What is ICT? How do you learn ICT?

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Welcome, introduce myself, talk about Zoom, and link to the image and talk about that.1

You and ICT?

Lets start with ICT. How do you feel about ICT? Do you often feel like the Baboon in this image? 2

Given the images shared in the Share your introductions forum those of you who are frustrated by ICT are not alone.3

Why?

Have you ever wondered why you feel like this? Why do you think it is important that in this course we actually address the source of frustrations with ICT?4

Professional Experience:16 May 3 June

https://www.flickr.com/photos/timlauer/5407980960/

Because by the end of this semester you will be responsible for attempting to create something similar to the above. The use of ICTs to enhance and transform student learning.

BTW, you must make sure that you have completed all of the necessary tasks for PE. More on this late.

But you cant achieve this outcome if your experience with ICT is well represented by5

Why?

So why do you and so many peoples experiences with ICT generate feelings like this?6

Nature of ICTOpaqueUnstableProtean(Koehler and Mishra, 2009, p. 61)the inner workings are hidden from usersrapidly changingusable in many different ways

A large part of that is due to the nature of ICT. Koehler and Mishra described ICT as being opaque, unstable, and protean. Each of these contribute to your feelings of frustration.

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Nature of ICTOpaqueUnstableProtean(Koehler and Mishra, 2009, p. 61)the inner workings are hidden from usersrapidly changingusable in many different ways

Lets look at opaque. Opaque means that you cant see how the ICT is working, what is going on inside of it. That said you still have in your head, some model of how you think it will work. You think if you do X, the computer will do Y. When the computer does not do Y, the opaque nature of the ICT makes it difficult for you to understand why it doesnt work, thus you get frustrated.8

How the ICT worksYour mental model of how the ICT works

https://www.flickr.com/photos/tapps/3211030569/

Every ICT has an internal model or logic to how it works. Typically these things are programmed and the program specifies a model of how the ICT will work. It is pre-defined, but it is opaque. Its very hard for you to see it directly. Not only that, they are typically very complex.9

How the ICT worksYour mental model of how the ICT works

https://www.flickr.com/photos/tapps/3211030569/

Which typically means that your mental model of how the ICT works has nothing to do with how it actually works. In fact, youve probably never really bothered to explicitly think about developing a mental model of how the ICT works.

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How the ICT worksYour mental model of how the ICT works

Superficial mental models of ICT lead to problemsolving the relies on aimless trial and errorUse of conceptual models lead to learners ableto analyse and solve problems conceptually(Ben-Ari, 2006)

https://www.flickr.com/photos/tapps/3211030569/

Which typically means that your mental model of how the ICT works has nothing to do with how it actually works. In fact, youve probably never really bothered to explicitly think about developing a mental model of how the ICT works.

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Nature of ICTOpaqueUnstableProtean(Koehler and Mishra, 2009, p. 61)the inner workings are hidden from usersrapidly changingusable in many different ways

This is the one characteristics that probably doesnt need to be explained ICT are always changing12

Nature of ICTOpaqueUnstableProtean(Koehler and Mishra, 2009, p. 61)the inner workings are hidden from usersrapidly changingusable in many different ways

This is the one characteristics that probably doesnt need to be explained ICT are always changing13

Nature of ICTOpaqueUnstableProtean(Koehler and Mishra, 2009, p. 61)the inner workings are hidden from usersrapidly changingusable in many different ways

This is perhaps the most difficult to understand, but (for me) also the most important. It gets at one of the fundamental differences between digital technologies (aka ICT) and other technologies.14

Its essence is its universality, its power to simulate. Because it can take on a thousand forms and can serve a thousand functions, it can appeal to a thousand tastes(Papert, 1993, p. xxi)The computer is the Proteus of machines

https://www.flickr.com/photos/rmesquita/2544780949/

The man on the right is Seymour Papert. He worked with Piaget and became a Professor at MIT. He is one of the earliest and most important thinkers about the application of digital technologies to schools, education, and learning. In his book Mindstorms original 1980 he described the computer as the Proteus of machines 15

Proteus early Greek sea-god god of elusive sea changeProtean (adjective):Of or resembling Proteus in having a varied natureor ability to assume different formshttp://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/proteanhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rIMgmy6KFrg

protean nature of the computerThe first metamediumhas degrees of freedom andexpression never beforeencountered(Kay, 1984, p. 59)

https://www.flickr.com/photos/mwichary/3010032738/

This is a photo of Alan Kay a computer scientist. Hes holding up a prototype of the Dynabook the ground breaking computer that he and his team developed in the early 1970s. Their work on the Dynabook directly informed and inspired Apple MacOS and eventually Windows.

He agreed with Paperts description of digital technologies as being protean. In his case, he sees it as the first metamedium. That means it can act as any medium you can think of audio, video, print and some you havent thought of yet.17

http://www.erikjohanssonphoto.com/#/cut-fold/

https://www.flickr.com/photos/gonzalobaeza/8292958010/

The meta-medium nature of ICT is the main reason why almost all of you are carrying around the object on the right, and not all of the objects on the left. Rather than have separate devices/mediums for audio, video, playing/recording etc, you have the one.

Which is probably not true, as many of you may well have a few different devices.convergence on functionality, divergence on use case.19

Week 1What is ICT?How do you learn ICT?

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Welcome to week 1 of the course. The start of your journey in this course. The focus this week is on the two questions listed.20

The aim of this week is to start helping you make the transition from feeling like this about ICT toward21

Professional Experience:16 May 3 June

https://www.flickr.com/photos/timlauer/5407980960/

The ability to design learning experiences and learning space somewhat like this one.22

How to use ICT to enhance & transform learning & teachingTeach you how to use ICT

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So what exactly are you going to learn.23

https://www.flickr.com/photos/29487672@N07/16449154564/

So why do you have to learn this?24

2.6 Implement teaching strategies for using ICT to expand curriculumlearning opportunities for studentsAustralian Professional Standards for Teachers

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Because the Australian professional standards for teachers are such that when you graduate in the next year or so, you will be expected to be able to provide evidence that you have achieved these particular standards.25

3.4 Demonstrate knowledge of arange of resources, including ICT,that engage students in theirlearningAustralian Professional Standards for Teachers

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Why?26

4.5 Demonstrate an understandingof the relevant issues and thestrategies available to support thesafe, responsible and ethical use of ICT in learning and teachingAustralian Professional Standards for Teachers

https://www.flickr.com/photos/29487672@N07/16449154564/

Not to mention a range of other requirements.27

Learning is not something that happens to students; it is something that happens by students.(Zimmerman, 1989, p. 31)

https://www.flickr.com/photos/ecmp355/6797045261/

This particular image and the associated quote from Macel Proust and the Zimmerman quote you will see on the Study Desk have been chosen to make quite explicit the assumptions underpinning this course. We dont do the learning for you. You have to do it. The destination you are going to, is not one that I can travel to. I and the other members of the course will be here to help as we can, but youre the one taking the journey.28

real new learning is hard work(Katz, 2010, p. 13)As human beings we work very hard to preserve and conserve our existing understandings. Our brains are wired that way; its a survival thing.Our default practice is to interactwith the world around usin waysthat seek to confirm what we already thinkand dismiss or ignore or transform the things thatdont fit

https://www.flickr.com/photos/ciaomrho/16532813016/

And when it comes to real new learning its hard. Human beings are pattern matching intelligences. We see patterns quickly, we match them to what we know and move on. We dont like to spent time re-arranging the patterns we have in our heads. Its hard. Wed much rather that continue using our existing patterns.29

How to use ICT to enhance & transform learning & teaching

https://www.flickr.com/photos/kalasmannen/5603647274/

Learning becomes especially hard when you are trying to transform something. And in this course we are trying to encourage you to transform how your students learn and how you teach. This does not mean continue what youve been doing but with a bit of enhancement. It means doing something different (and better).30

https://www.flickr.com/photos/greggjerdingen/20246690850/

To often what we see in this course are horseless carriages. Take what you already do (e.g. travel around in a horse led carriage) and add a bit of technology (add an engine). Transformation on the other hand is about doing something different.31

https://www.flickr.com/photos/paradasos/14632837981/

For example, this is a driverless shuttle that started running in Rotterdam in 2005 10 years ago.32

Week 1What is ICT?How do you learn ICT?

https://www.flickr.com/photos/ecmp355/6797045261/

So what is ICT?33

https://www.flickr.com/photos/kongharald/15038239390/

The graph shows the percentage of correct answers for each of 10 questions in a quiz you have to complete. The quiz asks you to identify if an object is an ICT or not. As you can see some of the questions seem to be causing people difficulty.34

ICT are digitalICT use binary numbers

https://www.flickr.com/photos/themuuj/3302984696/

The definition of ICT being used in this course is whether or not the technology is digital. i.e. does it use binary numbers to represent data. The birthday cake is using binary numbers to represent this gentlemens age. Recognition, acclaim and perhaps a prize for the first person to use either their hand or to type into the Zoom chat how old this gentlemen is using the decimal number system (i.e. the numbers we use day to day).

The advantage of representing something as binary numbers is that it can be stored and manipulated by electronic devices using various types of logic and mathematics. This is where the protean nature of ICT become apparent.35

For example this piece of advice from a student this semester. If you dont like the black text on a white background for the study desk, you can change it thanks to the protean and digital nature of ICT.36

Nature of ICTOpaqueUnstableProtean(Koehler and Mishra, 2009, p. 61)the inner workings are hidden from usersrapidly changingusable in many different waysDigital

So just in summary, ICT are digital they use binary digits to manipulate information. ICT are opaque, unstable and protean37

Week 1What is ICT?How do you learn ICT?

https://www.flickr.com/photos/ecmp355/6797045261/

So how do you learn ICT? How do you solve your own problems? How do you figure out new and interesting things to do with ICT?

Were going to look at one approach.38

Remember this feeling about ICT39

How the ICT worksYour mental model of how the ICT works

https://www.flickr.com/photos/tapps/3211030569/

And how its caused by the lack of a mental model about how different ICT actually work?

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one barrier that prevents teachers from using ICT in their teaching is lack of confidence (p. 237)many teachers who do not considerthemselves to be well skilled in usingICT feel anxious about using it in front of a class(p. 238)many teachers will choose not to use ICT and media in teaching situationsbecause of their lack of ICT skills rather than for pedagogicalreasons (p. 238)(Bingimlas, 2009)

Incorrect mental models of ICT prevent teachers from integrating ICT into pedagogy. Let alone integrate it successfully.41

How the ICT worksYour mental model of how the ICT works

Superficial mental models of ICT lead to problemsolving the relies on aimless trial and errorUse of conceptual models lead to learners ableto analyse and solve problems conceptually(Ben-Ari, 2006)

https://www.flickr.com/photos/tapps/3211030569/

And how its caused by the lack of a mental model about how different ICT actually work?

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1. What is the problem?2. What is your conceptual model?3. Why or where does your model break down?

https://www.flickr.com/photos/120600995@N07/14528385071/

This is the simple set of steps that are explained in more detail in the learning path. You will be asked in the learning path and in tutorials to practice using these steps to solve problems with ICTs. For the lecture, Im going to use these steps for a slightly different purpose.

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1. What is the problem?2. What is your conceptual model?3. Why or where does your model break down?How will EDC3100 work?

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How does this course work? What do I have to do? Whats the assessment like?

When you use this for ICT, the types of problem you might look at times when the technology isnt working as expected e.g. why didnt the cartoon I included appear in the discussion forum? Why cant anyone else see my blog post, Ive given them a URL and I can see it?

Or when you want to do something different with ICT. How do I embed a video in my blog post?44

1. What is the problem?2. What is your conceptual model?3. Why or where does your model break down?What are the ICT/concepts involved?What is the relationship between them?

https://www.flickr.com/photos/120600995@N07/14528385071/

When asked what is your conceptual model, you need to start drawing, writing, representing how you think it will work. This typically means identify all the bit that are part of it. All the different words...

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