world history ii sol review independence movements – world today

Download World History II SOL Review Independence Movements – World Today

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  • World History IISOL Review Independence Movements World Today

  • Independence in Africa - OverviewNegritude Movement a movement to celebrate African culture, heritage, and valuesRight to self-determination (U.N. charter)Peaceful and violent revolutions after World War IIResentment toward imperial rule and economic exploitation

  • KenyaBloody British settlers owned prime farmland in the highlands of Kenya and resisted independence for KenyaLeader Jomo Kenyatta

  • GhanaWest Africa peaceful transitionOriginally called Gold Coast under the British

  • AlgeriaWar for independence from France

  • South Africa Struggle against apartheidLed by Nelson Mandela, who became the first black president of South Africa

  • Religious Conflict Palestine vs. IsraelBoth Palestinians and Israelis want the same landCreation of Israel in 1948 led to many conflicts between Israel and countries in the Middle East (Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, etc)1993 creation of a Palestinian state (Gaza Strip and West Bank)

  • Religious Conflict Ireland and Northern IrelandProtestants vs. Catholics IRA (Irish Republican Army) wants a united Ireland (Northern Ireland part of Great Britain)Today not an issue

  • Religious Conflict - Balkans1990s Slovenia and Croatia separate from YugoslaviaSerbian-led Yugoslav army invaded both Croatia and Slovenia became free from Serbian ruleFebruary 1992 Bosnia Herzegovina declared independenceApril 1992 Serbia and Montenegro formed a new YugoslaviaWhile Bosnian Muslims and Croats supported independence, Bosnian Serbs did not

  • Religious Conflict - BalkansSupported by Serbia, Bosnian Serbs launched a brutal war in 1992 (ethnically cleanse Bosnia Herzegovina of all Muslims)

  • IndiaLeader GandhiRole of civil disobedience and passive resistance (boycotts and Salt March)Hindu-Muslim conflict 1947 partition India (Hindus) and Pakistan (Muslims)

  • PakistanWas created based on a religious issue and divided into two territories (East and West)Conflict between East and West (linguistic, religious, and regional issues)

  • Bangladesh1971 East Pakistan declared its independenceEast Pakistan became Bangladesh

  • ChinaDivision of China into two nations at the end of the Chinese civil warChiang Kai-shek nationalist China (Taiwan)Mao Tse-tung (Mao Zedong) Communist China (mainland China)Continuing conflict

  • Developed NationsNorth America and EuropeEconomic stability - prosperousHigh literacy rates (most people can read and write)Health care (most people have access to health care)Low birth rate/low infant mortality ratePopulation growth - slow

  • Developing NationsAfrica and AsiaEconomic Conditions Poverty Low literacy rateHealth care (diseases)High birth rate/high infant mortality rateGrowing population rapid

  • Impact of New Technologies Widespread but unequal access to computers and instantaneous communicationsGenetic engineering and bioethics

  • Factors Affecting Environment and SocietyEconomic development (pollution)Rapid population growth (strain on natural resources)

  • Environmental ChallengesPollutionLoss of habitat (places to live)Global climate change

  • Social ChallengesPovertyPoor healthIlliteracyFamineMigration

  • Economic InterdependenceRole of rapid transportation, communication, and computer networksRise and influence of multinational corporationsChanging role of international boundariesRegional integration (European Union tariff-free trade among European nations)

  • Economic InterdependenceTrade Agreements North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) tariff-free trade between U.S., Canada, and Mexico and World Trade Organization (WTO) monitors trade among nationsInternational Organizations United Nations + International Monetary Fund (IMF) offers emergency funds to countries in crisis

  • RefugeesRefugees as an issue in international conflicts (ex. Palestinian-Israeli conflict forced a lot of Palestinians into Jordan) people who are forced to leave their homelands because of war, poverty, political problems, and environmental disasters

  • Migrant WorkersPeople who leave their homeland to work elsewhere (Ex. Central and South Americans coming to the United States) guest workers