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  • 1. Project: Create a Wood Gasifier forVietnam Lecturer: Dr. Peter Stammnitz Group 2: ngTiu My- Factory planner Trn Kim Ngn- Economist Trng Th Xun o- Project coordinator Nguyn Hng Khnh- Factory planner Nguyn Kim Ninh- Manufacturing expert Nguyn QuangThanh-Designer April 2014 1

2. Introduction Bio char can use as fertilizer when mixed with compost. Affordable design will encourage people use clean cook stoves . Reduce pollution because burning crop residue by Gasifiers only produces CO2 Solution:The role of Gasifiers Enormous demand of fertilizer because of soil degradation problems. Prefer cheaper but toxic coal cook stoves due to costs of LPG are rising. Burning crop residue is polluting the environment. Consequences 79.5%(*) total land use is agricultural land. 68%(*) population lived in rural can not afford the LPG cookstove Heavily dependent on agriculture (69.5%(*) of labour force). Facts (*)Viet Nam statistics book 2012 2 3. Application of biochar Bio char Produce a soil enhancer Produce clean, renewable energy Reduce agricultural waste Fight global warming (*) http://www.biochar-international.org 3 4. Part one 1 Analysis material 2 Technical solutions 3 Analysis markets, prices, costs 4 Procurement analysis, sales strategy 5 Stakeholder, value, jobs,protection of resources 6 Exist practical experiment results 4 5. Rice husk and straw Location: 20% in Red river delta and 50% in Mekong river delta. Current usage: Cooking (15%), brick kiln (40-45%),power plant, briquette (10%), left over (20-25%) Sugar cane Location: Mekong River Delta, North Middle and Coastal Plain, and East South Current usage: 50-60% combustion in Furnace, fertilization Corn cobb Location: 50% Northeast and 10% in south east Current usage: animal feed, cooking, fertilizer Coconut husk Location: 84% in Mekong Delta (Ben Tre 30%) Current usage: 100% shell: activated carbon or domestic fuel or industrial thermal. 96% husks: processed into coir Coffee husk Location: the Central Highlands and the North Current usage: Combusted, fertilizer, dumped *Biomass Business OpportunitiesViet Nam by SNV Netherlands Development OrganisationVietnam Analysis of material inVietnam*(2/2) 5 6. Analysis of material inVietnam*(2/2) Material Area ( Ha) Yield / Ha % residue Theoretical Availability Rice husk 7,500,000 ha 5.32 t/ha 20% 8 million ton Rice straw 85% (on average) 23 million ton Sugar cane 266,000 ha 63.9 t/ha Top: 30%, leaves:10%, Bagasse: 9% Top: 4,110,150t; Leaves: 1,370,050t; Bagasse: 1,233,045t. Corn cobb 1,125,000 ha 4.0 t/ha 20-50% 1,066,500 tons Coconut husk 130,000 ha 13 t/ha 30% weight is husk 975 tons Coffee 500,000 1.8 t/ha 15% of the dried cherry weight 135,000 tons *Biomass Business OpportunitiesViet Nam by SNV Netherlands Development OrganisationVietnam Conclusion: Rice straw can be identified as the largest potential. 6 7. Sustainable rice straw material flow 7 8. Part one 1 Analysis material 2 Technical solutions 3 Analysis markets, prices, costs 4 Procurement analysis, sales strategy 5 Stakeholder, value, jobs,protection of resources 6 Exist practical experiment results 8 9. Technical principle(*) The updraft gasifier Pros: Small pressure drop, good thermal efficiency, little tendency towards slag formation Cons: Great sensitivity to tar and moisture and moisture content of fuel, poor reaction capability with heavy gas load. The downdraft gasifier Pros: low sensitivity to charcoal dust and tar content of fuel, flexible adaptation of gas production to load. Cons: Design tends to be tall, not feasible for very small particle size of fuel The Crossdraft gasifier Pros: Short design height, very fast response time to load, flexible gas production Cons:Very high sensitivity to slag formation, high pressure drop. (*) Alternative Energy in Agriculture,Vol. II, Ed. D.Yogi Goswami 9 10. Existing technical solutions(*) Rocket stove Pro: need less fuel, produce clean air Cons: Must be used with a thermal mass for efficiency Anila stove Pro: very sturdy, easy to learn to use, works fine Cons: not work well on clearly sub zero temperatures Biochar rocket stove Pro: can be used in door, easier to control the temperature Cons: increased emissions, possible incomplete pyrolysis TLUD stove Pro: absence of smoke Cons: not ideally suited for use indoors (*) http://www.soil-carbon-regeneration.co.uk/biochar/biochar-stoves-2/ 10 11. Part one 1 Analysis material 2 Technical solutions 3 Analysis markets, prices, costs 4 Procurement analysis, sales strategy 5 Stakeholder, value, jobs,protection of resources 6 Exist practical experiment results 11 12. Gasifier market Target groups: potential customers are farmers in the Northern Highlands, Central Highlands, and Mekong Delta(*), especially ethnic minority groups who only can afford cook stoves with little to no subsidies. In 2012, population in rural area is 60416,5 thousand person, with six members per household on average.Therefore, the number of rural households inVietnam was about 10 million. In conclusion, the Gasifier market is estimated up to 10 million. (*)Vietnam Market Assessment by Global Alliance for Clean Cook stoves 12 13. Biochar Market Agricultural land 26280,5 thousand ha Application of 0.5ton biochar/ha /year(*) Quantity of biochar on demand: 13.14 thousand ton/year (*) http://internationalinventjournals.org/journals/IJASS 13 14. Biochar cost analysis Biochar cost: 2.250VND/kg Risk ratio: 0.5 Costs toward rice straw material: 300 VND/kg Yield of biochar was approximately 20-23% (*) (*) http://www.biochar-international.org/profile/Stoves_in_Vietnam 14 15. Gasifier cost analysis Gasifier cost: 600,000VND Labour cost: 150000 VND Material cost: 380.000VND Manufacturing overhead: 70000VND 15 16. Part one 1 Analysis material 2 Technical solutions 3 Analysis markets, prices, costs 4 Procurement analysis, sales strategy 5 Stakeholder, value, jobs,protection of resources 6 Exist practical experiment results 16 17. Procurement Material Price Technical data Mild steel sheet 13500vnd/kg 5,0 x 1500 x 6000mm Stainless steel sheet 13500vnd/kg 5,0 x 1500 x 6000mm Roll steel 14500vnd/kg 8xroll Rectangular steel 14500vnd/kg 4x40x100mm Rectangular steel 14500vnd/kg 2.5 x25x25mm Rectangular steel 14500vnd/kg 2x30x30mm 17 18. Sales & Distribution Strategy(*) The Northern Highlands, Central Highlands, and Mekong Delta Choose regions that have potential for longitudinal effects, Determine which target regions Create incentive commission structure that motivates the promoter to encourage wide-scale adoption Determine specific promoters have the best reach within target regions Understand which channels have the best reach within target communities Focus on word-of-mouth marketing, which is key inVietnam culture Create marketing campaign to establish branding and generate awareness (*)Vietnam Market Assessment by Global Alliance for Clean Cook stoves 18 19. Part one 1 Analysis material 2 Technical solutions 3 Analysis markets, prices, costs 4 Procurement analysis, sales strategy 5 Stakeholder, value, jobs, protection of resources 6 Exist practical experiment results 19 20. Stakeholders analysis Stakeholder Problem/ Constrain Main Interest Potential Project group Short of time Finance secure Practical experience Profitable business but sustainable develop Knowledge to approach new technology Rural community Lack of skill Poverty Soil degradation Increase income, Improve living qualification but low cost Agricultural waste Government Pollution, Soil degradation Pressure on energy demand Renewable energy, poverty reduction Power of policymaker Foreign NGOs Direct contact to local people, unfamiliar to local habit Sustainable rural development Funding, project management experience 20 21. Our Gasifier remarkable value Raw material Production Sales and distribution Maintenance Product development Gasifier Stable supply, low cost Low cost, portable, easy to use Provide training in self-repair sustainable business models Affordability ,last mile distribution, self-built construction 21 22. Job Creation Value Transfer technology to customers, farmers Built plant local labor absorption (http://pamoja.se/) 22 23. PROTECTION OF RESOURCES (1/2) 23 24. PROTECTION OF RESOURCES (2/2) 24 25. Part one 1 Analysis material 2 Technical solutions 3 Analysis markets, prices, costs 4 Procurement analysis, sales strategy 5 Stakeholder, value, jobs,protection of resources 6 Exist practical experiment results 25 26. Result of BiocharTreatment and its Effects on Rice andVegetableYields in Mountainous Areas of Northern Vietnam (*) Application of 0.52.5tons biochar/ha combined with NPK, average rice yield was increased by 17.6%. Economic benefit from rice cultivation is estimated by 29.11- 37.05 million VND/ha/crop with net income of 2.64- 7.26 million VND/ha/crop. (*) by Vinh NC. , Hien NV.,Anh MTL., Johan Lehmann, Stephen Joseph 26 27. Results of comparison test of CAREVietnam Gasifier stove Open fire The amount of used wood (gram) 955 - 1235 2000 Total weight of food (gram) 1850 1850 Total weight food/total weight wood 1.5 1.94 0.93 Total time for cooking rice to simmer (minutes) 29 - 34 32 Conclusion: in the same period of time, with less used wood (955 to 1235 gram), gasifier stove can cook the same weight of food as the traditional open fire with 2000 gram. 27 28. Part two 1 Creation of Design 2 Design for manufacturing 3 Factory planning 4 Further expand project recommendation 28 29. Productivity (to generate charcoal) Life time Indoor usable Low cost Rapid heat transfer Safety Portable Easy to ignite Cleanliness Machinable Flexible with various biomass Easy to remove charcoal Product requirement and technical specific 29 30. Evaluation for best solution Rocket stove TLUD stove Anila stove 30 31. No Requirement Weight