What to do when Descriptive Assessment is not Enough: Choice Assessment
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DESCRIPTIONWhat to do when Descriptive Assessment is not Enough: Choice Assessment. December, 2009 School Social Worker & School Psychology Discipline Days. Objective. Increasing Rigor And Increasing Accuracy. Choice Assessment. Current problems with Indirect and Descriptive methods. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
What to do when Descriptive Assessment is not EnoughWhat to do when Descriptive Assessment is not Enough: Choice AssessmentDecember, 2009School Social Worker & School Psychology Discipline DaysObjectiveKnowUnderstand DoThe range and reliability of various behavior assessment practicesWhen a Choice assessment can be helpfulHow to set up a choice assessment for function of behaviorThe differences between a functional analysis and Choice AssessmentUnderstand the disadvantages of functional analysisLink Choice Assessment data to a FBA and BIPAdvantages of Choice Assessment vs. Descriptive AssessmentIncreasing Rigor And Increasing AccuracyChoice Assessment3Current problems with Indirect and Descriptive methodsIndirect = 30% accurate functions identifiedDescriptive assessments increase accuracy (60 80%) Steege and Northup, Journal of Proven Practice 1998Positive bias to attention in a school setting (Iwata)May appear to be Escape to Attention when the student might really be EscapeFunctional AnalysisIn General:Set up situations that allow you to compare conditionsAttentionDemandAlonePlayTake data on the problem behaviorReliability and Validity are highConsidered the Gold StandardFunctional Analysis VideoAdd video of Neemos FA video. (1 minute clip of each FA condition).6Add video of Neemos FA video. (1 minute clip of each FA condition).7If the behavior is escape maintained the data might look like this graph.Graph from Berg et al., 2007 Hand-out with FA Graphs8If the behavior is attention maintained the data might look like this graph.Graph from Berg et al., 2007 Handout with FA Graphs9If it is the Gold Standard, why arent we doing more Functional Analysis?Potential risk to individualelicit the behaviorComplexRequires control over environmentHard to do it with elopement, low frequency behaviorsRequires extensive Supervised ExperienceIf you believe a Functional Analysis is needed contact the CBAT1. requires extensive, supervised experience to implement (currently, I'm the only person at Heartland who should be doing them independently)2. involves attempts to reinforce problem behavior to demonstrate experimental control. this should not be used lightly when we have other less intensive means of forming hypotheses, including fbas and progress monitoring bips.10Paired Choice Assessment for FunctionAlso called Contingent Operant AssessmentIdentifies relative preferencesCan be done in a Classroom SettingIncrease Teacher buy-in of function3/4 determined the same function as Functional Analysis (Berg, Wacker, 2007) Not intended to elicit problem behaviorCan be used for students with low frequency problem behavior.11What is the difference?Functional AnalysisIdentifies conditions that will increase problem behaviorsMost reliable methodControls for attentionVery controlled environmentPaired ChoiceIdentifies student preferences3/4 indicated same function as FAControls for attentionCan be done in a classroomWhat do I get from it?Information about antecedents that are more likely to produce positive behaviorLikely to gain confirmation of functionManage the influence of attentionCan get information on preferred materials, items, settings, tasksMay take less time than a comprehensive descriptive analysis Paired choice min. of 25 to 30 minDescriptive assessment min of 3 20 min observationsHow do I set up the space?2 age appropriate spaces (tables)3 to 5 feet apartDifferent choices placed on each tableEach session is 5 min.Break between sessionsWhere can the space be set up--back of the classroom,Childs desk areaInterview with an older student14What are the rules?AdultAdult explains options beforeThe choice is repeated every 90 seconds for 5 minutesAdult responds to child as indicated in the conditionChildStarts between the tablesIs Free to move between both tablesCant take toys back and forthIf the behavior is mildPrompt the child to make a choiceIf the behavior is severeEnd the sessionConsider other assessment techniquesWhat happens if the child demonstrates the problem behavior?5 min. Choice Session 1ChoiceTable 1Table 2Attention and Toys VS Alone with NothingTeacher and preferred leisure items (positive reinforcement)Empty Table (negative reinforcement)Hypothesized Function:Gain Attention/TangibleEscapeBIP Strategies Gained:Possible reinforcersType of attention preferred*Preferred leisure items and possible reinforcersRefer to data sheet with the 4 Choice Sessions on the back.175 min. Choice Session 2ChoiceTable 1Table 2Attention VS ToysTeacher (positive reinforcement)Preferred leisure items (positive reinforcement)Hypothesized Function:Gain AttentionGain TangibleBIP Strategies Gained:Type of attention preferred*Preferred leisure items and possible reinforcersRefer to data sheet with the 4 Choice Sessions on the back.185 min. Choice Session 3ChoiceTable 1Table 2Attention with task demands VS alone with nothingTeacher and work task (positive reinforcement)Empty Table (negative reinforcement)Hypothesized Function:Gain AttentionEscapeBIP Strategies Gained:Type of work not preferred and preferredType of attention preferred*Preferred leisure items and possible reinforcersRefer to data sheet with the 4 Choice Sessions on the back.195 min. Choice Session 4ChoiceTable 1Table 2Attention with task demands VS alone with toysTeacher and work task (positive reinforcement)Preferred leisure items (negative and positive reinforcement)Hypothesized Function:Gain AttentionEscape/Gain TangibleBIP Strategies Gained:Type of work not preferred and preferredType of attention preferred*Preferred leisure items and possible reinforcersRefer to data sheet with the 4 Choice Sessions on the back.20What data should I collect?10 sec. Partial Interval RecordingRecords which side of the midpoint the student is standing during each intervalIf student was in both sides, record the one that the student spent the most timeStanding on the midline is not recordedDuration RecordingRecord total time on each sideRefer to the data sheet.21Escape Profile (Berg et al., 2007)Child wants to be alone with or without toysAbby, a 12-year-old girl, had been referred for noncompliance to requests and hitting others.Handout with the 4 student graphs from the Berg et al., 2007 article.22Escape Profile (Berg et al., 2007)Child wants to be alone.But will tolerate Attention paired with Toys.Jack (19 years old), had been referred forself-injury, aggression, and noncompliance23Attention Profile (Berg et al., 2007)Higher Problem BehaviorsPrefers Attention,Less PB when not paired with a DemandWarren had higher problem behaviors in the Attention and Demand condition over the attention only and attention with toys conditions---but he would still rather do this than being alone.Warren, a 15-year-old boy, had been referredfor aggression and property destructionHeartland AEA24Not Fail Proof(Berg et al., 2007)Lyles functional analysis indicates that problem behavior is reenforced by escapeBut Lyle would often time picks attention being alone with nothing, or alone with toys but her prefers being alone if it is just attention and nothing.During choice problem behavior occurred during 8/10 sessions for an average of 10% of intervals.Lyle (18 years old)and Jack (19 years old), had been referred forself-injury, aggression, and noncomplianceHeartland AEA25LyleProblem Behavior was maintained/reinforced by escape from demandsChoice was maintained/reinforced by positive reinforcement such as teacher attentionChoice Assessment based instructional strategies reduced the problem behavior and Functional Analysis based strategies eliminated the problem behavior. What if I want to know more than just what the child prefers?Collect more dataProblem behaviors during choice activityEngagement or compliance while in preferred settingCompare reinforcer choices or demand choices.27Paired ChoiceSimplifiedWendy to add video of dog doing choice task (treat 1 vs treat 2; toy 1 vs toy 2; treat 1 vs toy 1) 28Paired Choice: Hypothesized FunctionsFind a partnerGo to the following SurveyMonkey link:http://www.surveymonkey.com/s/2B8BD2RConsider the possible function in each scenario to answer each itemWe will go over each item at the end of the activity.29How can Paired Choice reduce time spent on FBA summaries?30-60 minutes compared to multiple observations in multiple settingsMay choose to do a paired choice assessment early in problem analysis when escape and gain are both present as consequences for problem behavior.Some observation for problem identification 30How can Choice Assessment be used to complete an FBA summary?(Graph from Berg et al., 2007)Warren: Choice Assessment ResultsAggression and property destructionWarren chose teacher attention consistentlyProblem behaviors: 36% of the intervals with attention and task demand0-5% with attention or attention with toysChose attention with demands over alone with toysHe engaged in the leisure, attention and tasks a median of 81% of intervalsDirect observations during independent work tasks and leisure time alone show he has appropriate behavior for about 1 minute prior aggressingWarren is 15 years oldWarren chose teacher attention consistently even when the attention included task demands32Warren: FBA Summary ComponentsFunction of Problem Behavior: Gain AttentionSummary Statement: When Warren is left alone in leisure or independent work he is more likely to aggress or have property destruction to gain attention from adults.Antecedent: When left aloneConsequences: Gain Attention33Warren: FBA Summary ComponentsSummary Statement: When Warren is given demands and leisure time paired with adults he is more likely to engage in the activities appropriately and has less aggression.Antecedent: When left aloneConsequences: Gain Attention34Warren: BIP RecommendationsPrevention: Reduce independent work times/leisure times to less than 1 minute until tolerance for delay is gained. Include adults in leisure and work activities.Teach Alternatives/Replacement:Warren should be taught to request a teacher to help him during work tasks and engage with him during leisure time. He should also be taught increasing amounts of tolerance for delay. Antecedent: When left aloneConsequences: Gain Attention35Warren: BIP RecommendationsResponse Strategies:Provide frequent social attention during all tasksPlanned ignoring for minor off-task, disruptive, aggressive behaviorsTime-out from attention for aggressive behavior Antecedent: When left aloneConsequences: Gain Attention36Your Turn: Jacks Choice Assessment(Graph from Berg et al., 2007)Handout with Jacks choice assessment graph and data sheet including specific data from the choice assessment.37Jack: Choice Assessment ResultsSelf injury, aggression and noncomplianceChose the alone side of the room with or without leisure itemsChose leisure with teacher over aloneProblem behaviors: 3 problem behaviors occurred in the attention with demand and attention with toys conditionsHe engaged in the the side of the room he chose a 80% of intervalsJack is 19 years old38Jack: FBA & BIP ComponentsAt your table:What is the hypothesized function of Jacks problem behavior?Write a summary statement for problem behaviors for JackDetermine Prevention, Replacement & Teaching, & Response strategies for Jacks BIPIll be floating by and will share out your work at the end of the activity.Antecedent: When left aloneConsequences: Gain Attention39When is consent for evaluation for choice assessment necessary?Get Consent for evaluationInitial FBA Summary during an evaluationCollecting information intended to inform a placement changeDuring a reevaluationConsent for Evaluation is typically not necessary when part of ongoing evaluation that is intended to inform instructionIn GeneralYou can never go wrong with telling the parentKristi- we need guidance on this slide. 40Next StepsConsider a choice interview with an older studentStart with a choice assessment for the purpose of determining preferred leisure activitiesConsider a choice assessment for a student you think might have problem behavior maintained by multiple functionsUse a choice assessment to make recommendations for an EER41For Teachers & Parents:For more information . . . Berg et al., (2007). Comparing functional analysis and paired-choice assessment results in classroom settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 545-552.433 3 0 3 13 10 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 1 2 3 4 5 6 Percentage of Intervals with Self-Injurious Behavior Condition Number Functional Analysis Data free play demand/escape diverted attention/contingent attention tangible
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