What is geography history

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<ul><li><p>GEOGRAPHYHistory and Basic Concepts</p></li><li><p>What is Geography?Geography is the science that studies the distribution of and relationships between features found on the earths surface places where we live or travel". </p><p>The central issue in Geography evolves around the character of places, their similarities, and differences </p><p>Erastothenes (276-194 BC), an Ancient Greek Scholar first coined the term "Geography </p></li><li><p>Why is Geography unique among the subjects we study in school?..1It is primarily concerned with how things are distributed over the earths surface. </p><p>It uses graphics (maps, pictures, photography &amp; graphs) and taxonomy (classification of things) approach in its studies.</p><p>It plays a part in understanding the contemporary world unlike that of any other field of study. </p></li><li><p>Why is Geography unique among the subjects we study in school?..2Geography is not defined by its subject matter (the things it studies) but rather the method it adopts to study those materials. </p><p>Geographers adopt an interdisciplinary (holistic) approach to study things &amp; processes on the earth</p><p>Geographic Study focuses on the inter-relationships between various phenomena found on the earths surface</p></li><li><p>Human habitat &amp; Geographic studiesThe human habitat is made up of:</p><p>A natural environment: comprising natural features e.g. trees, rivers, weather, etc.</p><p>A cultural environment: consisting of products of human civilization e.g. schools, cities, cars, computers and buildings.</p></li><li><p>Major sub-disciplines in Physical &amp; Human GeographyGeography integrates a wide variety of subject matter.Almost any area of human knowledge can be examined from a spatial perspective The main divisions are Physical and Human Geography PHYSICAL HUMAN</p></li><li><p>Physical GeographyHuman GeographyRocks and MineralsPopulationLandformsSettlementsSoilsEconomic ActivitiesAnimalsTransportationPlantsRecreational ActivitiesWaterReligionAtmospherePolitical SystemsRivers &amp; other water bodiesSocial TraditionsEnvironmentHuman MigrationClimate and WeatherAgricultural SystemsOceansUrban Systems</p></li><li><p>Holistic Synthesis Geographic studies involves a holistic synthesis. </p><p>Holistic synthesis connects knowledge from a variety of academic fields in both Human and Physical Geography. </p></li><li><p>The Holistic Approach strengths and weaknessesThe holistic nature of Geography is both a strength and a weakness. </p><p>Geography's strength comes from its ability to connect functional interrelationships that are not normally noticed in narrowly defined fields of knowledge. </p><p>The holistic approach is weak because holistic understanding is often too simple and misses important details. </p></li><li><p>Historical development of GeographyThe first truly geographical studies occurred more than 4,000 years ago when explorers began traveling to new lands. </p><p>The Chinese, Egyptian, and Phoenician civilizations were beginning to explore the places and spaces within and outside their homelands. </p><p>The earliest evidence of geographic explorations comes from the archaeological discovery of a Babylonian clay tablet map that dates back to 2300 BC. </p></li><li><p>Early Greek Geographers1The Greeks were the first civilization to practice a form of Geography that was more than mere map making</p><p>Greek philosophers and scientists were interested in learning about spatial nature of human and physical features found on the Earth. </p></li><li><p>Early Greek Geographers2Ancient Greek scholar Erastosthenes first coined the word "Geography". </p><p>The term Geography is composed of two Greek words Geo = Earth and Graphien = to write , to describe</p><p>The Greeks defined Geography as Description of the Earth</p></li><li><p>Early Greek Geographers3Erastothenes (circa 276 - 194 BC) calculated the equatorial circumference of the earth to be 40,233 kilometers using simple geometric relationships. Read more http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eratosthenes</p><p>This primitive calculation was unusually accurate. Measurements of the Earth using modern satellite technology have computed the circumference to be 40,072 kilometers.</p><p>Eratosthenes coined the term Geography</p></li><li><p>Early Greek Geographers - 4Aristotle (circa 384 - 322 BC) hypothesized and scientifically demonstrated that the Earth had a spherical shape using evidence from observations of lunar eclipses. </p><p>Herodotus (circa 484 - 425 BC) wrote a number of volumes that described the Human and Physical Geography of the various regions of the Persian Empire. </p></li><li><p>Early Roman GeographersGreek accomplishments in Geography were passed on to the Romans.Strabo (circa 64 BC - 20 AD) wrote a 17 volume series called "Geographia in which he described the Cultural Geographies of various societies found from Britain to as far east as India, and south to Ethiopia and as far north as Iceland </p></li><li><p>Early Roman GeographersPtolemy (circa 100 - 178 AD) published Geographike hyphegesis or "Guide to Geography" that summarized much of the Greek and Roman geographic knowledge</p><p>Ptolemy also made 3 important contributions to modern Geography:created three different methods for projecting the Earth's surface on a map, calculated coordinate locations for some 8,000 places on the Earth, and ...developed the concepts of geographical latitude and longitude </p></li><li><p>Early World map based on Ptolemys techniques This early world map was constructed using techniques developed by Ptolemy. The map is organized with crisscrossing lines of latitude and longitude. </p></li><li><p>The Muslim geographer Al-Idrisi (1100-1165) prepared a world map and geography text in 1154. </p><p> lbn- Battutah (1305-13687) wrote Rihlah (Travels) based on three decades of journeys. Muslim Geographers</p></li><li><p>Renaissance: German GeographersBenhardus Varenius (1622-1650) published an important geographic reference titled Geographia generalis (General Geography: 1650). He used direct observations and primary measurements to present new ideas about geographic knowledge. </p><p>Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) also divided Geography into a number of sub-disciplines. He recognized the following six branches: Physical, Mathematical, Moral, Political, Commercial, and Theological Geography. </p></li><li><p>Renaissance: German GeographersAlexander von Humboldt published Kosmos (1844) which examines the Geology and Physical Geography of the Earth. </p><p>Fredrich Ratzel theorized that the distribution and culture of the Earth's various human populations was strongly influenced by the natural environment. </p><p>Carl Ritter (1780-1859) developed the concept of Regional Geography</p></li><li><p>Basic Concepts: Environmental determinismEnvironmental Determinism explains that human beings are the products of the environment where they live. The environment determines the future of people. E.g. coastal people become fishermen, those who live in forested areas become loggers &amp; farmers etc. </p><p>Geographers who supported the Environmental determinism concept included: German scholars - Carl Ritter &amp; Friedrich Ratzel American scholar - Ms. Ellen Churchill Semple. </p></li><li><p>Basic concepts - PossibilismPossibilism explains that the environment does not dictate what people would become. Rather, the environment offers opportunities for people to become what they choose to be. </p><p>The French Geographer: Paul Vidal de la Blanche and others opposed the determinism idea. Instead, they suggested that human beings were a dominant force shaping the environment. </p><p>The idea that humans were modifying the physical environment was championed in the United States by George Perkins Marsh who wrote - Man and Nature or The Earth as Modified by Human Action, first published in 1864. </p></li><li><p>Four Traditions of Geography In 1964, William Pattison suggested that modern Geography was composed of four academic traditions:</p><p>Earth Science Tradition: the study of natural phenomena from a spatial perspective. This tradition is best described as Physical Geography Culture-Environment Tradition: the geographical study of human interactions with the environment. The Location Tradition: Geography study of the spatial distribution of natural and cultural features on the earths surface Area Studies (analyses) Tradition: the geographical study of an area on the Earth at either the local, regional, or global scale.</p></li><li><p>Jobs for GeographersTeaching Geography or Social StudiesWorking as a Surveyor, Employed in the Foreign Service.Environmental Scientist at DEP Town, City, Urban and/or Regional Planner. Marketing researcher Travel Agents or Tour Guides.Cartographer,(USGS) or Defense Mapping Agency, Enumeration Officer. Officer in the Navy, Army of Air force Resource ManagersGIS SpecialistsProfessor in a UniversityConsultant (on environmental, landscape issues)</p></li></ul>