Why Explore and Colonize? The Renaissance: ‘rebirth’; a newfound interest among Europeans in the art, culture, science, and philosophy of ancient Greece

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul> <p>Why Explore and Colonize? The Renaissance: rebirth; a newfound interest among Europeans in the art, culture, science, and philosophy of ancient Greece and Rome. This encouraged people to seek new knowledge, and new lands! New Trade Routes: Europeans wanted to gain easy access to goods and spices (pepper, nutmeg, cinnamon, cloves) from Asia, and to break the monopoly that Arab and Venetian merchants had on overland route to these products. The Joint Stock Company: Encouraged investors to pool their money to finance expeditions that they couldnt afford individually. Slide 2 National Power: More colonies meant more land, more resources, more money, and more power! New converts: Acquiring new lands meant that the inhabitants would be candidates for Christian conversion. European monarchs could spread civilization by spreading their religious beliefs. Mercantilism: A theory of national economic policy. A states power depended on its wealth, so it should amass as much as possible. Colonies were sources of raw materials, that could be sold cheaply to the mother country. That country would then convert those raw materials to consumer goods, and sell them back to the colonies for a profit. Slide 3 Defeat of the Spanish Armada In 1588, King Philip II of Spain sent the Spanish Armada (130 ships) to defeat the British navy. The more advanced, but outnumbered, British ships destroyed the Armada, and took Spains place as ruler of the seas. Britain was now free to colonize lands in the New World. Spanish Admiral surrendering to the English. Queen Elizabeth I Slide 4 The (original) Americans The Inca: The last of the great empires in the Andes. 100 years before Columbus came to America, the Incas controlled a 3000 mile stretch of South America. The empire was linked by a 10,000 mile road system. They used irrigation for agriculture, and the Incan government provided for orphans, the aged, and the sick. The Inca: The last of the great empires in the Andes. 100 years before Columbus came to America, the Incas controlled a 3000 mile stretch of South America. The empire was linked by a 10,000 mile road system. They used irrigation for agriculture, and the Incan government provided for orphans, the aged, and the sick. Slide 5 Machu Pichu, built as the capital of the Incan Empire in 1430, was abandoned a hundred years later at the time of the Spanish conquest. Machu Pichu, built as the capital of the Incan Empire in 1430, was abandoned a hundred years later at the time of the Spanish conquest. Slide 6 The Maya: Further south the Maya built large pyramids and villages. Villages grew into city-states that competed with one another. The Mayans became skilled in metalwork and pottery, and their pyramids demonstrated advanced mathematics and a deep understanding of the earth's relationship with the sun. The Maya: Further south the Maya built large pyramids and villages. Villages grew into city-states that competed with one another. The Mayans became skilled in metalwork and pottery, and their pyramids demonstrated advanced mathematics and a deep understanding of the earth's relationship with the sun. Slide 7 Mayan Pyramids This structure, called an E-Group was an organizational structure that is based on the earth's relationship to the sun. This structure, called an E-Group was an organizational structure that is based on the earth's relationship to the sun. Slide 8 Clockwise from top left: Incan warrior, Incan women, Mayan warriors, Mayan women. Think about how European explorers would react to meeting these people... Slide 9 The European explorers hope to find gold, or a trade route to Asia. They find 'Indians,' and some stories about gold. They need to head back to Europe, and convince the monarch to finance larger expeditions. What would they say? come back with stories. come back with gold. come back with 'guests' appeal to religion appeal to national ambitions appeal to greed Slide 10 The Indians have lived in the Americas for thousands of years. They, for the most part, do not believe in 'ownership' of land. They do not have swords or other weapons comparable to the Europeans, although many do have highly advanced cultures, economies, and industry. What could they do? stand and fight negotiate run and hide adapt cooperate surrender </p>