what makes a diamond

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My entry for ISTD 2012.

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  • 2 | What Makes A Diamond: The 6 Events that mde the Jubilee Possible

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  • 4 | What Makes A Diamond: The 6 Events that mde the Jubilee Possible

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  • 6 | What Makes A Diamond: The 6 Events that mde the Jubilee Possible

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    William IThe Conqueror

    William I

    Stephen

    Matilda

    Adela

    Henry I

    Henry II

    Richard I

    John I

  • 10 | What Makes A Diamond: The 6 Events that mde the Jubilee Possible

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  • 12 | What Makes A Diamond: The 6 Events that mde the Jubilee Possible

  • | 13 Event 1 : The Anarchy

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    The Magna Carta is a document which King John was forced to sign near the end of his reign, though he didnt have much choice in the matter. Various barons and nobility incited rebellion and left him no option other than death or resignation.

    The charter greatly reduced the power held by the Monarchy, and later the aristocracy, by allowing the formation of a parliament of the people.

    Event 2 : Magna Carta

    The Magna Carta became the basis for English citizens rights and thereby became the founding document of civil liberties in England; the very first constitution and thus formed the basis for all such future documents. Many attempts to draft constitutional forms of government, including the United States Constitution, trace their lineage back to Magna Carta.

  • 16 | What Makes A Diamond: The 6 Events that mde the Jubilee Possible

    John inherited the throne from his brother Richard (The Lionheart) after he died returning from the Crusades.

    John had a very uneasy relationship with his barons who attempted to force him to sign the Magna Carta.

    After the original documented was set aside the Barons tried to depose John and his line in favour of the Prince Louis the son of the French King but changed their minds on the death of King John and attempted to rule through his son Henry III.

    Henry III

    Edward the Black Prince

    Edward I

    John I

    Edward II

    Richard II

    Edward III

    John of Gaunt

    Edmund of York

    Henry IV cont. pg 23

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    The British dominions of Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the former Union of South Africa and Southern Rhodesia,all reflect the influence of the Magna Carta in their laws. The Charter impacted on the states that were to evolve from the British Empire and had great cultural and historical significance.

    The Magna Carta was originally issued in the year 1215, translated into vernacular-French as early as 1219 and reissued later in the 13th century in modified versions.

    The latter versions excluded the most direct challenge to the monarchs authority that had been present in the 1215 charter; the Pope questioned the documents authenticity by saying that because King John was forced to sign it under duress, it would infringe upon the kings rights as Gods chosen monarch King John gladly accepted the Popes ruling.

    The charter eventual passed into common law in 1225 (after Johns death) where it was preceded and directly influenced by the Charter of Liberties in 1100, in which King Henry I had specified particular areas wherein his powers would be limited and promised good governance to his people.

    The 1215 charter required King John of England to proclaim certain liberties and accept that his will was not arbitrary, for example, by explicitly accepting that no freeman (in the sense of non-serf) could be punished except through the law of the land - a right which is still exists today.

    The events leading up to this began in1209 when numerous barons began to conspire against King; Over the course of his reign the combination of high taxes, unsuccessful wars that resulted in the loss of English barons titled possessions in Normandy following the Battle of Bouvines (1214), and

    ongoing conflicts with pope Innocent III had made King John unpopular with many of his barons.

    With growing resentment and pressure from his Barons, John played for time. During negotiations between January and June 1215, a document was produced, which historians have termed The Unknown Charter of Liberties, seven of the articles of which would later appear in the Magna Carta.

    In May, King John offered to submit issues to a committee of arbitration with Pope Innocent III as the supreme arbiter, but the barons continued in their defiance.

    With the support of foreign powers, the Barons entered London in force on 10 June 1215, with the city showing its sympathy with their cause by opening its gates to them.

    They, and many of the moderates not in overt rebellion, forced King John to agree to a document later known as the Articles of the Barons , to which his Great Seal was attached in the meadow at Runnymede on 15 June 1215.

    The Magna Carta was originally issued the year 1215, but did not pass into common law till 1225.

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    In return, the barons renewed their oaths of fealty to John on 19 June 1215, which is when the document Magna Carta was created.

    The document was at the time a serious challenge to Johns authority as a ruling monarch. He renounced it as soon as the barons left London; and Pope Innocent III also annulled the document calling it;

    The Pope rejected any call for restraints on the King, saying it impaired Johns dignity. He saw it as an affront to the Churchs authority over the King and the papal territories of England and Ireland, and released John from his oath to obey it.

    The rebels knew that King John could never be restrained by Magna Carta and so they sought a new King. England was plunged into a civil war, known as the First Barons War. With the failure of Magna Carta to achieve peace or restrain John, the barons reverted to the

    monarchies like that of France were abolished often resulting in bloody carnage.

    Had the monarchy been abolished later, like so many others, we would not be celebrating the Diamond Jubilee.

    shameful and demeaning agreement, forced upon the King by violence and fear.

    more traditional type of rebellion by trying to replace the monarch they disliked with an alternative.

    In a measure of some desperation, despite the tenuousness of his claim and despite the fact that he was French, they offered the crown of England to Prince Louis of France.

    As a means of preventing war

    Magna Carta was a failure, rejected by most of the barons, and was legally valid for no more than three months. It was the death of King John in 1216 which secured the future of Magna Carta.

    The Magna Carta despite initially being a danger to the Monarchy subsequently served to protect it. While revolutions in the last 200 years have robbed many of their thrones the fact that in England the Monarch rules in tandem with Parliament not as an absolute power meant it made an easy transition into the modern era while other

  • | 19 Event 2 : Magna Carta

  • 20 | What Makes A Diamond: The 6 Events that mde the Jubilee Possible

  • | 21 Event 2 : Magna Carta

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    The War of the Roses was a dynastic conflict that arose among the defendants of Edward III, part of the conflict was caused by the senior line being quite weak due to the death of the Black Prince and the succession of his nine year old son Richard.

    With a young child on the throne and regents ruling in his stead there was many with issues against the crown, this eventually broke out into civil war after Henry Lancaster deposed Richard and seized the crown for himself. Being the descendent of a fourth son of Edward III several others felt they had a better claim, especially the defendants of Edmund of York.

    Over the course of many years a great struggle ensued among the countries nobility as supporters of Lancaster and york clashed against each other with speedy an great changes of fortune every few years.

    The conflict finally came to a conclusion when a Lancastrian claimant (Henry VII) won the battle of Bosworth and secured his claim to the throne by marrying Elizabeth of York.

    Although small skirmishes continued after this and sevral pretenders to the throne appeared, the conflict was eventually done.

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    The War of the Roses was caused in large part to Edward III having a great number of children who were granted powerful Dukedoms.

    John of Gaunt

    Edmund of York

    Edward the Black Prince

    Richard II

    Richard III

    Edward IV

    Edward III

    Richard of Consingburg

    RichardDuke of York

    Henry IV

    Henry VII

    Henry V

    Henry VI

    Edward V

    Edward of Westminster

    John Beaufort

    John Beaufort

    Margaret Beaufort

    Elizabeth of York

    Henry VIII cont. pg 31

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    England hath long been mad, and scarrd herself: The brother blindly shed the brothers blood; The father rashly slaughterd his own son; The son, compelld, been butcher to the sire. All this divided York and Lancaster...

    - William Shakespeare, Richard III

    This dynastic race for the throne was unwittingly created by King Edward III in the fourteenth century. Edward and his wife Philippa of Hainault had thirteen children, including five sons who grew to maturity.

    Edward created for them the f