wild & woolly winter 2012

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Wild & Woolly is a quarterly newsletter for sheep and goat producers. It is published by University of Maryland Extension.

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  • I N S I D E T H I S I S S U E :

    Pasture vs. Pen-Fed Goats

    2

    Hoof Diseases in Sheep and Goats

    3

    Wanted: Bucks for Per-formance Testing

    4

    Using Grain to Improve Goat Carcass Quality and Value

    5

    Webinars - Sheep and Goat Nutrition and Feed-ing

    5

    Ewe and Doe Management

    6

    2012 Shearing School for Beginners

    6

    Sheep and Goat Produc-tion in Brazil

    7

    Another Successful Lambing & Kidding School

    8

    UMCP Sheep Flock - 2011 Recap

    8

    Recipe - BAAAAA Sliders

    9

    New Source for McMas-ter Slides

    9

    Featured Web Site 9

    2012 Jr. Sheep & Wool Skillathon

    10

    Shepherds of the Year 11

    W I N T E R 2 0 1 2 V O L U M E 1 V I S S U E 1 I I

    Wild & Woolly

    Equal access programs University of Maryland Extension programs are open to all citizens without regard to race, color, gender, disability, religion, age, sexual orientation, marital or parental status, or national origin.

    Shearer Headed To New Zealand

    TheUniversityofMarylandExtensionSmallRuminantProgramisnowonFacebookathttp://www.facebook.com/MDSmallRuminant.Facebookisasocialnetworkingwebsite.Youcanaskandanswerquestions,makecom-ments,andshareideas,links,pictures,andvid-eos.Manyfarmersandagriculturalorganiza-tionshaveFacebookpagestopromotetheirproductsandcommunicatewithconsumers.YoucanviewtheSmallRuminantProgramFacebookpagewithoutcreatingafacebookaccount.However,toaddanythingtothepagesuchascommentsoraskaquestionyouwillneedtohaveafacebookaccount.

    Were On Facebook!

    Twenty-sevenyearoldEmilyChamelin,aprofessionalsheepshearerfromWestminster,isheadedtoNewZealandtocompeteintheGoldenShearsInternationalSheepShearingContest.Chamelinwillcompeteinthebladeshearingcontest.Bladeshearingistheold-fashionedwayofshearingsheep.ChamelinqualifiedfortheinternationalcompetitionwhenshewonthebladeshearingcontestatlastyearsMarylandSheep&WoolFestival.Inaddition,sheplaced7thamong18competitorsfromaroundtheworldintheAllIrishNationalCompetition.Chamelinstartedshearingsheepabout10yearsago.Shegotinvolvedwithraisingsheepthrough4-H,eventhoughherfamilyownsadairyfarmwithcowsandgoats.Chamelinhasaflockofabout20sheep.Source:CarrollCountyTimes

    Good Luck Emily!

    Used with permission from Ken Koons/ Carroll County Times Sta Photographer

  • P A G E 2

    W I L D & W O O L L Y

    Acarcasscomparisonstudywasconduct-edinconjunctionwiththe2011WesternMarylandPasture-BasedMeatGoatPer-formanceTest.Severalconsignerstothetestprovidedadditionalgoatsofsimilargeneticsforpen-feedingandcarcasseval-uation.Thecarcassesofninegoatsfromthepas-turetestwerecomparedtothecarcassesofninegoatsthatwerepen-fedadietofhayandgrain.Foreachgoatfromthepas-turetestthatwasharvest-edfordatacollection,apen-fedgoatfromthesameconsignerwasslaughtered.Thepasture-fedgoatsconsumedapasture-onlydiet,withnosupple-mentalfeed,onlyfreechoiceminerals.Theywererotationallygrazedamongsix2-acrepaddocks,plantedinavarietyofwarmandcoolseasongrasses.Theforagewasalwaysample,thoughitsqualitywasnottested.Thepen-fedgoatswereconfinedandhadunlimitedaccesstograsshay.Theywerehand-fedacommercialgoatpellet(ADMGoatPower)onceperday,allthegraintheycouldconsumein20minutes:notmuchatthebeginningofthetest,butal-most1.7lbs.perheadperdaybytheend.Theeighteengoatsconsumedtheirre-spectivedietsfromJune5untilSeptember25.Thepasture-fedgoatsgained0.124lbs.perdayfromJune5untilSeptember15.Duringthesametimeperiod,theaver-agedailygainofthepen-fedgoatswas0.232lbs.perday.Neithergroupexperi-encedclinicalinternalparasitism,butthepen-fedgoatshadmuchlowerfecalegg

    countsandlessdagginessthanthepas-turedgoats.OnSeptember29,thegoatswereweighedandtransportedtoCountryFoods,acus-tom-exemptslaughterhouseinWaynesbo-ro,PA,forsamedayslaughter.Theircar-casseswereweighed,deboned,andmeas-uredsixdayslater.

    Eachcarcasswasseparatedintothreecomponents:lean,fat,andbone.Asam-plefromthelongissimusdorsi(ribeye)musclewascollectedfromeachcarcass.ThesamplesweresenttoOhioStateUni-versitywheretheyarebeinganalyzedfornutritionandfattyacidcomposition.Asexpected,thecarcassesfromthepen-fedgoatswerefatter,asevidencedbyathickerbodywallandhigherpercentagesofkidneyandheart(internal)fatandoverallfat.However,thepen-fedgoatsproducedahigheryieldoffat-free,bone-lessmeat:24.5vs.19.8percent(oftheirliveweight).Thepen-fedgoatsalsohadahigherdressingpercentagethanthepas-ture-raisedgoats:44.4vs.39.4percent.Statisticalanalysisshowedthedierencesinfat,yield,anddressingpercenttobestatisticallysignificant.Whilenumerically

    (Continued on page 6 )

    Pasture vs. Pen-Fed Goats

    Pasture

    Pen-fed Goats

  • P A G E 3

    Thereareseveraldiseasesthatcanaectthehoovesofsheepandgoats.Thethreemostcommonarefootrot,footscald,andfootabscess.Allarecausedbyopportunisticbacteriathatinvadeunhealthytissue.Footrotisaninfectiousdiseasecausedbytheinteractionoftwoanaerobicbacteria:Fusobacterium necrophorumandDichelobacter nodosus.F. necrophorumisfoundinthediges-tivetractandfecesofsheepandgoats.D. nodususisusual-lyintroducedtoafarmviaaninfectedorcarrieranimal.Itcannotsurviveforverylongoutsideaninfectedhoof,on-lyupto14days.Irritationofthehoofsinterdigitaltissue,duetomoistureortrauma,allowsentryofF. necrophorum,resultinginfootscald,aninflammationandreddeningoftheinterdigitaltissue.Footscaldisnotcontagiousandusuallydoesnotinvolvethehornytissueofthehoof.Oncetheinterdigitaltissueisweakened,otherdisease-causingbacteriamayenterthehoofandcausedisease.Actinomycespyogenes,acommonbacteriainsoil,caninter-actwithF. necrophorumtocauseafootabscess.Footab-scessesusuallyonlyaectonehoofordigit.IfD. nodususispresentonthefarm,itcanalsoinvadetheweakenedinterdigitaltissue,releasingproteaseenzymeswhichwilleatawayattheconnectivetissuebetweenthehornyandsoft(fleshy)por-tionsofthehoof,resultinginfootrot.Maggotscanbeaproblemwithseverelyinfect-edhooves.Thereare20dierentstrainsofD. nodosusthatcaninfectsheepandgoats.Thestrainsvaryintheirvirulence.WhengoatsareinfectedwithD. nodosus,theydontusual-lydevelopasseverefootrotsymptomsassheep,whereastheymayexperienceamoresevereformoffootscald,calledbenignfootrotinsomecountries.Infact,thereisevidencetosuggestthatbenignfootrotalsoinvolvesD. nodusus.

    Thepredisposingfactorstoanyhoofdiseasearewarmth(over45F)andmoisture,overgrownhooves,andabnor-malhoofgrowth.Hooftrimmingallowsairtoreachthehoofandeliminatedisease-causingbacteria.Mudandfe-

    V O L U M E 1 V I S S U E 1 I I

    cesarelesslikelybecometrappedinaproperly-trimmedhoof.Animalsthathaveexcessiveorabnor-malhoofgrowthorhavechronichoofdiseaseshouldbeculled.Cullingisashepherdsmostpowerfultoolagainsthoofproblems.

    Itgoeswithoutsayingthathoofdiseasescanaectthehealth,welfare,andperformanceofinfectedanimals.Theycanalsobecostlytotreat,especiallylaborandtheprematurecullingofotherwisegoodlivestock.Thereisnosinglewaytocontroloreradicatefootrotfromaflockorherd.Controland/oreradicationusu-allyinvolvesacombinationofmeasures,whichmayincludehooftrimming,antibioticinjections,topicaltreatments,repetitivefootsoaks,vaccination,isola-tion,andculling.Strictbiosecuritywillpreventthebacteriathatcausesfootrotfromeverestablishingitselfinahealthyflockorherd.Thoughthereareothervectors,theprimarysourceofinfectionisnewly-introducedanimals.Nev-erbuyanimalsfromaflockorherdthathasahistoryofhoofdisease.Isolateallnewpurchasesforatleastthreeweeksandassumetheyareinfectedwithfoot-rot.UniversityofMarylandExtensionhasbeencooperat-ingwithUniversityofMaineExtensiononagrant-fundedprojecttohelpsheep(andgoat)producersintheNortheasteliminatefootrot.Tolearnmoreabouttheproject,visitthewebsiteathttp://extension.maine.edu/sheep.Foralistoflinkspertain-ingtohoofcareanddiseasesvisitmywebsiteathttp://www.sheepandgoat.com/footrot.html.Sidebar:Testyourknowledgeofhoofhealthanddis-easesbytakinganonlinequizww.sheepandgoat.com/Quizzes/Hoofhealthanddiseases/quiz.htmlSidebar:TheUniversityofMaineSheepFootHealthProjectadvocatesafourweekprotocolforeradicatingfootrot.

    Hoof Diseases in Sheep and Goats

    W I L D & W O O L L Y

  • P A G E 4

    W I L D & W O O L L Y

    Tobeeligibleforsale,bucksmustmeetGold,Silver,orBronzestand-ardsofperformanceforgrowthrate,parasiteresistance,andparasitere-silience,andminimumstandardsforstructuralcorrectnessandreproduc-tivesoundness.Detailspertainingtothesaleofthisyearstop-performingbucksarestillbeingworkedout.Eligibility Malegoatsofanybreedorbreedcross,withorwithoutregistrationeligibility,maybeconsignedtothetest.Producersfromanystatemayconsignuptofivegoatstothetest.Atleasttwoarerecommend-ed.Half-sibs(goatswiththesame

    sire)aresuggested.Someproducersmaybeaskedtoprovideadditionalbucksforthecarcasscomparisonstudy.Eligiblegoatsmustweighbetween35and70lbs.upondeliverytothetestsiteonJune2.TheymusthavebeenbornbetweenDecember20,2011,andMarch20,2012(inclusive).Theymusthavebeenweanedforatleasttwoweekspriortothetestandreceivedtwovaccina-tionsforovereatingdisease(clostridium perfringinstypeC&D)andtetanus.Theirhoovesmustbeproperlytrimmedforfootsoaking.ThenominationperiodforthisyearstestisApril1throughMay15.A$20deposit(pergoat)isdueatthetimeofnomination.Itisnotnecessarytoidentifyspe-cificgoatsatthetimeofnomination.Healthpapersarerequiredforadmissiontothegoattest.Informationaboutthegoattest,includingallpertinentdocuments,canbefoundonthegoattestblogathttp://mdgoattest.blogspot.com.SpecificquestionsmaybedirectedtoSusanSchoenianat(301)432-2767x343orsschoen@umd.edu.

    2012willbethe7thyearoftheWest-ernMarylandPasture-BasedMeatGoatPerformanceTest.Lastyearwesawthelargestnumberofbuckstest-ed(80),alongwiththeinitiationofapen-feedingprogramforcarcasscom-parisonpurposes.Thepurposeofthegoattestistoeval-uatetheperformanceofbucklingsconsumingapasture-onlydiet,withnaturalexposuretointernalparasites,primarilythebarberpoleworm.Whil