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Ancient GreeceMr. Giesler

Global StudiesWhat I Know About Greece What I Want to Learn About Greece What I LearnedAbout Greece

Refer to Notes PacketGeography

Unlike other early civilizations, Greek civilization did NOT rise in a fertile river valley Rugged and remote corner of S.E. Europe Much of Greece is mountainous and rocky terrain Has several plains.

Geography

The Pindus Mountains start in northern Greece and stretch south to the Gulf of Patra. Geographically no where in Greece is more than 60 km from the sea Greece is located on the southernmost point of the Balkan Peninsula and is flanked by 3 large bodies of water: the Aegean Sea, the Ionian Sea, and the Mediterranean Sea.

Geography The Peloponnesus Mountains occupy southern part of Greece. Approximately 20% of Greece is made up of islands. Crete is a large island located in the Mediterranean Sea Most of the people in Greece live along the coast, or along rivers and harbors. Climate - Most of Greece has a mild climate Summers are warm and dry Rain is heavy during the winter months, with some mountain areas getting snow.

Early Civilizations of Greece

Minoan Civilization Occupied the island of Crete First inhabitants probably migrated from Asia Minor We do not know a lot of the Minoan Civilization What we do know, English archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans provided Success of the Minoans was a result of tradenot conquest Minoans established outposts throughout the Aegean world, including mainland Greece Location allowed the Minoans to cross the seas to the Nile River Valley and the Middle EastEarly Civilizations of Greece

Minoan Civilization Through contact with Egypt and Mesopotamia, the Minoans acquired ideas and technology Cultural Diffusion Minoan reached its peak between 1750 1500 BCE The Palace of Knossos (NAHS uhs) Archeologist digs reveal painting suggests that women moved freely and may have enjoyed more rights than women in most ancient civilizations

Early Civilizations of Greece

Minoan Civilization About 1400 BCE, Minoan Civilization vanished Archaeologists are not sure whymaybe a volcanic eruption on nearby island Maybe an earthquake Invaders definitely played a role the MycenaeansEarly Civilizations of Greece

The Mycenaean's Indo-European people Conquered Greek mainland Dominated the Aegean world from 1400 1200 BCE Sea Traders Reached Sicily, Italy, Egypt, and Mesopotamia Influenced by the Egyptians and Mesopotamia Cultural Diffusion

Early Civilizations of Greece

The Mycenaean's Lived in separate city-states on the mainland Warrior-king ruled his village Rulers amasses treasure; gold ornaments that archaeologists have unearthed from their tombs)

Early Civilizations of Greece

The Mycenaean's The Trojan War 1250 BCE Legend or Reality??? May had its origin due to economic rivalry with Troy Troy rich trading city in now present-day Turkey Troy controlled the straits that connect the Mediterranean and Black Sea Trojan prince Pars kidnapped Helen, wife of a Greek King The Mycenaeans sailed to Troy to rescue her For 10 years, the Greeks and Troy fought

The Trojan War has its roots in the marriage between Peleus and Thetis, a sea-goddess. Peleus and Thetis had not invited Eris, the goddess of discord, to their marriage and the outraged goddess stormed into the wedding banquet and threw a golden apple onto the table. The apple belonged to, Eris said, whomever was the fairest.Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite each reached for the apple. Zeus proclaimed that Paris, prince of Troy and thought to be the most beautiful man alive, would act as the judge.Hermes went to Paris, and Paris agreed to act as the judge. Hera promised him power, Athena promised him wealth, and Aphrodite promised the most beautiful woman in the world.Paris chose Aphrodite, and she promised him that Helen, wife of Menelaus, would be his wife. Paris then prepared to set off for Sparta to capture Helen. Twin prophets Cassandra and Helenus tried to persuade him against such action, as did his mother, Hecuba. But Paris would not listen and he set off for Sparta.In Sparta, Menelaus, husband of Helen, treated Paris as a royal guest. However, when Menelaus left Sparta to go to a funeral, Paris abducted Helen (who perhaps went willingly) and also carried off much of Menelaus' wealth.In Troy, Helen and Paris were married. This occured around 1200 B.C.

18Early Civilizations of Greece

The Mycenaean's The Trojan Horse Seeking entrance into Troy, Odysseus ordered a large wooden horse to be built. Its insides were to be hollow so that soldiers could hide within it. A number of the Greek warriors, along with Odysseus, climbed inside. The rest of the Greek fleet sailed away, so as to deceive the Trojans. One man, Sinon, was left behind.Early Civilizations of Greece

The Mycenaean's The Trojan Horse When the Trojans came to marvel at the huge creation, Sinon pretended to be angry with the Greeks, stating that they had deserted him. He assured the Trojans that the wooden horse was safe and would bring luck to the Trojans. The Trojans celebrated what they thought was their victory, and dragged the wooden horse into Troy. At night, after most of Troy was asleep or in a drunken stupor, Sinon let the Greek warriors out from the horse, and they slaughtered the Trojans.

Early Civilizations of Greece

Homer Mycenaean power faded 1100 to 800 BCE, Greek Civilization seemed tohave step backwards; trade declined, cities wereabandoned, and people stopped writing Homer; Greek poet; author of the Iliad and Odyssey According to legend, Homer was blind and would wander from village to village playing his harp and singing of heroic deeds His tales were passed from generation to generation before they were written downNot This HomerEarly Civilizations of Greece

Homer The Iliad, serves as our primary source about the Trojan War, including several writing liberties such as gods, goddesses, and a talking horseMother tells me,the immortal goddess Thetis with her glistening feet,that two fates bear me on to the day of death.If I hold out here and I lay siege to Troy,my journey home is gone, but my glory never dies.If I voyage back to the fatherland I love,my pride, my glory diesTTYN what is Homers message in this passage?Courage is not the absence of fear, but the presence of fear yet the will to go on23Early Civilizations of Greece

Homer The Odyssey, Homer tells the reader a story of the struggles of the Greek hero Odysseus to return home to his faithful wife, Penelope, after the fall of Troy. During his journey home, Odysseus encounters a sea monster, a race of one-eyed giants, and beautiful sorceress who turns men into swine. TTYN The Iliad and the Odyssey tell us what about the ancient Greeks?

Homer depicts the heroism and courage of the ancient GreeksThe Rise of Greek City-States How Geography played a big role in the development of Ancient Greece The mountains divided the peninsula into isolate valleys Beyond the coastline sat hundreds of rocky islands The Greeks did NOT establish a large empire as the Egyptians and Mesopotamians had they built many small city-states City-states were cut off from one another by either land or water Strong loyalty to their own city-state Fiercely defended their independence Frequent wars between the city-statesThe Rise of Greek City-States

The Polis

750 BCE, a unique version of the city-state called the polis The top of the city sat the acropolis or high city, with great marble temples dedicated to gods and goddesses On flatter grounds lay the walled main city with its market place, theater, public buildings, and homes Men would spend time in the marketplace, debating issues that affected their livesThe Rise of Greek City-States

Early Governments

750 500 BCE Different forms of government First, Monarchy king or queen exercised power Next, Aristocracy class of noble landowners would win power for themselves Trade expands and new middle class of wealthy merchants emerge Challenged the landowning nobles for power. Oligarchy power is in the hands of a small, powerful elite, usually from the business elite The Rise of Greek City-States

Changes in Warfare

Technology contributes to military strategies and power Iron weapons replaced bronze; iron cheaper; now the common man could acquire iron helmets, shields, and swords New fighting methods emerge The Phalanx emerges formation of heavily armed foot soldiers The phalanx reduces class differencesTTYN why did the phalanx impact class differences?Defense was now in the hands of ordinary citizensWhat I Know About Greece What I Want to Learn About Greece What I Have Learned So farAbout Greece Sparta and Athens

The effect of new technology and warfare lead to emergences of two dominate city-states: Sparta and Athens Developed very different ways of life Sparta stressed military virtues and discipline Athens glorified the individual; would extend political rights to more citizensSparta and Athens

Sparta Spartans conquer Laconia This region lies in the Peloponnesus (southern part of Greece) Conquered people turned into slaves, called helots Helots worked the land Spartans administered a brutal system of strict control Spartan Government consisted of two kings and a council of elders who advised the elders Assembly, made up of all citizens approved major decisions; citizens were male and over 30Sparta and Athens

Life as a Spartan Young boys were bred to be strong Spartans Spartan boys were only allowed to wear one layer of clothing Spartan youth became excellent soldiers Encouraged to steal to develop cunning and supplement their diet; if caught they would be beaten Spartan women wrestled and took part in sports Had to obey their fathers or

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