Wild & Woolly Spring 2014

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Wild & Woolly is a newsletter for sheep and goat producers and anyone else interested in small ruminant production and marketing. It is published quarterly by University of Maryland Extension.


<ul><li><p>I N S I D E T H I S I S S U E : </p><p>Research from the Southern Section of the American Science </p><p>2 </p><p>Scrapie Update 3 </p><p>Goat Twilight Tour &amp; Tasting 3 </p><p>US Sheep, Goat Inventory Declines </p><p>4 </p><p>Webinar Recordings: Sheep &amp; Goat Health </p><p>4 </p><p>Accepting Nominations for 2014 Goat Test </p><p>5 </p><p>Pen vs. Pasture Study Funded for Third Year </p><p>5 </p><p>New Extension Director 6 </p><p>Herbal De-wormer Fails to Control Parasites </p><p>6 </p><p>Preparing for Ethnic Holidays </p><p>7 </p><p>New Resources from NCAT/ATTRA </p><p>7 </p><p>New Product: Electric Hoof Knife </p><p>8 </p><p>Junior Sheep &amp; Goat Skillathon </p><p>8 </p><p>MPWV Spring Educational Conference </p><p>9 </p><p>Recipe: Grilled Lamb Sirloin </p><p>9 </p><p>Abomasal Bloat 10 Calendar of Events 11 </p><p>S P R I N G 2 0 1 4 V O L U M E X I I I I S S U E I I </p><p>Wild &amp; Woolly </p><p>The University of Maryland Extension programs are open to any person and will not discriminate against anyone because of race, age, sex, color, sexual orientation, physical or mental disability, religion, ancestry, national origin, marital status, genetic information, political aliation, and gender identity or expression. </p><p>The National Sheep Im-provement Program (NSIP) is a quantitative genetic selection tool designed to help sheep and goat producers make better breeding decisions. NSIP is in the business of calculating EBVs and helping producers use EBVs to their best advantage. EBV is the acronym for estimated breeding value. An EBV esti-mates the genetic worth of an animal. It is a description of an animals performance as compared to the average of the flock or breed. It predicts future performance of o-spring. What is an EBV? EBVs can be calculated for any trait that can be measured or scored. A variety of EBVs are calculated for sheep and goats. EBVs are usually separated into trait categories, such as growth, reproduction, carcass, and wool. An EBV can also be calculated for disease resistant traits, such as fecal egg counts (parasite resistance). Estimated breeding values are calculated from the animals own performance, perfor-mance from genetically-related traits, and performance of relatives for those traits. The accuracy of EBVs is influenced by several factors, but improves with genetic linkages. </p><p>EBVs are calculated using a computational procedure known as BLUP (Best Linear Un-biased Prediction). Because BLUP takes en-vironmental influences into account, EBVs can be compared across flocks, so long as they are genetically-linked. At the farm level, dierences in manage-ment are accounted for by comparing ani-mals in the same contemporary group. A contemporary group is a group of animals, of similar age, that are fed and managed the same. Large contemporary groups improve the accuracy of EBVs. For small flock own-ers, the size of contemporary groups is a limiting factor. Selection indexes simplify EBVs by combin-ing numerous traits into one number. What traits to include in the selection index and the weight to apply to each trait depends upon the importance of the trait(s) to the breed or production system. For example, the selection index for a maternal breed is very dierent than the selection index for a terminal sire breed. </p><p>Breeding Better Sheep and Goats </p><p> (Continued on Page 11) </p><p>National Webinar Series: NSIP The NSIP Relaunch Committee will be holding a series of webinars in May and June to teach sheep and goat producers about the National Sheep Improvement Program (NSIP). NSIP is a quantitative genetic selection tool designed to help sheep and goat producers make good breeding decisions. </p><p> (Continued on Page 4) </p></li><li><p>P A G E 2 </p><p>W I L D &amp; W O O L L Y </p><p> Research form the Southern Section of the American Society of Animal Science </p><p>hair sheep (St. Croix and Barbados Black-belly) rams. </p><p> At Fort Valley State University (in Geor-gia), lambs and kids fed pelleted sericea lespedeza had lower fecal egg counts and (coccidia) oocytes counts at various times during a 21-day confinement trial. How-ever, there were no dierences in packed cell volume (PCV) and none of the lambs or kids required treatment for coccidio-sis. The researchers were also evaluating the ecacy of sericea lespedeza pellets made in dierent years. They concluded that year may aect pellet ecacy. Seri-cea lespedeza has been shown to be eec-tive at reducing barber pole worm infec-tions in sheep and goats. </p><p> Researchers at Lincoln University (Missouri) found no dierences in perfor-mance and reproduction among Katahdin ewes and fall-calving Angus cows grazing stockpiled endophyte-infected tall fescue when grazed either together or sequentially (sheep followed by cattle). </p><p> Researchers at North Carolina State Uni-versity evaluated the eects of the addi-tion of clovers to tall fescue pastures. Re-search plots included three replications of tall fescue mixed with ladino white clover; tall fescue mixed with red clover; tall fescue fertilized with nitrogen (N); and tall fescue with no additional N. Within each main treatment plot, there were grazed and mowed subplots. In the spring, the plots were grazed by does and their kids. In the fall the plots were grazed by wethers. Average daily gain did not dier in spring or fall, but gain per acre was higher for the clover treat-ments in the spring. White clover fixed more nitrogen than red clover. Unferti-lized fescue had the lowest yield in the spring, whereas white clover had a lower </p><p> Researchers at Virginia State University supplemented hair sheep (St. Croix and Barbados Blackbelly) lambs grazing MaxQ tall fescue pastures with soy hulls at 0, 1, 2 or 3% of their body weight (BW). Body weights and average daily gain (ADG) increased linearly with increasing levels of soy hull supplementation. After 80 days, the lambs consuming 3% soy hulls were approximately 18.5 lbs. heavier than the lambs that did not receive any supple-mentation. Supplementation had no eects on parasites loads, as no lambs required deworming. </p><p> Researchers at Southern University (in Louisiana) are evaluating the impact of sequential grazing on forage production (Bermuda grass pastures) and doe and kid performance. Preliminary data suggest that cattle should follow goats in an inten-sive rotational grazing system. </p><p> At West Virginia University, an experi-ment was conducted to determine the eects of three sources of protein supple-mentation on the growth rate of parasi-tized organic lambs grazing predominant-ly fescue pastures. Forty-five Suolk-cross lambs were supplemented with either 1) alfalfa pellets (1.28% BW); 2) corn and soy-bean meal (1% BW); or 3) corn, soybean meal, and fish meal (1% BW). The results suggest that supplements containing great-er rumen bypass protein (e.g. fish meal) may support higher growth. However, there were no dierences in parasite loads for the lambs receiving the dierent pro-tein supplements. Researchers at Virginia State University evaluated sire breed dierences in preg-nancy rate of hair sheep ewes, following vaginal insemination with liquid semen. While pregnancy rates were lower than in previous trials, Dorset semen produced fewer pregnancies than the semen from </p><p>Vaginal Insemination (image by Virginia State University) </p><p>Recording weights for research </p><p> (Continued on Page 3) </p></li><li><p>P A G E 3 V O L U M E X I I I I S S U E I I </p><p>W I L D &amp; W O O L L Y </p><p>The February 2014 report for the National Scrapie Eradication Program has been posted to www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/animal_diseases/scrapie/downloads/monthly_report.pdf. Published by the U.S. Department of Agricultures Animal and Plant Health Inspec-tion Service (APHIS), the report reviews the current progress of scrapie eradication in the United States. Since the start of Regulatory Scrapie Slaughter Surveillance (RSSS) in fiscal year (FY) 2003, there has been a 90-percent decrease in the number of positive sheep found in samples at slaughter, adjusted for face color. As of Dec. 31, 2013, the percent of cull sheep found positive at slaughter and adjusted for face color was 0.015 percent. Eight source flocks (including two goat herds) and three infected flocks were designated in FY 2013. One source flock and three infected flocks have been designed in FY 2014. Before the United States may be declared scrapie free, remaining cases must be found. Sheep and goats that are slaughtered outside the com-mercial slaughter facilities are being missed in the routine scrapie slaughter surveillance. Submission of samples from sheep/goats over 18 months of age found dead or euthanized on farms is critically important. Without these submissions, scrapie-infected animals will go undetected, costing the sheep and goat industries anywhere from $10 million to $20 million annually. To learn more about submitting samples, visit www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/animal_diseases/scrapie/gen_submission.shtml. </p><p>Source: ASI Weekly News, March 24, 2014 </p><p> Goat Twilight Tour and Tasting </p><p>On Thursday, July 31 from 5:30 p.m. until dark, there will a Goat Twilight Tour and Tasting at the University of Marylands Western Maryland Research &amp; Education Center in Keedysville. In addition to wagon tours of the buck test and pen vs. pasture study, a local chef Todd Morren will pre-pare chevon (goat meat) in several dierent ways. To make sure we have enough meat for sampling, pre-registration is required for the event. You can pre-register by calling the research cen-ter at (301) 432-2767 x315 or sending an e-mail to Pam Thomas at pthom-as@umd.edu. The pre-registration deadline is July 24. </p><p>yield in the fall. Soil N values tended to be greater for white clover in both seasons compared to other treatments and also for the subplots that were grazed vs. mowed. The researchers concluded that inclusion of clovers results in simi-lar yields as fescue fertilized with nitrogen and that inclusion of clovers in fescue pastures could reduce the need for N fertilization. </p><p> Source: Book of Abstracts, American Society of Animal Science Southern Section, February 2-3, 2014, Dallas TX </p><p>Research from the Southern Section of the American Society of Animal Science continued from page 2 </p><p>Scrapie Update </p><p>Sheep with Scrapie (image by Colorado State University) </p></li><li><p>P A G E 4 </p><p>W I L D &amp; W O O L L Y </p><p>The webinars will be held on consecutive Thursday evenings from May 1 until June 5. All webinars will begin at 8 p.m. EST and last for approximately 1 hour. </p><p> May 1 How the sheep industry can benefit from NSIP Dr. Robert Banks, University of New England (Australia) </p><p> May 8 How the goat industry can benefit from NSIP Dr. Ken Andries, Kentucky State University </p><p> May 15 How, when, and what data to collect Cody Hiemke, Illinois Shropshire breeder </p><p> May 22 Challenges of moving to a performance based flock Bill Shultz, Ohio Suolk breeder </p><p> May 29 How to enter and submit data Dr. Chris Schauer, North Dakota State University </p><p> June 5 How to use the data Producer panel The webinars will be hosted by University of Maryland Extension (Susan Schoenian). To register for one or more webinars, send an e-mail message to pthom-as@umd.edu. Registrants will receive log-in infor-mation via e-mail. </p><p> National Webinar Series: NSIP continued from page 1 </p><p>Sheep The US sheep and lamb inventory on January 1, 2014, totaled 5.21 million head, down 2 percent from 2013. The breeding sheep inventory decreased to 3.88 million head, down 2 percent from 2013. The 2013 national average lambing rate was only 107 lambs per 100 ewes (one year old and older). Wool production in 2013 was 27.0 million pounds, down 1 percent from 2012. In 2013, the average price paid for wool was $1.45 per pound, compared to $1.52 in 2012. </p><p> The average fleece weight was 7.3 lbs. Goats The US goat inventory on January 1, 2014, totaled 2.76 million head, down 2 percent from 2013. The breeding goat inventory totaled 2.26 million head, down 3 percent from 2013. Meat and all other goats totaled 2.28 million head, down 2 percent from 2013. The milk goat inventory was 355 thousand head, down 1 percent. Angora goats were down 4 percent, totaling 131 thousand head. The 2013 kid crop was 1.74 million head, 3 percent less than in 2012. In Maryland In Maryland, the goat inventory totaled 14,800 head on January 1. This included 2,200 milk goats and 12,600 meat and other goats. The dairy goat inventory increased 10 percent from last year, whereas there was a 15 percent increase in the number of meat and other goats. Individual statistics are not reported for Maryland sheep. Maryland is lumped into the other states cate-gory. </p><p>Read full report at http://usda01.library.cornell.edu/usda/current/SheeGoat/SheeGoat01312014.pdf </p><p>US Sheep, Goat Inventory Declines Again </p><p>A five-part webinar series on Sheep &amp; Goat Health was held in January and February 2014. Links to the webinar recordings and PowerPoint presentations are available at http://www.sheepandgoat.com/recordings. </p><p>Webinar Recordings: Sheep &amp; Goat Health </p><p>Download program flyer from http://www.sheepandgoat.com/programs/2014NSIPWebinars_flyer.pdf. </p></li><li><p>P A G E 5 V O L U M E X I I I I S S U E I I </p><p>W I L D &amp; W O O L L Y </p><p>The nomination period for the 2014 Western Maryland Pasture-Based Meat Goat Performance Test is April 1-May 15. Nomination packets have been mailed to 2012 and 2013 consigners. Nomination packets may be requested by contacting Pam Thomas at (301) 432-2767 x343 or pthomas@umd.edu. All documents in the nomination packet may also be downloaded from the blog at http://mdgoatatest.blogspot.com. Nomination forms and nomination fees ($20/goat) are due May 15. All nominations received by the deadline will be treated equally. If nomina-tions exceed the carrying capacity of the test, preference will be given to Maryland residents and previous consigners. </p><p>Any goat producer may consign up to five male goats to the test. Eligible goats may be of any breed or breed cross. They do not need to be registered or eligible for registry. They must be born between December 15, 2013, and March 15, 2014, and weigh between 35 and 70 lbs. upon delivery to the test site on May 30. It is not necessary to identify spe-cific bucks at the time of nomination. While on test, the goats will be evaluated for growth performance, parasite resistance, and parasite resilience. After a short adjustment period, the test will be split into two phases. The first 42 days (June 5-July 17) will serve as a parasite challenge. The bucks will graze cool season grass paddocks that have been pre-contaminated (by grazing sheep) with infective worm larvae. The second 42 days (July 17-August 28) will serve as a growth challenge. The bucks will graze clean annual pastures. Towards the end of the test period, the bucks will be evaluated for structural correctness and reproductive soundness. They will be scanned (using ultrasound) to determine their rib eye area. The Gold, Silver, and Bronze-performing bucks will be sold on Saturday, Septembe...</p></li></ul>