white paper changes to the pmbok 4th edition

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  • 1. White Paper onA Project Managers Perspective on Changes to the Guide to the Project ManagementBody of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide) Fourth EditionErika Flora, MS, PMP, ITIL Expert - Principal Consultant, Beyond20, erika.flora@Beyond20.com I.INTRODUCTION On December 31, 2008, the Project Management Institute (PMI) released the 4 th edition of the PMBOK Guide, the foundational book used to study and prepare for the Project Management Professional (PMP) exam. On July 1, 2009 the exam changed over to the 4th edition, and project management professionals world-wide now use this new edition to prepare for the PMP exam. So, what has changed? The good news is that many of the core concepts and order of project activities performed are the same as in the 3rd edition. If you took and passed the 3rd edition exam, what you have learned is still valid. If you have studied the 3rd edition material, but have not yet taken the exam, you will, unfortunately, have a lot of process Inputs, Outputs, Tools & Techniques to re- learn and memorize. Overall, the refresh of the new text mainly consolidates and clarifies previously confusing concepts and includes additional concepts that todays Project Manager deals with. This white paper outlines these changes, in chronological fashion and in line with how projects are actually being performed (i.e. in order of each of the five process groups - Initiating, Planning, Executing, Monitoring and Controlling, and Closing). Thus, it takes a slightly different slant from other white papers on the subject. For a list of changes according to each of the nine Knowledge Areas, see the Preface to and Appendix A of the Fourth Edition in the PMBOK Guide (pages XXII-XXIII and 349- 357).II.OVERVIEW OF CHANGES General The two prevailing themes with the PMBOK Guide 4th edition changes are that of clarity and consistency. In teaching 3rd edition classes, students in every class always had some confusion around conflicting definitions and have lots of questions around why some documents are mentioned and why others werent as an Process Inputs, Outputs, Tools or Techniques. The 4 th edition seems to do a good job of addressing and alleviating these types of issues. Project Management Processes First, there are now 42 processes detailed in the fourth edition of the PMBOK Guide, as compared to 44 processes in the 3rd edition. Two new processes have been added, two have been removed, and four other processes have been combined into two, specifically within Project Procurement Management, as detailed below: New RemovedConsolidated Identify StakeholdersDevelop PreliminaryPlan Purchases and Acquisitions and Collect Requirements Scope StatementPlan Contracting > Plan ProcurementsScope Planning Request Seller Responses and Select Sellers > Conduct Procurements Page 1 of 21 www.Beyond20.com

2. A few other processes have changed process groups, for example, Manage Project Team is nowan Executing process; and Manage Stakeholders is now a Monitoring and Controlling process.Also, to improve readability and consistency throughout, all 42 processes are now in verb-nounformat. For example, Scope Definition has been renamed as Define Scope. Since ProjectManagers are performing these activities within their projects, it makes sense that the processeswould be written this way. For those of us used to the process names as they are written in the 3 rdedition, it takes a little practice to get the names straight in the 4 th edition. However, long term,this is a much more intuitive way to refer to the processes we perform.Portfolio, Program, and Project ManagementIn chapter 1 of the PMBOK Guide 4th edition, there is additional information on the differencesbetween managing a Portfolio, Program, and Project as many project managers are now findingthemselves managing programs and even portfolios; and it is important to understand and be ableto communicate the differences between them. I find this is a common question from teammembers and other non-Project Managers in many organizations.Enterprise Environmental Factors and Organizational Process AssetsFurther, there is a clearer differentiation between Enterprise Environmental Factors (EEFs) andOrganizational Process Assets (OPAs). These are detailed in the table below. Also, EEFs and OPAsserve as inputs (and outputs) to more processes in the 4th edition and closer line up with real life. Enterprise Environmental FactorsOrganizational Process AssetsAny or all external environmental factors Any or all process related assets, fromand internal organizational environmental any or all of the organizations involved infactors that surround or influence thethe project that are or can be used toprojects success. These factors are from influence the projects success. Theseany or all of the enterprises involved in the process assets include formal andproject, and include organizational culture informal plans, policies, procedures, andand structure, infrastructure, existing guidelines. The process assets alsoresources, commercial databases, market include the organizations knowledgeconditions, and project managementbases such as lessons learned andsoftware. historical information.Project Initiation and Planning documentsThere have been some changes involving the Project Management Plan, Project Charter, andProject Scope Statement. Namely, the Project Management Plan and its subsidiary plans havebeen more clearly defined and separated out. There has also been a clearer distinction betweenplans and other Project documents (see page 350 in the PMBOK Guide for a list of these items). Inaddition, there is a clearer distinction between the components of the Project Charter and theProject Scope Statement (the Preliminary Project Scope Statement has gone away). Thedifferences are detailed on page 351 of the PMBOK Guide 4th edition.Requested Changes, Corrective and Preventive Actions (CAPA), and Defect RepairsWhereas, these items were separated in the 3rd edition, these have all been consolidated under theheading of Change Requests. Rather, the PMBOK Guide defines different types of requests. Page 2 of 21 www.Beyond20.com 3. Process Flow Diagrams The old Process Flow Diagrams have been replaced by Data Flow Diagrams in this edition. At first glance, they look complex and a bit scary, but they actually contain a lot of helpful information. I highly recommend taking a look at them at the beginning of each chapter. Interpersonal and Other Skills In Chapter 1 of the PMBOK Guide, the characteristics needed by a Project Manager have been pared down and clarified from five to three as follows: Knowledge (of project management), Performance (the PM is able to accomplish what they set out to do in a project), and Personal (leadership, etc.). Also, more information has been added to the PMBOK Guide in Appendix G on the interpersonal and other soft skills needed and carried out by Project Managers. The 3rd edition did not contain a lot of information on topics like leadership, persuasion, communication, etc. Thankfully, the 4th edition expands on these soft skills regularly employed by Project Managers. Additional new and expanded concepts are also detailed throughout this white paper, in the appropriate section below.III. INITIATING PROCESS GROUP This is the stage of a project where a Project Manager is assigned, and the PM is responsible for obtaining approval for the project and determining who needs to be involved. In the 4 th edition, the process entitled Develop Preliminary Project Scope Statement is removed. Previously, understanding the difference between this document and the Project Charter was somewhat confusing. As a result, the authors have done away with the Preliminary Scope Statement. In addition, they have added the process Identify Stakeholders. This activity was implied in the 3 rd edition and is now officially called out. Changes to the specific process are detailed below. Project Integration Management Develop Project Charter This process has changed somewhat. The concept of a Business Case is a new input, and the Tools and Techniques have been pared down to only include Expert Judgment. Below is the process as it appears in the 4th edition.InputsTools & TechniquesOutputs 1.Project statement of work 1. Expert judgment1. Project charter 2.Business case 3.Enterprise environmental factors 4.Organizational process assetsFigure 4-2: Develop Project Charter: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and OutputsA Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK Guide).2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Project Communications Management Identify Project StakeholdersThis is a new process in the 4th edition and is pictured below. I really like that this has beenadded as its own process because this is a significant activity early on and can avoidPage 3 of 21www.Beyond20.com 4. significant headaches later on in the project. Two deliverables worth noting are theStakeholder register and Stakeholder management strategy. The Stakeholder Registeris similar in nature to the Risk Register and details, for example, the names of projectstakeholders, their interests, influence, communications strategy, and documents theyshould receive. This is kind of a cool addition to the PMBOK Guide. InputsTools & TechniquesOutputs 1.Project charter1. Stakeholder analysis1. Stakeholder register 2.Procurement documents2. Expert judgment 2. Stakeholder 3.Enterprise environmental management factorsstrategy 4.Organizational process assetsFigure 10-2: Identify Stakeholders: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and OutputsA Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK Guide).2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved.III. PLANNING PROCESS GROUP One the project is approved, the Project Manager can now begin planning project details. In this process group, most of the processes have remained the same. Typically only