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  • WATER REUSE TECHNOLOGYDEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Demonstration Facility Pilot StudyFuzzy Filter For Primary And Tertiary Treatment

    Final Report

    June 2002

    By

    HDR Engineering, Inc.

    BLACK & VEATCH

    Department of Natural Resources and ParksWastewater Treatment DivisionTechnology Assessment Program

  • King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks

    June 2002 i King County Water Reuse Technology Demonstration ProjectFuzzy Filter Report (Final Report)

    ContentsExecutive Summary.................................................................................................................... 1

    Summary of Results ................................................................................................................................. 1Primary Treatment................................................................................................................................ 1Tertiary Treatment With No Chemical Addition.................................................................................... 1Tertiary Treatment With Chemical Addition ......................................................................................... 2

    Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 4Description of the Technology .................................................................................................. 4

    General Filtration Theory.......................................................................................................................... 4Filter Types........................................................................................................................................... 4Particle Removal Mechanisms ............................................................................................................. 4

    Transport.......................................................................................................................................... 4Removal ........................................................................................................................................... 5Detachment...................................................................................................................................... 5

    Use of Coagulants for Improving Filter Performance ........................................................................... 5Influences on Filter Performance ......................................................................................................... 5Comparison of Fuzzy Filter to Conventional Filters ............................................................................. 5

    Findings of Previous Studies ........................................................................................................... 6Current Installations ......................................................................................................................... 7

    General Operation .................................................................................................................................... 7

    Pilot Testing ................................................................................................................................ 9Goals and Objectives................................................................................................................................ 9Description and Graphic Presentation of the Demonstration Setup....................................................... 10

    General............................................................................................................................................... 10Pilot Unit Components ................................................................................................................... 10

    Primary Treatment Pilot Operation..................................................................................................... 12Tertiary Treatment Pilot Operation ..................................................................................................... 12Comparison of Pilot Unit to Full-Scale Application............................................................................. 14

    Testing Plan............................................................................................................................................ 14Test Conditions................................................................................................................................... 14Operation of Pilot Unit During Testing................................................................................................ 16Sampling and Analysis ....................................................................................................................... 17Primary Treatment.............................................................................................................................. 18Tertiary Treatment With No Chemical Addition.................................................................................. 19Tertiary Testing With Chemical Addition ............................................................................................ 21

    Results ....................................................................................................................................... 23Primary Treatment .................................................................................................................................. 24

    Turbidity Removal............................................................................................................................... 24Pressure Buildup ................................................................................................................................ 28Removal Efficiency............................................................................................................................. 30

    Tertiary Treatment With No Chemical Addition ...................................................................................... 31Typical Performance .......................................................................................................................... 31

    10% Compression.......................................................................................................................... 3120% Compression.......................................................................................................................... 3330% Compression.......................................................................................................................... 35

    Filter Performance Under Special Conditions .................................................................................... 36Parameters Affecting Fuzzy Filter Performance ................................................................................ 38Performance During Operational Condition Testing .......................................................................... 39

  • King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks

    June 2002 ii King County Water Reuse Technology Demonstration ProjectFuzzy Filter Report (Final Report)

    Influent Turbidity Loading Impacts on Effluent Turbidity................................................................ 40Filter Run Time............................................................................................................................... 44

    Removal of Pollutants With No Chemical Addition ............................................................................ 47Extended Testing Performance.......................................................................................................... 51

    Turbidity Removal During Extended Runs With No Chemical Addition......................................... 52Filter Run Times During Extended Runs With No Chemical Addition ........................................... 54Reliability Considerations............................................................................................................... 55

    Tertiary Treatment With Chemical Addition............................................................................................ 57Jar Testing with Alum ......................................................................................................................... 57Analysis of Performance with Different Coagulant Dosages and Types............................................ 58

    Alum Versus PACl.......................................................................................................................... 58Performance with PACl Under Different Operational Conditions .................................................. 62Performance with PACl at Different Chemical Dosages................................................................ 65

    Evaluation of Pilot Results and Conclusions......................................................................... 70Primary Treatment .................................................................................................................................. 70Tertiary Treatment With No Chemical Addition ...................................................................................... 71

    Comparison of Pilot Results to West Point WWTP Filters ................................................................. 73Tertiary Treatment With Chemical Addition............................................................................................ 75

    Implementation ......................................................................................................................... 77Tertiary Treatme

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