world history geography

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World History Geography in short.good ppt for use.


  • Models for Teaching about the World Past and Presentfrom a civilizations-based model to a human-centered, global modelClick on icon for sound

  • Why teach and learn about the world?People from all over the world are coming together in many arenas, and need knowledge about each other.Memory is an important part of what makes us human. Each person is a transmitter of knowledge about the past.

  • Three common models for teaching about the worldThe geographic perspectiveThe civilizational perspectiveThe world history perspective

  • Option #1: the geographic perspectiveThis is a stand-alone geography courseGeography studies often give students their first view of the whole worldStudents are taken on a tour of the world, full of descriptive factsIt is organized around a sequence of regions, based on modern divisions of the world. This division makes it hard to teach about earlier historical regions, which were often very different.

  • Geography/World Cultures ModelWestern HemisphereEastern Hemisphere

  • Option #2: the civilizational perspectiveMost world history courses have been organized around coverage of civilizationsStudents are given chapter-by-chapter descriptions of world civilizations, including: a description of its geographic setting an account of its origins descriptions of its political, social, and cultural history, and a list of its contributionsIncluding new topics in these courses has been a problem, because only civilizations need applyMany regions without major civilizations were very important in world history, but they find no place in these courses.

  • Traditional Western Civilizations Model

  • Traditional world history covered only a small part of the worlds surface, only expanding its scope with the modern expansion of Europeans after 1400 C.E.It focused on Mediterranean civilizations, but added others gradually and incompletely in response to multicultural demands to cover the non-west

  • Option #3: world history perspectiveThis new model for teaching about the world is organized around global eras of human historyStudents take an era-by-era tour of world history, that includes dynamic coverage of geographys role in human history inclusion of regional societies, civilizations, and the spaces between them interactions among cultures and long-term historical processesThe model is academically challenging and culturally flexible. It helps develop critical thinking and research skills.It effectively incorporates new and existing research.

  • Geographically comprehensive and truly global in scopeHuman-centered and inclusiveDeveloped by international world historians and geographersAcademically sound rationale for inclusion of the worlds societies and culturesAccepting of new scholarship and research to encourage lifelong learning


  • Why is World History education important?1. World history helps make sense of globalization. 2. World history demonstrates our expanding knowledge about the past. 3. World history shows links from national history to the rest of the world. 4. World history sustains citizenship.*

    *From Patrick Manning, Presenting World History to Policymakers: Three Position Papers, Perspectives, March 2006

  • UNESCO World Heritage Bridging world history Center for History and New Media The Silk Road Project Europaischer Kongress fur Welt- und Globalgeschichte European Network in Universal and Global History Histoire du Monde World History Compass (links to world history information around the world) Shixue Lianxian(History On-line) History For Us All online curriculum http://worldhistoryforusall.sdsu.eduSOME WORLD HISTORY EDUCATION LINKS

    (Presentation, text, and graphics developed by Susan Douglass, Senior Research Officer, Alliance of Civilizations, United Nations, New York, 2006; all rights reserved; background photographs of the world from outer space courtesy of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration)Script: In an era marked by globalization, people have become aware of the need to know more about the world as a whole. Most national education systems focus on teaching about the geography and history of the nation. They include courses about the world, but few education systems, until recently, have taught about human history as a whole. Script: Cultural heritage is usually identified with the regional civilization to which a country belongs. History education began at homethe center of each cultural universe. The world beyond was either terra incognita or the land of strangers. Dynasties wrote their own history and emphasized their superiority or conquest of peoples around them.The world-wide migration of people from many cultures has brought civilizations and cultures into close proximity. Global trade and common environmental challenges linked to ways of life has increased the need for people to be educated about one another. Contact among peoples has increased the store of knowledge about our human heritage. Teaching histories centered on a dominant civilization are no longer representative of what we know.

    Image: Woman griot from mali/pages/arts.html Script: Most national education systems focus mainly on teaching about the geography and history of the nation. They also teach about the world, but few education systems, until recently, have taught about human history as a whole. There are several ways to approach teaching about the world. Three common approaches are: world geography, world cultures or civilizations, and global world history. Each approach involves a different set of challenges and opportunities. It makes a big difference which model is used.

    Script: This model is called stand-alone geography. Geography studies often give students their first view of the world, in elementary or early secondary school. The course is organized around a sequence of regions, based on modern divisions of the world. This division makes it difficult to teach about earlier historical periods, in which regions of importance were different from today. The next slide shows how this pedagogical model works.Script: The stand-alone geography course gives a description of each regions physical geography. It provides quick historical background from ancient to modern times--often in less than a page. Based on this, students gain an impression of the culture, economy, and political system. Traditional and modern ways are often contrasted for developing regions, and major problems highlighted.This model is difficult to teach in a connected way. First, the world is divided into the eastern and western hemispheres. Each region is treated as a self-contained pipe leading from the present down into the past. Students move down into the regions past, but cant see any connections it might have had to other regions at that time. In fact, this model violates the very principle of teaching geographic regionsthey are spatial divisions that people create, which change over time. In the stand-alone geography course, students learn a lot of facts about each region, but the information is too isolated from other knowledge about the world. When the class moves to another region, the process starts again. Script: Option #2: the civilizational perspective. This model has been the most common way of teaching about the world from a historical perspective. It has a long heritage in scholarship which is not limited to the European tradition, but grew out of dynastic histories. This course is organized around a linear sequence of civilizations. Each chapter or teaching unit includes the geographic setting of its core area, its origins story, and then moves through a chronological discussion of its political and social history. Such accounts frequently end with a description of what WE moderns got from THEM in terms of inventions, learning or the arts. The problem with this model is its focus on only one type of human collective experiencea civilization. Depending upon who is teaching it, the course is often centered on one specific civilization. Others are peripheral to the story. Including new topics in world history has been a problem, because only civilizations need apply. Many regions without major civilizations were very important in world history, but they find no place in these courses.

    Script: The traditional world civilizations model describes the sequence of civilizations that is associated with the rise of Western civilization, and the stages of European history that led to the modern world. These are shown in pink. During the past several decades, the demand to include other cultures resulted in their addition to the curriculum. They were simply spliced into the traditional sequence. Here, the process of inclusion was piecemeal. Because any new topic had to be classified as a civilization, the process of inclusion became very contentious. The controversy over including Africa is only one example. Interestingly, one commonly recognized characteristic of a civilization was that the society represented a territorial empire, so that civilization became more synonymous with a type of political entity than with culture. Thus the rise and fall of the empire came to be tightly associated with the rise and fall of the culture. Presenting each society in a linear squence gives the effect of having the students view a parade of be


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