writing to learn & learning to write
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DESCRIPTIONWriting to Learn & Learning to Write. Odense, March 22, 2012. Gert Rijlaarsdam & Team. G.C.W.Rijlaarsdam@uva.nl. Tableau. de la troupe. Themes. Writing to learn versus Learning to Write What works for whom and when ? What works? Physics Observation writing strategies - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Writing to Learn & Learning to WriteOdense, March 22, 2012Gert Rijlaarsdam & Team
G.C.W.Rijlaarsdam@uva.nlde la troupe
TableauThemesWriting to learn versus Learning to WriteWhat works for whom and when?What works?PhysicsObservation writing strategiesClassroom practiceLearning to Write Texts & Writing to LearnDoes it make a difference?Theme 1Google counts. 21 03 2012 writing is complex52.800 hitsWriting is a complex process283.000 hitsLearning to write is a complex proces2.730
Text production/Writing strategiesRevising strategy preferenceThinking through the act of writingProducing free (pieces of) texts, drafts, and then reprocess, revise, rewrite, select etc.
Planning strategy preferenceFirst planning, notes, schemes etc., then writeLittle revision on line, when writing.
Dit betekent niet dat het gaat om of plannen of reviseren, maar om verschillende soorten van plannen en reviseren, om een verschil in nadruk.
SculptorsEngineersHypothesisLearning through writing: Attention must be focused on learning, not on writing. Thus:
Adapt writing tasks to writimng stategies: to plan/think-write-revise. write/plan-think-revise
Interactie-hypothese: leereffect hangt af van de interactie tussen strategie en conditie.
Schrijf-leertaken aanpassen aan schrijfstrategien van leerlingen vergroot het effect van writing-to-learn.
InterventionLearning to write argumentative texts about short short storiesAims twofold:1. Learning to interpret van literary stories by writing about stories2. Learning to write argumentative texts (stand point, argumentation)
Juist in het literatuur curriculum wordt heel veel geschreven, terwijl er maar weinig onderzoek gedaan is naar writing-to-learn in het literatuur curriculum. In de recentste meta-analysis gaat er welgeteld een van de 48 studies over literatuur!Learning contentlesson12345Issue+++++Stand point+++++Introduction, closing (reader oriented)++++Informing++++Argumentation++Signaling+In elke les lazen de leerlingen een kort verhaal, en kregen ze er schrijfopdrachten bij, en enige theorie.
Je krijgt eentekst van een leerlingTwo conditionsRevisers condition
Random assignment to condition
composing for sculptorsSculptors:write a discovery draft of a literary reviewreread draft and check on given criteria (argumentative and rhetorical)write the final text
composing for engineers Engineers:fill in a planning scheme check planning scheme on given criteria (argumentative and rhetorical)write the final text
Writing Style InventoryWhen I finished my text, I start reading and revising thoroughly: a lot of things can change then. (Revising scale, = .73)
I always create scheme before I start writing. (Planning scale, = .76)
ResultsWriting to LearnFor instance: Writing to understand a literary text, a text in history, social sciences.
SOIf you use writing for understanding/acquiring subject matter, OptionsTypePlanExplore/RevisePlannerNon-plannerRevisorNon-revisorSOIf you use writing for understanding/acquiring subject matter, OptionsTypePlanExplore/RevisePlannerXNon-plannerXRevisorNon-revisorSOIf you use writing for understanding/acquiring subject matter, OptionsTypePlanExplore/RevisePlannerXNon-plannerXRevisorXNon-revisorXLearning to Write TextsTeaching aim:; improve text quality
WEAK REVISING STRONG
SO?If the Student has a outspoken writing approach?Best Text Quality via PLANNINGIf the student has no outspoken writing approach? Best Text Quality via EXPLORATIVE WRITING/REVISINGWhat works in teaching writingTheme 2-3: What lesson is this
Learning about texts from Readers behaviourRijlaarsdam, G. Couzijn. M, Janssen, T., Braaksma, M. & Kieft, M. (2006). Writing Experiment Manuals in Science Education: The impact of writing, genre, and audience. International Journal of Science Education, 28, 23, pp. 203233.Physics Experiment (Steps 1-3): Proof that air takes space.
Effect Sizes Text Quality
Effect Text KnowledgeThree weeks later:Writing a letter to a new student in class: how to write a manual.
Most genre awareness: those writers who saw a tekst being readTransfer Potential: Effect Sizes
Conclusion Physics ExperimentInquiry of readers processes support the development of knowledge about what an effective text entails (genre awareness). (Reader in readers role)
Three roles to connect in writing educationComplete Communication Participation Learning ModelCommunicative roles/pairsWriting is reader oriented, has a goal to achieve and a reader to readWriter has access to the reading process; what happens during reading, what happens with the text being read?.Instructive roles/pairs: Reader informs writer about the quality of the text, as experienced.Observer/analyse role:Learners study the writing, reading or writing-reading process..WriterReaderResearcher ObserverInquiring/Observing writing and reading strategies in peers processes. Effects on learning and transferMain focusEffects of inquiry/observation versus learning by practicing, on Learning: effects in same modus: writing -> writing; reading -> reading)Transfer: effects to other modus: writing -> reading; reading -> writing)Lesson series (four hours in total) about argumentative reading or writing; Grade: 9, age 15Theory: sameApplication: practicing ersus inquiry tasks
Observation tasks (observing writing)Presentation of the task Observing two students at work, performing the writing task: observation of writing processesPresentation of the texts the students wrote: observation of writing productsAnswering two questions about the observationsPresentation of the taskIn a little while, you are going to watch on CD-ROM videotape recordings. You will see two peers writing a short argumentative text based on the following argumentation structure. The models had to make sure that the reader will understand the standpoint and arguments in their text. Next page you will find the argumentation structure the models received. Argumentation structure (1) It is better to live in a city than in a village (1.1) In a city, you can choose from different shops, schools, and swimming pools (1.2) You can better develop yourself in a city
(1.3) The opportunity for finding a job is getter in a city (1.2.1) You can meet more different people (1.2.2) There are more cultural events (1.3.1) There are a lot of companies close to each other Questions guiding the observations 1. Which student did less well?2. Explain briefly what this (less good) student did worse.Make your notes here, when you observe the students:.......................................................................Student to observe (one of a pair)
Presentation of the models texts and answering two questionsYou saw two students performing the writing task. They wrote the following texts:
Student 1Student 2texttexttexttexttexttexttexttextAnswer two questions:1. Which model did less well?2. Explain briefly what this (less good) model did worse.
Learning effects? Yes, see effect sizes:
Effect of ObservationEffect of ObservationLearning & Instruction, 1999Transfer effects? Oh, yes!
Obs Reading vs Pract WritingObs Writing vs Pract WritingObserving the other modusLearning & Instruction, 1999The Yummy Yummy Story ... Or the bright side of writing education
Theme 4: Practice
(Finally!)Introducing the CaseImagine.
On the wrappers of the Yummy Yummy candy bars,which you occasionally eat, you have seen that you canget two free cinema tickets. The wrapper reads:
Advertisement Yummy Yummy Candy barsSAVE FOR TWO FREE CINEMA TICKETS!!! This is what you must do: On each Yummy Yummy candy bar wrapper there is 1point. Collect 10 points and send these in a sufficientlystamped envelope to: Yummy Yummy Candy Bars PointsOffer, PO Box 3333, 1273 KB Etten-Leur, theNetherlands. Also include 0.39 in stamps to cover postage. Clearlywrite your name, address and postal code, and the free(FREE!) cinema tickets will be sent to your home as soonas possible. This offer is open until April 15 2003.
Communicative SituationIt is April 7 2003. You have collected a total of 8 points, butyou cannot find any more bars with points. The bars in theshops have no points on the wrappers, but it is still notApril 15. Thus, you cannot get your 10 points together. Nevertheless, you wish to receive the two cinema tickets.
Therefore, you send your 8 points along with two completewrappers without points. AssignmentWrite a letter to enclose with the points and wrappers.
Explain why you are unable to send ten points. ConvinceYummy Yummy Candy Bars that you want to receive thetwo cinema tickets and that there was nothing you coulddo to get ten points. Make sure that they send you thecinema tickets! Then address the envelope. TheoryThree roles, connected in a learner-to-read & -to-writeReaderWriterObserverComplete Communication Participation Learning ModelCommunicative role/pairs: Writing has a purpose and an audienceWriter has access to readers process.Instructive role/pairs: Reader informs writers about perceived quality of text.Inquiry/Observing/Analyzing role:Learners study the writing, reading or writing-reading process.ParticipantWriterParticipantReaderResearcher ObserverInterventionGet what they owe you
The Yummy yummy Candle Bar Case.
Introducing the CaseIntroducing the Case
Omar (12); First LetterDear employees of Yummy Yummy Candy BarsI participated in the Yummy Yummy Candy Bars offer to win twocinema tickets. After some time I had already saved eight points.After some time I could find no more Yummy Yummy candy barswith offer points. I wen