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WIRE AND CABLE TECHNICAL INFORMATION HANDBOOK

$80.00 HARDBOUND $50.00 SOFTBOUND

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Anixter Inc. 1996

TRADEMARKS

TrademarksThe following registered trademarks appear in this handbook:Alumel is a registered trademark of Hoskins Mfg. Co. Chromel is a registered trademark of Hoskins Mfg. Co. Constantan is a registered trademark of Hoskins Mfg. Co. CSA is a registered trademark of the Canadian Standards Association Ethernet is a registered trademark of Xerox Flamarrest is a registered trademark of Belden Inc. Halar is a registered trademark of Ausimont, Inc. Hypalon is a registered trademark of E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co. IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corp. Kevlar is a registered trademark of E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co. K FIBER is a registered trademark of BICC Kynar is a registered trademark of Atochem, Inc. Megger is a registered trademark of AVO International Mylar is a registered trademark of E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co. NEC is a registered trademark of the National Fire Protection Association Nicrosil is a registered trademark of Hoskins Mfg. Co. Nisil is a registered trademark of Hoskins Mfg. Co. Scotchlok is a registered trademark of 3M Solef is a registered trademark of Solvay ST is a registered trademark of AT&T Teflon is a registered trademark of E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co. Tefzel is a registered trademark of E. I. duPont de Nemours & Co. UL is a registered trademark of Underwriters Laboratories Inc. UniBlend is a registered trademark of BICC UniShield is a registered trademark of BICC Unistrand is a registered trademark of Belden Inc. Valox is a registered trademark of General Electric Co. Z-Fold is a registered trademark of Belden Inc.

3RD Edition 1st Printing ISBN 0-9638139-0-0 (Hardbound) ISBN 0-9638139-1-9 (Softbound)

Anixter Inc. 1996

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INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTIONInformation in this handbook has been drawn from authoritative sources in their latest available editions. These include publications of: American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), Canadian Standards Association (CSA), Electronic Industries Association/Telecommunications Industry Association (EIA/TIA), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), Insulated Cable Engineers Association (ICEA), National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA), National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), Underwriters Laboratories (UL), U.S. Navy Naval Ship Engineering Center (NAVSEC) and from many publications of the leading wire and cable companies in the industry. National Electrical Code (NEC) is a registered trademark of the National Fire Protection Association, Inc., Quincy, MA for a triennial electrical publication. The term, National Electrical Code, as used herein means the triennial publication constituting the National Electrical Code and is used with permission of the National Fire Protection Association, Inc. All due concern has been devoted to accuracy but Anixter Inc. cannot be responsible for errors, omissions or obsolescence. All data herein are subject to change without notice. Anixter Inc. does not manufacture the items described in this handbook. Users are requested to determine directly from the manufacturers tests or to make their own tests to determine the suitability of these materials for their application and to be guided by the results of such tests. All applicable warranties are provided by the manufacturer. Purchasers are requested to determine directly from the manufacturer the applicable product warranty and limitations. Data and suggestions made in this publication are not to be construed as recommendations to use any product in violation of government law or regulation relating to any material or its use.

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Anixter Inc. 1996

CONTRIBUTORS

CONTRIBUTORSWe wish to acknowledge the contributions of the many individuals who assisted in the preparation of this edition of the handbook. We especially want to recognize the efforts of Deborah Altman, Illia Baker, Randy Clark, Mark Fordham, Jeff Gronemeyer, Vince Halloran, Mark Latz, Tom McMillan, Mitch Milford, Salvatrice Scharpenberg, George Spisak, Ron Vollink and Lance Wright. W. D. Wilkens, Editor

Anixter Inc. 1996

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PREFACE

PREFACEAnixter Inc. was founded in 1957 as a specialized distributor of electrical and electronic wire and cable. Today Anixter is a specialist in the supply of wiring systems for the transmission of voice, data, video, and power with an international network of service centers. Anixter Inc. is a wholly owned subsidiary of Anixter International. For over three decades, Anixter has been a major supplier of power, control, and instrumentation cable of business and industry. With the emergence of data communications, word processing, the electronic office, and local area networks, Anixter fills your need as a one-stop source for cable and hardware. To assure product availability and on-time delivery, Anixter has linked its service centers and sales offices throughout North and South America, Europe, Asia and Australia with the most modern on-line real time Business Information system available. Anixter provides its customers with its exclusive Action electronic order entry and inquiry system. Call your nearest Anixter location for more information. This handbook is designed to be a useful collection of engineering and technical information on electrical and optical wire and cable and related products. It is primarily intended for those individuals who design, specify, or troubleshoot wire and cable systems. We have tried to make this handbook the best in the industry and hope we have succeeded. We welcome your comments and suggestions for improvement in future editions. Anixter Inc. Wire & Cable Group 1996

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Anixter Inc. 1996

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CONTENTSPage

Contributors Preface 1. Basic Principles of Electricity 2. Conductors 3. Insulation and Jacket Materials 4. Shields 5. Armor 6. Cable Types and Selection Criteria 7. Electrical Characteristics 8. Installation and Testing 9. Connectors, Lugs & Terminations 10. Packaging of Wire and Cable 11. Standards and Specifications 12. Conversion Tables 13. Formulas and Constants 14. Continental Europe 15. United Kingdom 16. Latin and South America

iv v 1 5 27 49 55 59 85 105 135 151 163 205 221 229 261 271

Anixter Inc. 1996

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT)

CONTENTS17. Canada 18. Asia and the Pacific Rim Glossary Index 275 289 297 325

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Anixter Inc. 1996

1. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY1.1 Electricity

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1.1 Electricity 1.1 Electricity 1.2 The Volt 1.2 The Volt 1.3 The Ampere 1.3 The Ampere 1.4 The Ohm 1.4 The Ohm 1.5 Ohms Law 1.5 Ohms Law 1.6 Ampacity 1.6 Ampacity 1.7 Electrical Systems 1.7 Electrical Systems

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1. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY

1.1 ElectricityElectricity, simply put, is the flow of electric current along a conductor. This electric current takes the form of free electrons which transfer from one atom to the next. Thus, the more free electrons a material has, the better it conducts. There are three parameters involved in the electrical equation: the volt, the ampere, and the ohm.

1.2 The VoltThe pressure that is put on free electrons that causes them to flow is known as electromotive force (EMF). The volt is the unit of pressure, i.e., the volt is the amount of electromotive force required to push a current of one ampere through a conductor with a resistance of one ohm.

1.3 The AmpereThe ampere defines the flow rate of electric current. For instance, when one coulomb (or 6 1018 electrons) flows past a given point on a conductor in one second, it is defined as a current of one ampere.

1.4 The OhmThe ohm is the unit of resistance in a conductor. Three things determine the amount of resistance in a conductor: its size, its material, e.g., copper or aluminum, and its temperature. A conductors resistance increases as its length increases or diameter decreases. The more conductive the materials used, the lower the conductor resistance becomes. Conversely, a rise in temperature will generally increase resistance in a conductor.

Anixter Inc. 1996

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1. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY

1.5 Ohms LawOhms Law expresses the correlation between electric current (I), voltage (V), and resistance (R) in a conductor. Ohms Law can be expressed as: VIR Where: V volts I amps R ohms

1.6 AmpacityAmpacity is the amount of current a conductor can handle before its temperature exceeds accepted limits. These limits are given in the National Electrical Code (NEC), the Canadian Electrical Code, and in other engineering documents such as those published by the Insulated Cable Engineers Assocation (ICEA). It is important to know that many external factors affect the ampacity of an electrical conductor and these factors should be taken into consideration before selecting the conductor size.

1.7 Electrical SystemsThe most widely used medium voltage (5 to 35 kV) alternating current (AC) electrical distribution systems in North America are illustrated below:

Figure 1.1Three phase wye (star) Three wire

Figure 1.2Three phase delta Three wire

Figure 1.3Three phase star Four wire, grounded neutral

Typical low voltage systems are illustrated below:

Figure 1.4Three phase wye (star) Three wire, grounded neutral

Figure 1.5Three phase delta Four wire, grounded midpoint

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Anixter Inc. 1996

2. CONDUCTORS2.1 Strand Types

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2.1 Strand Ty

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