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  • Slide 1
  • Wellness and Illness
  • Slide 2
  • Cell Pathology Cell Pathology understanding dysfunction of the bodys heirarchy dysfunction studied at the microscope level 1) examine cells 2) measure cell metabolism using chemical or genetic testing
  • Slide 3
  • Cell Pathology Biopsy Biopsy identifying conditions Biopsy 1) amyloid deposition 2) atrophy 3) dysplasia 4) dystrophy 5) fatty change 6) hyperplasia 7) hypertrophy 8) metaplasia 9) metastasis 10) necrosis
  • Slide 4
  • Cell Pathology amyloid deposition accumulation of amyloids in a cell amyloidosis accumulation of amyloids in a cell amyloidosisamyloids amyloidosis usually results in cell death amyloidosis usually results in cell death Alzheimers is an example of amyloid deposition Alzheimers is an example of amyloid deposition
  • Slide 5
  • Cell Pathology atrophy decrease in size of cell, tissue, or organ decrease in size of cell, tissue, or organ due to undernutrition, blood flow problems due to undernutrition, blood flow problems muscle atrophy is the result of nerve damage or lack of muscle use. muscle atrophy is the result of nerve damage or lack of muscle use.
  • Slide 6
  • Cell Pathology dysplasia disorderly growth pattern in a tissue or organ disorderly growth pattern in a tissue or organ not cancerous not cancerous significant impact on function of the affected body structure significant impact on function of the affected body structure
  • Slide 7
  • Cell Pathology dystrophy ill growth ill growth progressive changes in tissue progressive changes in tissue due to due to 1) long term malnutrition 2) undernutrition 3) decreased blood flow
  • Slide 8
  • Cell Pathology fatty change accumulation of lipids in the cell due to cellular injury accumulation of lipids in the cell due to cellular injury alcohol fat accumulation in liver cells alcohol fat accumulation in liver cells fat continues to build up in cells organelles until it disrupts normal cell and tissue function fat continues to build up in cells organelles until it disrupts normal cell and tissue function
  • Slide 9
  • Cell Pathology hyperplasia abnormal multiplication of the number of cells in a tissue abnormal multiplication of the number of cells in a tissue arrangement and distribution of cells in the tissue not affected arrangement and distribution of cells in the tissue not affected risk of certain cancers risk of certain cancers distorts the function of the tissue or organ distorts the function of the tissue or organ
  • Slide 10
  • Cell Pathology hypertrophy enlargement of a tissue or organ enlargement of a tissue or organ NOT due to cell number, but cell size NOT due to cell number, but cell size distorts tissue or organ function distorts tissue or organ function disrupts homeostasis disrupts homeostasis
  • Slide 11
  • Cell Pathology metaplasia change in cell and tissue function from normal to abnormal change in cell and tissue function from normal to abnormal can be reversible one cell type replaced by another cell type inappropriate functioning of tissue or organ can be reversible one cell type replaced by another cell type inappropriate functioning of tissue or organ caused by: caused by: DNA damage exposure to hazardous chemicals long term metaplasia can result in cancer due to breakdown in cell communication and tissue organization long term metaplasia can result in cancer due to breakdown in cell communication and tissue organization
  • Slide 12
  • Cell Pathology metastasis restricted to highly abnormal cells cancerous restricted to highly abnormal cells cancerous diseased cells break away from the original location in the body and establish themselves in a new area diseased cells break away from the original location in the body and establish themselves in a new area carry out abnormal functions in new location
  • Slide 13
  • Cell Pathology necrosis localized tissue death localized tissue death results from results from blood flow decrease burns chemical damage infection injury results in deceased function of tissue, organ, and organ system results in deceased function of tissue, organ, and organ system
  • Slide 14
  • Wellness and Illness Cellular Aging As we know, cellular aging = the accumulation of molecular decay Occurs 2 ways 1) cytoplasmic damage 2) DNA damage
  • Slide 15
  • Cellular Aging No mitosis in: a) fat cells b) skeletal muscle c) nervous tissue Mitosis = minor DNA damage repairs made Over a lifetime cells accumulate years of damage in cytoplasm = accumulated cell damage
  • Slide 16
  • Cellular Aging Cells with accumulated cell damage eventually fail at performing normal tasks negatively affects other tissues and organ systems The effects of accumulated cell damage are increased by: a) hazardous chemicals b) pollution c) smoking d) radiation e) ultraviolet light f) viruses g) stress stress
  • Slide 17
  • Cellular Aging Too much chemical damage = premature death due to: 1) metabolic malfunction 2) apoptosis apoptosis
  • Slide 18
  • Cellular Aging Cells that do replicate (mitosis) accumulate different damage DNA damaged every S phase (mostly deletions) DNA damaged every S phase (mostly deletions) After several hundred rounds of mitosis these cells may function abnormally due to accumulation of mutations After several hundred rounds of mitosis these cells may function abnormally due to accumulation of mutations digestive respiratory integumentary
  • Slide 19
  • Cellular Aging These changes can lead to cancer, especially if genes related to mitosis are damaged These changes can lead to cancer, especially if genes related to mitosis are damaged Additionally, every mitosis shortens the end of chromosomes (telomeres) Additionally, every mitosis shortens the end of chromosomes (telomeres) No genes on telomeres, but too much telomere shortening abnormal chromosome structure malfunction or apoptosis No genes on telomeres, but too much telomere shortening abnormal chromosome structure malfunction or apoptosis
  • Slide 20
  • Cellular Aging Hypothesis that telomere shortening = molecular clock Hypothesis that telomere shortening = molecular clock Telomere shortening DOES NOT occur in cancer cells Telomere shortening DOES NOT occur in cancer cells
  • Slide 21
  • Cellular Aging
  • Slide 22
  • apoptosis normal cell death scheduled by genetic programming, that does not affect surrounding cells
  • Slide 23
  • Stress releases body chemicals that contribute to decay chemicals bind to DNA altered gene expression chemicals bind to DNA altered gene expression
  • Slide 24
  • dysfunction biologists abnormal, impaired, or incomplete functioning of an organism, organ system, organ, tissue, or cell almost all gross diseases are the result of dysfunction in one or more tissues in an organ system
  • Slide 25
  • biopsy the removal of diseased cells for study
  • Slide 26
  • amyloid proteinlike material proteinlike material intended to be beneficial for cell, but harmful when build up in cytoplasm intended to be beneficial for cell, but harmful when build up in cytoplasm indicate cell damage indicate cell damage

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