Women in the French Revolution Women in the French Revolution.

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<ul><li><p>Women in the French Revolution</p></li><li><p>What was the role of women in the French Revolution? </p></li><li><p>The French Revolution1789-1798</p></li><li><p>The Cultural ClimateLiberty! Equality! Fraternity! Enlightenment ideals. The term citizen becomes more widely used, instead of gender specific titles.</p></li><li><p>Female Soldiers</p></li><li><p>The Intervention of the Sabine Women by David</p></li><li><p>Throigne de Mericourt 1762-1817Participated in the uprising of August 10th. I was at ease playing the role of a man because I was always extremely humiliated by the servitude and prejudices under which mens pride keeps our sex oppressed.</p></li><li><p>Rene BordereauBecame known as the Vendean Joan of ArcFought against the Republicans to avenge the deaths of 42 of her family members on the Royalist sideLater imprisoned by Emperor Napoleon</p></li><li><p>Other Female SoldiersFranoise DeprsMessenger, provisioner, troop leaderEasily recognized because she was missing an eye so she was often imprisonedJeanne RobinKept her sex a complete secretOnly told her generals wife because she needed a lighter weight jacket but couldnt ask him without giving up her cover</p></li><li><p>The October DaysOctober 5, 1789Market-women from Paris marched to the palace in VersaillesAngry over the increase in bread prices and food shortagesTear out the Queens heart and fry her liver!</p></li><li><p>Feminists</p></li><li><p>Mary Wollstonecraft 1759-1797A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1791)</p></li><li><p>A Vindication of the Rights of WomanCivilized women are, therefore, so weakened by false refinement, that, respecting morals, their condition is much below what it would be were they left in a state nearer to nature To remain, it may be said, innocent; they mean in a state of childhood Fragile in every sense of the word, they are obliged to look up to man for every comfort if fear in girls, instead of being cherished, perhaps, created, were treated in the same manner as cowardice in boys, we should quickly see women with more dignified aspects I do not wish them to have power over men; but over themselves</p></li><li><p>Olympe de Gouges 1748 - 1793Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen(1791)</p></li><li><p>From De Gouges Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female CitizenWoman, wake up discover your rights.Oh, women, women! When will you cease to be blind?Regardless of what barriers confront you, it is in your power to free yourselves; you have only to want toI offer a foolproof way to elevate the soul of women; it is to join them to all the activities of manMan Tell me, what gives you sovereign empire to oppress my sex?</p></li><li><p>Aims of the Declaration of the Rights of WomanEducation for womenEqual opportunities for womenIn employment A claim to land Equality for women in the eyes of the lawWomen must receive equal punishments </p></li><li><p>Aims, ContinuedA social contract between men and women in marriageAll wealth is sharedIn the case of separation all property dividedWomen and men equal in a marriage Womens suffrageA national assembly of womenEqual rights for womenNatural rightsFreedom of speech</p></li><li><p>Other FeministsEtta PalmPetitioned for education and legal rights for womenClaire LacombeOrganized a club of Revolutionary Republican Citizenesses</p></li><li><p>Womens Petition to the National Assembly (1789)All the privileges of the male sex are irrevocably abolished throughout France.The feminine sex will always enjoy the same liberty, advantages, rights and honors as does the masculine sex.The masculine genre will no longer be regarded as the more noble genre all being should be and are equally noble. In the household both parties should enjoy the same authority</p></li><li><p>Womens Petition, ContinuedThat wearing breeches will no longer be the exclusive prerogative of the male sex, but each sex will have the rightWhen a soldier has compromised French honor, he will no longer be degraded [by] making him wear womens clothingAll persons of the feminine sex must be admitted without exception to the direct and departmental assembliesThey can also be appointed as MagistratesThe same applies to all positions, compensations, and military dignitiesNor do we hesitate to open the sanctuary to the feminine sex</p></li><li><p>Petition of Women of the Third Estate to the KingWritten in respectful, polite terms, insisting changes, not demanding them (January 1, 1789)Better educationRepresentation for womenJobs which would open only to women, so prostitution would endResented that daughters were treated differently than sons and that old unmarried women were scornedWe ask to be enlightened, to have work, not in order to usurp mens authority, but in order to be better esteemed</p></li><li><p>Charlotte CordayGirondin supporter who killed Jacobin Jean-Paul Marat on July 13, 1793</p></li><li><p>The MurderCorday sent a note to Marat earlier saying, I come from Caen. Your love for your country should make you curious to know about the plots that are taking place there. I will await your answer.This note did grab Marats attention and though he was very sick, he let Corday in to see himCorday told him the names of traitors and then stabbed him in the chest</p></li><li><p>The AftermathJust after Corday stabbed Marat, his friend rushed into the bathroomA man sitting downstairs waiting for an article from Marat heard the commotion and assumed Marat had been attacked. When Corday got downstairs, this man hit her over the head with a chairFour days later Corday was tried and guillotined</p></li><li><p>The Trial and ExecutionIn a conversation between the prosecutor (P) and Corday (C): P Why did you kill Marat? Who inspired you with so much hatred for him? C I didnt need the hatred of others. I had plenty of my own. P But what did you hope to gain from killing him? C I killed one man to save a thousand. P Do you think there was only one Marat? C No, but by killing him I have warned the others. His death will frighten the rest of them. Charlotte Corday en Prison by Jacques-Louis Muller</p></li><li><p>Charlotte Corday by Paul Jacques Aim Baudry</p></li><li><p>Death of Maratby David</p></li><li><p>Supporting MenEmmanuel SiyesThe Marquis de Condorcet (Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat)</p></li><li><p>Opposing MenJean-Jacques Rousseau Pierre-Gaspard Chaumette</p></li><li><p>Jean-Baptiste-Andr Amar (1755-1816)From The Report of Amar, October 21, 1793Can women exercise political rights and take an active part in the affairs of government? Can they deliberate together in political associations or popular societies?On these two questions the committee decided in the negative.[It] demands a devotion without limits Are women capable of these cares and of the qualities that governance demands?In general, we can respond no. Very few examples would contradict this</p></li><li><p>From The Report of Amar, ContinuedCan women devote themselves to these useful and difficult functions? No, because they would be obliged to sacrifice the more important cares to which nature calls them.Each sex is called to a type of occupation which is fitting; its action is circumscribed within this circle which it cannot break through, because nature which has set the limits for man commands imperiously and does not recognize any law.</p></li><li><p>From The Report of Amar, Continued IIIn general, women are ill suited for elevated conceptions and serious meditations would you wish for them to be seen coming to the bar, to the tribune, to political assemblies like men, abandoning both reserve, the source of all virtues of their sex, and the care of their family? In general, women are ill suited for elevated conceptions and serious meditations would you wish for them to be seen coming to the bar, to the tribune, to political assemblies like men, abandoning both reserve, the source of all virtues of their sex, and the care of their family?</p></li><li><p>From The Report of Amar, Continued IIIThere is another respect in which associations of women appear dangerousTheir presence in popular societies would give therefore then an active part in government to persons more exposed to error and to seduction. Let us add that women are disposed by their organization to an excess excitement which would be deadly in public affairs and that the interests of the state would soon be sacrificed to all that the intensity of passion can produce in errors and disorder. </p></li><li><p>Improvements for Women Made During the RevolutionMen and women were equally eligible to inherit propertyDivorce legalized (so a woman could also choose to end a marriage)In a divorce, women had a right to some of the common propertyA system of education was created for both boys and girls</p><p>Though women were obviously not given the vote during this time, just the fact that it was discussed shows the respect women gained.</p><p>flags: http://www.draxysoft.com/wallpapers/NationalFlags/Some saw female soldiers were seen as unnatural women, or traitors to their sexHowever, as David portrayed them, some saw them as heroines, protecting their family </p><p>picture: http://www.paintingstogo.com/david/intervention_of_the_sabine_women.jpg</p><p>She put on a National Guard Uniform and fought, pretending to be a man.</p><p>Mericourt picture: http://www.aei.ca/~anbou/mericourt.html Cannon picture: http://sitenshop.com.au/shop-sandtopia_com_au--23She surprised people with her acts, because she did not hide that she was a women.She naturally preferred to wear mens clothing and fight, which led many to believe she was a lesbian. </p><p>Bordereau picture: From Blood Sisters, by Marilyn YalomCannon picture: http://sitenshop.com.au/shop-sandtopia_com_au--23Cannon picture: http://sitenshop.com.au/shop-sandtopia_com_au--23</p><p>6000 people in totalMarched from 11 AM 5:30 PMThis was the last uprising before Louis, in tears, gave into the August Decrees and the Declaration of the Rights of ManChaos continued until 2 AM the next dayAt 5:30 a group of the women snuck into the inner courtyard led by Nicolas Jourdan, a model from the Academy of Painting and Sculpture.With swords and axes they planned to kill Marie Antoinette but she escapedThey wanted to tear out the queens heart and fry her liver!By this time there were even more people in the courtyard, holding the impaled severed heads of two murdered royal bodyguardsThe End: Louis went out to see the people, but they demanded Marie AntoinetteThe crowd was impressed at her courage</p><p>Women marching picture: http://194.3.120.243/humanities//y9/student_work/hannah/English/Main%20Events/womans_march_to_versailles.htmBread picture: http://www.seasonbyseason.com/pantry/ingredients/bread.html </p><p>She was married to Gilbert Imlay and gave birth to daughter Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (writer of Frankenstein) Imlay left her and she attempted suicideShe believed women were equally intelligent and rational as men and it is simply a womans poor education which resulted in their silly and emotional behaviors.She argued that if women had equal education, everything else would follow, including equal marriages.</p><p>Mary Wollstonecraft picture: http://www.uua.org/uuhs/duub/articles/marywollstonecraft.htmlWritten in response to the implication of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen that women were inferior and did not deserve the same rights given to men (by leaving them out).Writing this led to her being charged with treason and executed by the guillotine on November 3, 1793.</p><p>Picture of Olympe de Gouges: http://www.dadalos.org/deutsch/Menschenrechte/Grundkurs_MR3/frauenrechte/woher/portraets/olympe_de_gouges.htm</p><p>Pencil picture: http://www.clipartheaven.com/clipart/education_&amp;_schools/cartoons/Pencil picture: http://www.clipartheaven.com/clipart/education_&amp;_schools/cartoons/Pencil picture: http://www.clipartheaven.com/clipart/education_&amp;_schools/cartoons/Written shortly after the October 1789 march of the market women to VersaillesThe October Days led many women to feel they could be involvedShe was 24 when she murdered MaratShe was a supporter of the Girondins, who liked the Revolution but didnt like violenceAs the Revolution got more radical, she hear about brutality and blamed Marat for the Reign of TerrorShe was even more angry for the execution of King Louis and the arrest of the Girondins.</p><p>Corday picture: http://www.encyclopedie-enligne.com/c/ch/charlotte_corday.htmlDagger picture: Powerpoint ClipartGuillotine picture: Powerpoint ClipartSo many people wanted to see Corday being taken to the guillotine that the cart she was carried in went out of the way to go through many small streets.At the guillotine Cordays executor blocked her view of the guillotine so she wouldnt have to face it but she asked him to move because she wanted to inspect it. </p><p>Charlotte Corday en Prison: http://www.vimoutiers.net/charlotte_cordayeng.htm</p><p>Picture of Corday and Marat: http://www.safran-arts.com/42day/art/art4jan/art0117.html This note in Marats left hand is from Charlotte Corday, reading, I am being persecuted for the sake of liberty.</p><p>Death of Marat: http://www.usc.edu/schools/annenberg/asc/projects/comm544/library/images/144.htmlThey publicly supported womens causes and agreed that women were equally intelligent to men and should be equal under the law</p><p>Marquis de Condorcet picture: http://www.raffiniert.ch/scondorcet.htmlEmmanuel Sieyes picture: www.wikipedia.comChaumette: Since when is it permitted to give up ones sex? Since when is it decent to see women abandoning the pious cares of their households, the cribs of their children It is to men that nature confided domestic cares? Has she given us breasts to feed our children?</p><p>Chaumette picture: www.wikipedia.comRousseau picture: http://www.axonais.com/saintquentin/musee_lecuyer/graphs/rousseau.jpg</p><p>Amars report led to a decree outlawing womens societies He is also known as Jean-Pierre-Andre AmarHe was president of the National Convention between April 5th and 20th in 1794How did these improvements last/change during the Napoleonic Era?The Code Napoleon (1804)Wife must be obedient, subservient to husbandWife is not a person without her husband, she is treated like a minorWife cannot give, pledge, or acquire by free or chargeable title, without the concurrence of her husband in the act, or his consent in writing.In a divorce, the children automatically go to the father Paternal powerA married woman cannot make donation during life without the assistance or the special consent of her husband.The husband alone administers the property of the community. He may sell it, alienate and pledge it without the concurrence of his wife.Wife doesnt have any right to the money she and her husband have, she is simply given an allowance. </p></li></ul>

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