women’s movements of the 1920s and the 1960s women’s movements of the 1920s and the 1960s

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  • Womens movements of the 1920s and the 1960s Womens movements of the 1920s and the 1960s
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  • 1920s 1920s
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  • BackgroundBackground Historically, women have been considered intellectually inferior to men. They were seen as major sources of temptation and evil. Women were also considered naturally weaker than men
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  • FlappersFlappers
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  • FlappersFlappers These women challenged traditional American values. Characteristics of a Flapper: Short, bobbed hair Short hems on their skirts Listened to Jazz music Wore makeup Drank hard liquor Smoked cigarettes Treating sex in a more casual manner Were opposed to the conventional social and sexual norms
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  • 19 th Amendment The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. It was ratified on August 18 th, 1920.
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  • Alice Paul She was the head of National Womens Party. Felt that the 19 th Amendment wasnt enough. Pushed for an Equal Rights Amendment to be added to the constitution. January 11th, 1885- July 9th, 1977
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  • The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) Men and women shall have equal rights throughout the United States and every place subject to its jurisdiction. It was first introduced to Congress in 1923. Made all forms of discrimination based on sex illegal. Never passed in Congress.
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  • Margaret Sanger In 1921, she founded the American Birth Control League (ABCL) Today known as Planned Parenthood In 1923, she established the Clinical Research Bureau. The first legal birth control clinic in the U.S. Women were then able to control their own bodies. This movement educated women about existing birth control methods. A 1936, a Supreme Court decision declassified birth control information as obscene.
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  • Woman was created to be man's helpmeet, but her unique role is in conception... since for other purposes men would be better assisted by other men." --Thomas Aquinas, 13 th century Christian theologian
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  • Adkins v. Childrens Hospital 1923 The Supreme Court decided that a minimum wage for women violated the right to freedom of contract. William Howard Taft was the Chief Justice
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  • EducationEducation By 1928, women were earning 39% of the college degrees given in the United States. It had risen from the original 19% it was at the beginning of the century. Example: In 1926, Sarah Lawrence College was founded as an all girls school
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  • Pink Collared Jobs Gave women a taste of the work world. Low paying service occupations. Made less money than men did doing the same jobs. Examples of jobs: Secretaries Teachers Telephone operators Nurses
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  • Pink Collared Jobs Women were confined to traditional feminine fields in the work force. The new professional women was the most vivid and widely publicized image in the 1920s. But in reality, most middle class married women remained at home to care for their children.
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  • 1960s1960s
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  • BackgroundBackground The Women's Rights Movement of the 1960s was a second wave of activism. The women's movement of the 1960s drew inspiration from the civil rights movement It was made up of members of the middle class It was also caused by the sexual revolution of the 1960s Sparked by the development of the birth-control pill in 1960 Martin Luther King Jr. giving his "I Have A Dream, 1963
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  • Background Cont Sexual assault and domestic violence became central targets of women's activism The crime of rape begins to increase in numbers Rape is sex without consent, both legally and socially Susan Brownmiller's book, Against Her Will, examines the history of rape Feminists work to create domestic violence shelters and rape crisis hotlines
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  • Glass Ceiling Ceiling represents limiting upward advancements (not allowing women in upper management) "glass" (transparent) because the limitation is not immediately apparent and is normally an unwritten and unofficial policy.
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  • Betty Friedan Wrote the book, Feminine Mystique in 1963. In her book, she depicted the roles of women in industrial societies. She focused most of her attention on the housewife role of women. She referred to the problem of gender roles as "the problem without a name". The book became a bestseller and was the cause for the second wave of feminism in the 60s. Feb. 4th, 1921- Feb. 4th, 2006 Write this Down
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  • The problem that has no name which is simply the fact that American women are kept from growing to their full human capacitiesis taking a far greater toll on the physical and mental health of our country than any known disease. -- Betty Friedan
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  • National Organization for Women (NOW) Founded in 1966. Founded by a group of people, including Betty Friedan, and Rev. Pauli Murray. The first African- American woman Episcopal priest. Betty Friedan became the organization's first president. Write this Down
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  • NOW (cont.) The goal of NOW is to bring about equality for all women. They campaigned to gain passage of the ERA amendment at the state level. Issues NOW deals with: works to eliminate discrimination and harassment in the workplace, schools, and the justice system. secure abortion, birth control and reproductive rights for all women end all forms of violence against women promote equality and justice in society.
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  • Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) The Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) was a proposed amendment to the United States Constitution which was intended to guarantee that equal rights under any federal, state or local law could not be denied on account of sex. Senate and House passed bill but states did not ratify it. Write this Down
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  • ERA opposed Phyllis Schlafly- leader of the stop ERA movement Women's libbers are trying to make wives and mothers unhappy with their career, make them feel that they are "second-class citizens" and "abject slaves." Women's libbers are promoting free sex instead of the "slavery" of marriage. They are promoting Federal "day-care centers" for babies instead of homes. They are promoting abortions instead of families. Write this Down
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  • First national Commission on the Status of Women President Kennedy established the first national Commission on the Status of Women in 1961. In 1963 the commission issued a report detailing employment discrimination, unequal pay, legal inequality, and insufficient support services for working women.
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  • Equal Pay Act 1963 It is the first federal law prohibiting sexual discrimination. In 1963 the average female workers wages in the United States were equivalent to 58.9 % of the average male workers earnings. It abolished wage differences based on sex. No employer having employees subject to any provisions of this section [section 206 of title 29 of the United States Code] shall discriminate, within any establishment in which such employees are employed, between employees on the basis of sex by paying wages to employees in such establishment at a rate less than the rate at which he pays wages to employees of the opposite sex in such establishment for equal work on jobs -- Equal Pay Act Raised womens pay from 60% to 80% by 2004. Bureau of Labor Statistics
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  • The Civil Rights Act of 1964 Passed in 1964. It banned discrimination on the basis of color, race, national origin, religion, or sex. Section VII (called Title VII) set up the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) to enforce the act. Put in bill to help get it defeated by making it look ridiculous.
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  • EEOCEEOC The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is a federal agency charged with ending employment discrimination. The EEOC investigates discrimination complaints based on an individual's race, color, national origin, religion, sex, age, disability and retaliation for reporting and/or opposing a discriminatory practice. The Commission is also tasked with filing suits on behalf of alleged victim(s) of discrimination against employers and as an adjudicatory for claims of discrimination brought against federal agencies
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  • Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) Estelle Griswold was the executive director of Planned Parenthood League. The case involved a Connecticut law that prohibited the use of contraceptives. Ruled that the Constitution protected a right to privacy. Found that Connecticut should allow married couples to use birth control. Incorporation Doctrine used Chief Justice Earl Warren (top), Estelle Griswold (right)
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  • Roe v. Wade Supreme court case that assured women the right to legal abortion. Prior to Roe several states outlawed or restricted abortions. Decision made on the right to privacy in the 14 th Amendment. Write this Down
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  • Other movements Other movements
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  • Latino and Native America Civil Rights mo