when thomas jefferson said that he wouldn’t run again for president in 1808: republican party...

Download When Thomas Jefferson said that he wouldn’t run again for president in 1808: Republican Party nominated James Madison Federalists nominated Charles Pinckney

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  • When Thomas Jefferson said that he wouldnt run again for president in 1808: Republican Party nominated James Madison Federalists nominated Charles Pinckney Madison won easily When he assumed office, tensions between the U.S. and Britain were rising and it would fall to Madison to decide whether lead the U.S. to war or not
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  • Madison wanted to avoid war In order to force the British to stop seizing American ships Madison asked Congress to pass the Non- Intercourse Act (1809). This act forbade trade with France and Britain while authorizing the president to reopen trade with whichever country removed its trade restrictions first His idea was to play Britain and France against each otherunsuccessful at first
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  • Madisons strategies eventually worked and by early 1812 the refusal of the U.S. to buy British goods had begun to hurt the British economy. British merchants pressured their government to repeal its restrictions on trade. In June of 1812 Britain ended all restrictions on American trade BUT it was too late. Two days later, the British learned that the U.S. had declared war
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  • Most members of Congress who wanted war came from the South and West. These people were nicknamed the War Hawks by their opponents. Henry Clay of Kentucky, John Calhoun of South Carolina, and Felix Grundy of Tennessee were the leaders of the War Hawks. Henry Clay John Calhoun Felix Grundy
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  • Believed that economic pressure had failed and the nations reputation was in danger if it did not go to war to stop the British from seizing American sailors. Americans also believed that trade restrictions had hurt Southern planters and Western farmers because most of their income came from shipping tobacco, rice, wheat, and cotton overseas. They also blamed the British for clashes with the Native Americans Americans blamed the British for supporting Native American efforts against them along the frontier
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  • Tecumseh was a Shawnee leader who believed that Natives needed to unite in order to protect their land. While Tecumseh worked for political union, his brother Tenskwatawa aka the Prophet worked for the spiritual rebirth of the Native American culture William Henry Harrison (governor of the Indiana Territory) sent troops to the Tippecanoe River to stop Tecumsehs movement (while Tecumseh was in the South recruiting) Tenskwatawa sent troops to intercept U.S. troops This battle of Tippecanoe (1811) resulted in Harrisons victory over the Prophet & Tecumsehs attempt to unite the Natives of the west. Tecumseh and other Natives confidence was shattered so they fled to Canada
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  • Some Americans thought this proved that the British were supporting the Natives Western farmers argued that war with Britain would enable the U.S. to seize Canada and end Native attacks In June of 1812 President Madison asked Congress to declare war
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  • Why did the South and the West favor war with Great Britain? British trade restrictions hurt Southern planters and farmers because they earned much of their income from selling crops overseas. Western farmers and settlers also blamed the British for supporting Native American efforts against them along the frontier.
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  • The nation was not ready for war, however. Military: Navy only had 16 ships Army had fewer than 7,000 troops Financially: The year before the war Republicans had shut down the Bank of the U.S. by refusing to renew its charter This made it difficult for the U.S. to borrow money from banks since most private bankers were in the Northeast (opposed war and would not lend money)
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  • Despite the nations military and financial weakness, Madison ordered the military to invade Canada American military leaders planned attacks from three directions: From Detroit, Niagara Falls, and up the Hudson River valley toward Montreal. All three attacks failed
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  • The next year, the U.S. had more success after Commodore Oliver Perry secretly arranged for the construction of a fleet on the coast of Lake Erie in Ohio. The four- hour long battle resulted in a British surrender. By the end of 1813 however, the U.S. still had not conquered any territory in Canada
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  • Why was conquering Canada an important American goal in the War of 1812? Many Americans believed that controlling Canada would end British support for Native Americans and thus end Native American attacks on the frontier.
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  • While attention was on Canada: British troops landed within marching distance of Washington, D.C. American militia defending the capital fled along with Madison and other government officials British set fire to the White House and the Capitol Then they prepared an attack on Baltimore
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  • Unlike Washington, D.C., Baltimore was ready for the British Baltimore militia caused many British casualties After bombarding Fort McHenry throughout the night of September 13 th, the British abandoned their attack on the city.
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  • Francis Scott Key, a young lawyer was held on a British Ship He was happy to see that the U.S. flag was still flying above the fort at dawn So he wrote a poem about the battle which became the U.S. national anthem
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  • The British offensive made New Englanders even more opposed to the war December 1814, Federalists in the New England region were determined to become independent of the U.S. The Essex Junto wanted to secede, but this was too extreme for moderate Federalists The Hartford Convention called for several amendments to increase the areas political power
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  • Less than a month later (January 1815) the British fleet landed near New Orleans American Commander General Andrew Jackson Came up with a quick strategy of using cotton bales These thick bales absorbed British bullets British were advancing towards U.S. troops in the open (easy targets)
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  • Decisive (clear) U.S. victory Made Andrew Jackson a national hero Helped to destroy the Federalist Party Nationalism-strong feelings of patriotism existed at this point Federalists appeared unpatriotic and divisive Soon the party completely died out
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  • Negotiations began in Belgian city of Ghent before the major battles of 1814 December 24, 1814 negotiators signed the Treaty of Ghent ending the War of 1812 Treaty restored prewar boundaries Did not mention neutral rights and impressments The war increased the nations prestige overseas and brought a new spirit of patriotism and national unity
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  • Reaffirmed American independence and further convinced the U.S. to maintain a policy of neutrality in European affairs. Destroyed Indian resistance leading to American expansion in the South and West Exposed American militarily weakness and made clear the importance of better transportation systems Destroyed the Federalist Party The war stimulated domestic manufactures.

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