wisdom (and folly) of the crowds

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Wisdom (and Folly) of the CrowdsJessica Keup

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OutlineDefinitionsUsesPros/ConsCrowdsourcing MarketplacesCrowdsourcing Research

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HistoryCrowdsourcing is a method of solving problems with, and outsourcing work, to the collective online intelligence

James Surowiecki - The Wisdom of Crowds, 2005

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HistoryRemember outsourcing? Sending jobs to India and China is so 2003. The new pool of cheap labor: everyday people using their spare cycles to create content, solve problems, even do corporate R & D.

Jeff Howe - The Rise of Crowdsourcing, 2006

Crowdsourcing vs . . .Outsourcing work given to pre-decided person or groupOpen Sourceinitiated by public, not a client

Examples?Digg/Reddit iStockPhoto Netflix prizeThreadlessReCAPTCHAGoogle image labelerEquitySplash / Piqqem

Rewards?6

Best UsesImage taggingSearch relevance evaluationContent generationProduct categorizationCollecting feedback and reviewsTranscriptions

ProsLabor at reduced costAround-the-clockHuge potential workforceVariety of opinions, ideas, experienceConsensus and better answers

ConsCheating/manipulation

Inexperience/ignorance

Confidentiality

Solving captchas9

FixesCheating/manipulationcorroboration, ratingsInexperience/ignorancequalification testsConfidentiality?

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Crowdsourcing MarketplacesCrowdFlowerMechanical TurkCloud Crowd BootbcrowdSPRING Innocentive TopCoder Kluster

11MicropaymentsAll pay auctions

mTurkArtificial Artificial IntelligenceHuman Intelligence Tasks (HITs)$0.00 and up, mostly a few centsSDKs in Java, Ruby, Perl, .NETOr, create through website UI*

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Training AIComputer Music Composition using Crowdsourcing and Genetic AlgorithmsDarwinTunes

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Research Examplescollecting creative drawings rating audio and video sample quality tagging location-sensitive queries and points of interest with mobile devices remote massage task delegation in Wikipedia collecting volunteer expertise to help the homeless annotating political campaign ads

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More Research examplesdescribing and organizing geometric shapes*tracking popular music rating search result relevance collecting user feedback extracting product and brand information tagging specific objects in an imagetraining speech recognition software

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Questions?

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ReferencesAlonso, O., Rose, D.E., and Stewart, B. (2008). Crowdsourcing for Relevance Evaluation. SIGIR Forum 42(2) 9-15. Amazon.com, Inc. (2010). Amazon Mechanical Turk. https://www.mturk.com/mturk/welcome. CastingWords (2010). Audio transcription services: plus video, CDs, podcasts and more. http://castingwords.com/ Chung, K., Chiu, C., Xiao, X., & Chi, P. (2009). Stress outsourced: A haptic social network via crowdsourcing. Paper presented at the CHI EA '09: Proceedings of the 27th International Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Boston, MA, USA. 2439-2448.DarwinTunes (2010). Welcome to DarwinTunes. http://darwintunes.org/Ganjisaffar, Y., Javanmardi, S., & Lopes, C. (2009). Leveraging crowdsourcing heuristics to improve search in wikipedia. Paper presented at theWikiSym '09: Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration,Orlando, Florida. 1-2.Harper, F. M., Raban, D., Rafaeli, S. & Konstan, J. A. (2008). Predictors of answer quality in online Q & A sites. Paper presented at the CHI '08: Proceeding of the Twenty-Sixth Annual SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Florence, Italy. 865-874.Hintikka, K. A. (2008). Web 2.0 and the collective intelligence. Paper presented at the MindTrek '08: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Entertainment and Media in the Ubiquitous Era, Tampere, Finland. 163-166.Howe, J. (2006). The Rise of Crowdsourcing. Wired, 14(6). http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/14.06/crowds.html.

More ReferencesHsueh, P., Melville, P., & Sindhwani, V. (2009). Data quality from crowdsourcing: A study of annotation selection criteria. Paper presented at theHLT '09: Proceedings of the NAACL HLT 2009 Workshop on Active Learning for Natural Language Processing,Boulder, Colorado. 27-35.Jagadeesan, A. P., Lynn, A., Corney, J. R., Yan, X. T., Wenzel, J., Sherlock, A., et al. (2009). Geometric reasoning via internet CrowdSourcing. Paper presented at theSPM '09: 2009 SIAM/ACM Joint Conference on Geometric and Physical Modeling,San Francisco, California. 313-318.Kittur, A., Chi, ,E. H., & Suh, B. (2008). Crowdsourcing user studies with mechanical turk. Paper presented at the CHI '08: Proceeding of the Twenty-Sixth Annual SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Florence, Italy. 453-456. Koblin, A. M. (2009). The sheep market. Paper presented at theC&C '09: Proceeding of the Seventh ACM Conference on Creativity and Cognition,Berkeley, California, USA. 451-452.Krieger, M., Stark, E. M., & Klemmer, S. R. (2009). Coordinating tasks on the commons: Designing for personal goals, expertise and serendipity. Paper presented at theCHI '09: Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems,Boston, MA, USA. 1485-1494.Ledlie, J., Odero, B., Minkov, E., Kiss, I., & Polifroni, J. (2009). Crowd translator: On building localized speech recognizers through micropayments.SIGOPS Operating.Systems Review,43(4), 84-89.Li, C., Buyuktur, A. G., Hutchful, D. K., Sant, N. B., & Nainwal, S. K. (2008). Portalis: Using competitive online interactions to support aid initiatives for the homeless. Paper presented at theCHI '08: CHI '08 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems,Florence, Italy. 3873-3878.

Even More ReferencesMannes, A. E. (2009). Are we wise about the wisdom of crowds? the use of group judgments in belief revision.Management Science,55(8), 1267-1279.Mason, W., & Watts, D. J. (2009). Financial incentives and the performance of crowds. Paper presented at theHCOMP '09: Proceedings of the ACM SIGKDD Workshop on Human Computation,Paris, France. 77-85.Milne, D., & Witten, I. H. (2008). Learning to link with wikipedia. Paper presented at theCIKM '08: Proceedings of the 17th ACM Conference on Information and Knowledge Management,Napa Valley, California, USA. 509-518.Roman, D. (2009). Crowdsourcing and the question of expertise.Commnuications of the.ACM,52(12), 12-12.Stewart, O., Huerta, J. M., & Sader, M. (2009). Designing crowdsourcing community for the enterprise. Paper presented at theHCOMP '09: Proceedings of the ACM SIGKDD Workshop on Human Computation,Paris, France. 50-53.Su, Q., Pavlov, D., Chow, J., & Baker, W. C. (2007). Internet-scale collection of human-reviewed data. Paper presented at the WWW '07: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on World Wide Web, Banff, Alberta, Canada. 231-240.Surowiecki, J. (2005). The wisdom of crowds. Anchor.Tanaka, A., Tokui, N., & Momeni, A. (2005). Facilitating collective musical creativity. Paper presented at theMULTIMEDIA '05: Proceedings of the 13th Annual ACM International Conference on Multimedia, Hilton, Singapore. 191-198.Von Ahn L., & Dabbish, L. (2004). Labeling images with a computer game. Paper presented at the CHI '04: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Vienna, Austria. 319-326.

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