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  • Slide 1
  • What does this image tell us?
  • Slide 2
  • What did the image tell us?
  • Slide 3
  • Urban Areas What will I understand by the end of this unit? What will I understand by the end of this unit? I will understand what the process of urbanisation means. I will understand what the process of urbanisation means. I will be able to identify the characteristics and patterns of urbanisation. I will be able to identify the characteristics and patterns of urbanisation. I will understand the causes and effects of urbanisation. I will understand the causes and effects of urbanisation. I will understand the functions of urban environments. I will understand the functions of urban environments. I will understand the concept of sustainable development within a urban context. I will understand the concept of sustainable development within a urban context. I will be able to apply my knowledge at a local, national and global scale. I will be able to apply my knowledge at a local, national and global scale.
  • Slide 4
  • How has the Worlds Urban Population changed through time? Year Urban Population (000s) 1950736 796 1960996 298 19701 331 783 19801 740 551 19902 274 554 20002 853 909 20053 164 635 20103 494 607 20153 844 664 20204 209 669 20304 965 081 20405 708 869 20506 398 291 Source: United Nations Population Data Base
  • Slide 5
  • Why Study Urban Environments? Last year for the first time in human history 50% of the worlds population will live in Urban Areas. Last year for the first time in human history 50% of the worlds population will live in Urban Areas. All population growth until at least 2030 will take place in urban areas. All population growth until at least 2030 will take place in urban areas. In 2005 only 4.3% of the worlds population lives in urban areas of more than 10 million. In 2005 only 4.3% of the worlds population lives in urban areas of more than 10 million. Source: United Nations Population Data Base
  • Slide 6
  • Global Urban Growth
  • Slide 7
  • Global Urban Annual Growth Rates
  • Slide 8
  • Percentage Urban Population What are the causes of a global increase in urban population?
  • Slide 9
  • Where the Lights Shine Brightest. The Worlds Millionaire Urban Areas 2006. RankUrban PopulationUrban AreaCountry 134,997,269TokyoJapan 218,660,221Mexico CityMexico 318,252,339New YorkUSA 417,857,001Sao PauloBrazil 517,431,305Mombai (Bombay)India 614,145,956DehliIndia 713,805,691CalcuttaIndia 813,047,115Buenos AiresArgentina 912,759,367ShanghaiChina 1012,295,516JakartaIndonesia 1112,018,068Los AngelesUSA 1211,560,211DhakaBangladesh 1311,243,853Osaka-kobeJapan 1411,214,126Rio de JaneiroBrazil 1511,078,298KarachiPakistan 1610,847,827BeijingChina 219,794,337ParisFrance 277,619,014LondonUnited Kingdom 2721,390,572LyonFrance
  • Slide 10
  • What urban areas can you identify on this image?
  • Slide 11
  • What characteristics do you associate with an urban area? Site and Situation Site and Situation The site is the actual location of the urban area. Lyon is: The site is the actual location of the urban area. Lyon is: 45 degrees, 46 minutes North 45 degrees, 46 minutes North 4 degrees, 50 minutes East 4 degrees, 50 minutes East The situation is location of an urban area relative to other places surrounding it (human and physical). The situation is location of an urban area relative to other places surrounding it (human and physical). Use the following map to describe the location of Lyon. Use the following map to describe the location of Lyon.
  • Slide 12
  • Slide 13
  • What characteristics do you associate with an urban area?
  • Slide 14
  • Slide 15
  • How does Roman Lyon compare with Lyon of today?
  • Slide 16
  • Urban areas are not a new phenomena. The Urban Area of Palmyra, Syria. Population in 63BC : 200 000
  • Slide 17
  • Palmyra today. The location factors that once made it a great city are no longer important.
  • Slide 18
  • Functions of Urban Environments As settlements grow they develop a specific function or set of functions. As settlements grow they develop a specific function or set of functions. Functions are collectively, the services, goods and amenities available in a settlement. A large city will have many more functions than a small village. Functions are collectively, the services, goods and amenities available in a settlement. A large city will have many more functions than a small village. Low-order functions provide convenience goods likely to be required frequently, perhaps every day. Low-order functions provide convenience goods likely to be required frequently, perhaps every day. High-order functions will supply specialised or long lasting goods. They will only be available in larger settlements. High-order functions will supply specialised or long lasting goods. They will only be available in larger settlements. What functions are available in Lyon; Gerland? What functions are available in Lyon; Gerland?
  • Slide 19
  • Functions of Urban Environments As an urban environment grows it will develop a huge variety of functions. As an urban environment grows it will develop a huge variety of functions. At any one time the economic structure of an urban area will consist of a complex mixture of functions of varying strength. At any one time the economic structure of an urban area will consist of a complex mixture of functions of varying strength. The strength of a particular function can be thought of as the percentage of a citys labour force employed in that function. The strength of a particular function can be thought of as the percentage of a citys labour force employed in that function. What are Lyons main functions today, or in the past? What are Lyons main functions today, or in the past?
  • Slide 20
  • A check list of possible functions in urban environments Developed CountriesDeveloping Countries MiningAdministration Manufacturing / IndustrialMarketing / Agricultural Route Centre / Transport Retail / WholesaleMining Religious / CulturalCommercial Trade / Commerce / FinancialReligious AdministrationResidential Resort / Recreation Residential New Towns
  • Slide 21
  • Settlement Hierarchy
  • Slide 22
  • Urban Growth Many are regional or national capitals and these attract service industries linked to law, finance and administration. Many are regional or national capitals and these attract service industries linked to law, finance and administration. Companies locate their headquarters in important cities. Companies locate their headquarters in important cities. They are important transport centres. They are important transport centres. Good communications make them attractive to manufacturing industries. Good communications make them attractive to manufacturing industries. Many cities are at the coast and have port facilities. Many cities are at the coast and have port facilities. Trade leads to growth of industries which process raw materials. These in turn attract commerce and finance. Trade leads to growth of industries which process raw materials. These in turn attract commerce and finance. The number and range of jobs attract people from other parts of the country. The number and range of jobs attract people from other parts of the country. The large population provides a large market for goods and services such as shops, education and entertainment. The large population provides a large market for goods and services such as shops, education and entertainment. A growing market attracts yet more investment to these cities. A growing market attracts yet more investment to these cities. History of Lyon Jigsaw Activity Function and Reasons for Growth History of Lyon Jigsaw Activity Function and Reasons for Growth
  • Slide 23
  • Models of Urban Structure in an MEDC
  • Slide 24
  • Models of Urban Structure
  • Slide 25
  • Urban Structure in a LEDC
  • Slide 26
  • Models of Urban Growth - Activity Work in pairs / groups Work in pairs / groups Each group has a number of photos showing different zones within urban areas. Each group has a number of photos showing different zones within urban areas. For each photograph identify which urban zone is shown and give reasons for your answer. For each photograph identify which urban zone is shown and give reasons for your answer. For each photograph give reasons for its location on the model. For each photograph give reasons for its location on the model.
  • Slide 27
  • Slide 28
  • Slide 29
  • Slide 30
  • Transport route, Rodovia Ayrton Senna da Silva, Sao Paulo
  • Slide 31
  • Slide 32
  • Favelas
  • Slide 33
  • Slide 34
  • Slide 35
  • Slide 36
  • Slide 37
  • Global Cities Watch this film on Global Cities. Watch this film on Global Cities.Global CitiesGlobal Cities What issues does it raise for future development of urban environments? What issues does it raise for future development of urban environments? In relation to urban areas what do you think sustainable development should be? In relation to urban areas what do you think sustainable development should be?

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