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  • 1

    Working Group on Strategies and Review, Fiftieth session, 10-14 September 2012

    Informal document

    As supplementary information to draft guidance document ECE/EB.AIR/WG.5/2012/1

    Provisional Agenda Item 4 Draft guidance document on best available techniques

    for controlling emissions from heavy metals and their compounds from the source categories listed in Annex II

    Draft guidance document, showing tracked changes to Annex III of the Protocol on Heavy Metals

    ANNEX III BEST AVAILABLE TECHNIQUES FOR CONTROLLING

    EMISSIONS OF HEAVY METALS AND THEIR COMPOUNDS FROM THE SOURCE CATEGORIES LISTED IN ANNEX II

    I. INTRODUCTION

    Summary

    As supplementary information to document ECE/EB.AIR/WG.5/2012/1 which contains the draft guidance document on best available techniques to the Protocol on Heavy Metals, this document shows in tracked changes the modifications made to Annex III of the Protocol on Heavy Metals. It is intended to facilitate delegates’ consideration of the document at the session.

  • ECE/EB.AIR/WG.5/2012/1

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    Economic Commission for Europe

    Executive Body for the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution

    Working Group on Strategies and Review

    Fiftieth session Geneva, 10–14 September 2012 Item 4 of the provisional agenda Draft guidance document on best available techniques for controlling emissions of heavy metals and their compounds from the source categories listed in annex II

    Draft guidance document on best available techniques for controlling emissions of heavy metals and their compounds from the source categories listed in annex II*

    Note by the Chair of the Task Force on Heavy Metals

    Summary

    At its forty-ninth session in September 2011, the Working Group on Strategies and Review agreed that the Protocol on Heavy Metals should be made more adaptable to future developments through the production of a guidance document on best available techniques extracted from annex III to the Protocol (ECE/EB.AIR/WG.5/2011/19).

    This note includes the draft guidance document as prepared by the Task Force on Heavy Metals, with due account of comments by Parties and other experts, as requested by the Working Group. Justifying remarks are provided in the Report of the Task Force on Heavy Metals on the Workshop to promote the ratification of the Protocol on Heavy Metals (ECE/EB.AIR/WG.5/2012/2).

    Text in square brackets had not yet been discussed by the Working Group on Strategies and Review.

    * This note is being issued without formal editing.

    Economic and Social Council Distr.: General 2 July 2012 Original: English

  • ECE/EB.AIR/WG.5/2012/1

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    List of abbreviations and acronyms

    ACI Activated carbon injection As Arsenic

    BAT Best available techniques

    BF Blast furnace

    BOF Basic oxygen furnace

    BREF1 Best available technique reference document

    CaBr2 Calcium bromide

    Cd Cadmium

    Cl2 Chlorine

    Co Cobalt

    Cr Chromium

    Cu Copper

    Cu2HgI4 Copper(I) tetraiodomercurate (II)

    cts/kWh Cents per kilowatt hour

    CFA Circulating fluidized-bed absorber

    EAF Electric arc furnace

    ECE United Nations Economic Commission for Europe

    ELV Emission limit values

    EMEP European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme under the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP)

    ESP Electrostatic precipitator

    FF Fabric filter

    FGD Flue gas desulphurization

    HEPA High efficiency particulate air filter

    H2O Water

    H2SeO3 Selenious acid

    Hg Mercury

    HgCl2 Mercuric chloride

    Hg2Cl2 Mercury (I) chloride

    Hg+ Mercury ion

    HgO Mercury oxid

    HgSO4 Mercury (II) sulfate

    H2SO4 Sulphuric acid

    IGCC Integrated gasification combined-cycle

    K Kelvin

    kPa Kilo pascal

    kWel Kilowatt electric

    1 For latest reference documents giving information on all relevant sectors, techniques and processes used, current emission and consumption levels, BAT and emerging techniques: http://eippcb.jrc.es/reference/.

  • ECE/EB.AIR/WG.5/2012/1

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    mg/l Milligramme per litre

    mg/m3 Milligramme per cubic metre

    mg/Nm3 Milligramme per normal cubic metre

    mg/t Milligramme per ton

    Mg Megagramme, metric ton

    µg/Nm3 Microgramme per normal cubic metre

    Ni Nickel

    NOx Nitrogen oxide

    O2 Oxygen

    Pb Lead

    PARCOM Commission for the Prevention of Marine Pollution from Land-based Sources

    PCDD/F Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran

    PM Particulate matter

    ppm Parts per million

    Sb Antimony

    SCR Selective Catalytic Reduction

    Se Selenium

    Sn Tin

    SO2 Sulphur dioxide

    TOC Total organic carbon UNEP United Nations Environment Programme

    V Vanadium

  • ECE/EB.AIR/WG.5/2012/1

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    Contents Paragraphs Page

    I. Introduction ............................................................................................................. 1-7 5

    II. General options for reducing emissions of heavy metals and their compounds ...... 8-10 6

    III. Control techniques .................................................................................................. 11-18 7

    IV. Sectors ................................................................................................................ 19 8

    A. Combustion of fossil fuels in utility and industrial boilers ............................. 20-28 9

    B. Primary iron and steel industry ....................................................................... 29-32 12

    C. Secondary iron and steel industry ................................................................... 33-36 15

    D. Iron and steel foundries ................................................................................... 37-38 16

    E. Primary and secondary non ferrous metal industry ......................................... 39-58 17

    F. Cement industry .............................................................................................. 59-67 25

    G. Glass industry .................................................................................................. 68-73 27

    H. Chlor-alkali industry ....................................................................................... 74-79 28

    I. Municipal,medical and hazardous waste incineration ...................................... 80-91 30

    J. Waste containing metallic mercury and certain mercury compounds and mixtures 92-96 33

  • ECE/EB.AIR/WG.5/2012/1

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    I. Introduction

    1. This guidance document aims to provide Parties with guidance on identifying best available techniques for stationary sources to enable them to meet the obligations of the Protocol.

    2. " The expression “Best available techniques" (BAT) means” identifies the most effective and advanced stage in the development of activities and their methods of operation which indicate the practical suitability of particular techniques for providing in principle the basis for emission limit values (and other permit conditions) designed to prevent and, where that is not practicable, generally to reduce emissions and theirthe impact on the environment as a whole:

    - ‘Techniques'(a) “Techniques” includes both the technology used and the way in which the installation is designed, built, maintained, operated and decommissioned; - ‘Available'

    (b) “Available” techniques means those developed on a scale which allows implementation in the relevant industrial sector, under economically and technically viable conditions, taking into consideration the costs and advantages, whether or not the techniques are used or produced inside the territory of the PartyMember State in question, as long as they are reasonably accessible to the operator; - ‘Best'

    (c) “Best” means most effective in achieving a high general level of protection of the environment as a whole. Criteria for determining BAT are as follows:

    In determining the best available techniques, special consideration should be given, generally or in specific cases, to the factors below, bearing in mind the likely costs and benefits of a measure and the principles of precaution and prevention:

    - (i) The use of low-waste technology; -

    (ii) The use of less hazardous substances; -

    (iii) The furthering of recovery and recycling of substances generated and used in the process and of waste; - , where appropriate;

    (iv) Comparable processes, facilities or methods of operation which have been tried with success on an industrial scale; -

    (v) Technological advances and changes in scientific knowledge and understanding; -

    (vi) The nature, effects and volume of the emissions concerned; -

    (vii) The commissioning dates for new or existing installations; -

    (viii) The length of time needed to introduce the best available technique; -

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    (ix) The consumption and nature of raw materials (including wa