mouths and swim along to eat. Of lesser importance is the difference in their sizes; baleen whales, as a group, are usually larger than toothed whales. Therefore, although they are related, baleen whales and toothed whales are easy to tell apart because of the ways they catch their food and eat it and their size. UNIVERSIlY OF KANSAS 369 MODEL DIAGRAM AND PARAGRAPH FOR NARRATIVE PARAGRAPHS: LEVEL I ASSIGNMENT: Describe a vacation. PARAGRAPH DIAGRAM: SEQUENCE P.O.v. TENSE [2J TOPIC: My vacation at the lake Time 1 Past [I] DETAILS: o TRANSITIONS: ~ ORDER: ...s.;,;.;ai.;.;.lin;,,;.jg;&-_____ On the first day, CD swimming On the second day. On the third day. fish ina o hiking On the fourth day. MODEL PARAGRAPH: My Sporty Vacation I had a wonderful vacation this summer because I filled it with several sporty activities. On the first day, I swam in the lake, and I sunbathed on the beach. On the second day, I went sailing with a friend. On the third day, I went fishing; I caught five lake trout. On the fourth day, I hiked in the woods along a babbling stream. To summarize, I enjoyed my sporty vacation, and I'm looking forward to a similar vacation next year. 370 UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS http:s.;,;.;ai.;.;.lin;,,;.jgMODEL DIAGRAM AND PARAGRAPH FOR STEP-BY-STEP PARAGRAPHS: LEVEL I ASSIGNMENT: Describe how to make a sandwich. PARAGRAPH DIAGRAM: SEQUENCE P.O.V. TENSE [!JTOPIC: Making a peanut butter and jelly sandwich Time 2 Present lEI DETAILS: o TRANSITIONS: [!J ORDER: G) get what you need To get started, put peanut butter & jelly on bread Next, CD put slices together Then G) cut and serve Finally, MODEL PARAGRAPH: A Yummy Sandwich You will find that the steps for making a peanut butter and jelly sandwich are as easy as one-twa-three. To get started, you need to find peanut butter, jelly, two slices of bread, and a knife. Next, spread the peanut butter on one slice ofbread and the jelly on the other slice. Then, put the two slices together with the peanut butter and jelly on the inside. Finally, cut the sandwich in half, and seNe it on a plate. In sum, you'll have a yummy meal if you follow these four easy steps. UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS 371 MODEL DIAGRAM AND PARAGRAPH FOR DESCRIPTIVE PARAGRAPHS: LEVEL I ASSIGNMENT: Describe a beach. PARAGRAPH DIAGRAM: SEQUENCE P.O.V. TENSE [2] TOPIC: The Beach Space 3 Past ~ DETAILS: o TRANSITIONS: [!] ORDER: 0...;;;:b;.;;.:lu=e....;;;0.;;.;ce;;.;;;a;.;.;;.n____ At the front o white dunes All along @ birds Spread out shells Behind MODEL PARAGRAPH: Pretty as a Picture At dawn, the beach was a colorful sight. At the front of the scene were dunes of cool white sand, and covering the dunes were tall green spikes of grass. All along the sandy white beach, quiet black birds were resting. Spread out among the birds were shells of all shapes and colors. Behind the whole scene stretched the dark blue ocean as far as the eye could see. In short, these contrasting colors created a beautiful picture. 372 UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS MODEL DIAGRAM AND PARAGRAPH FOR FACTS PARAGRAPHS: LEVEL I ASSIGNMENT: Describe some facts about a sport. PARAGRAPH DIAGRAM: SEQUENCE P.O.v. TENSE E]TOPIC: Basketball moves Chain-link 2 Present I!] DETAILS: o TRANSITIONS: [!] ORDER: 0 ...;s;.;.;la;;;;.;m;.;...d.;.;.;u;;.;.n;.;...k____ one 3 MODEL DIAGRAM AND PARAGRAPH FOR REASONS PARAGRAPHS: LEVEL I ASSIGNMENT: Explain why a person should exercise daily. PARAGRAPH DIAGRAM: SEQUENCE P.O.v. TENSE [!J TOPIC: Reasons for exercising Importance Present [I] DETAILS: [II TRANSITIONS: EI ORDER: _s_lim______ The most important trim muscles Another important G) healthy heart A third important o be in nature Finally. MODEL PARAGRAPH: Slim and Happy Daily exercise can be helpful for four major reasons. The most important reason people should exercise daily is to keep their hearts strong. Another important reason is that exercise can build and firm muscles so that they are ready for any type of use. A third important reason for daily exercise is weight control; people can lose weight and stay slim if they exercise every day. Finally, people who exercise outdoors get the calming benefits of being in nature, and they experience all four seasons. In conclusion, daily exercise can create a healthier, stronger, slimmer, and happier body. 374 UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS MODEL DIAGRAM AND PARAGRAPH FOR EXAMPLES PARAGRAPHS: LEVEL I ASSIGNMENT: Describe several examples of board games. PARAGRAPH DIAGRAM: SEQUENCE P.O.V. TENSE [] TOPIC: Board games Chain-link 3 Present ~ DETAILS: lI1 TRANSITIONS: o ORDER: 0 Monopoly One example, CD Candy Land Another example Clue0 A third example LifeCD The last exam pie MODEL PARAGRAPH: The Name of the Game Board games seem to live up to their names. One example of a board game that fits its name is Candy Land; in this game, players move through a land of candy cane trees and molasses swamps to reach a candy castle. Another example is the game called Life in which players pretend they are moving through life earning money, raising a family, and paying bills. A third example is Clue; in this game, players add up clues to figure out who murdered "Mr. Body." The last example of a board game that lives up to its name is Monopoly, a game where players buy up land and buildings to create monopolies. To conclude, these four board games are examples of games that truly fit their names. UNIVERSITI OF KANSAS 375 MODEL DIAGRAM AND PARAGRAPH FOR COMPARE PARAGRAPHS: LEVEL I ASSIGNMENT: Compare two foods. PARAGRAPH DIAGRAM: SEQUENCE P.O.v. TENSE I!JTOPIC: IOranges and Lemons Chain-link 3 Present [I] DETAILS: ~ TRANSITIONS: fjrst.II] ORDER: MODEL DIAGRAM AND PARAGRAPH FOR CONTRAST PARAGRAPHS: LEVEL I ASSIGNMENT: Contrast two foods. PARAGRAPH DIAGRAM: SEQUENCE P.O.V. TENSE E1 TOPIC: IOranges and Lemons Importance 3 Present [] DETAILS: lEI TRANSITIONS: El ORDER: MODEL DIAGRAM AND PARAGRAPH FOR COMPARE AND CONTRAST PARAGRAPHS: LEVELl ASSIGNMENT: Compare and contrast two foods. PARAGRAPH DIAGRAM: SEQUENCE P.O.V. TENSE Importance[!JTOPIC: Oranges and Lemons 3 Present& Chain-link III DETAILS: [!] TRANSITIONS: II] ORDER: Similarities; Differences: Similarities: pifferences: Q) Thick peel Q) taste Most Importantly Most Important o juice o color Another Other differences seeds shape Also Lesser Importance o sections _sl_ze____ MODEL PARAGRAPH: Oranges and Lemons: Close Kin Oranges and lemons come from the same food family and have several similarities, but they have some real differences, too. Most importantly, oranges and lemons are related because they have a thick peel on the outside and sections of fruit on the inside. Another similarity is that they both have seeds inside their fruit. They also can both be squeezed to make juice. The most important difference between oranges and lemons is that oranges are sweet, and lemons are sour. Other differences are that oranges are usually bigger and rounder than lemons. Of lesser importance are the facts that oranges are orange and lemons are yellow. To summarize, oranges and lemons are close kin, yet they can be told apart. 378 UNNERSITY OF KANSAS

Recommended

View more >