water balance

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Water Balance. Urine Output. more water in usually means more urine out Increased water intake = increased urine output Decreased water intake = decreased urine output some liquids encourage increase urine excretion diuretics frequency of urination dependent on hormonal signals. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Urine Outputmore water in usually means more urine outIncreased water intake = increased urine outputDecreased water intake = decreased urine output

    some liquids encourage increase urine excretion diuretics

    frequency of urination dependent on hormonal signals

  • Three Effects of Urine

    Osmotic Pressure

    Blood Pressure

    pH Balance

  • Osmotic Pressureosmotic pressure (osmolarity) water pressure due to presence of solutesThe more concentrated a solution, the higher its osmotic pressure (osmolarity)antidiuretic hormone (ADH) regulates blood osmotic pressure through kidneysa short peptide hormone

  • Osmotic PressureWhat type of situation would cause increased osmotic pressure of our blood/interstitial fluid?sweating / dehydrationcauses increased ADH productionincrease water reabsorptiondilutes bloodconcentrates urine


  • osmoreceptors in hypothalamus detect increased osmotic pressure sends signals to pituitary gland

    ADH produced in hypothalamus and is transported to the pituitary gland

  • Osmotic Pressureincreased osmotic pressureosmoreceptorspituitary gland; release ADHdecreased osmotic pressureincreased sensation of thirstincreased water reabsorption by kidney

  • ADH AnimationThe following animation will contain some terminology not covered.


  • Blood Pressureblood pressure increase force of blood on blood vessels

    aldosterone hormone which increases Na+ reabsorption in kidneysincreased H2O in blood increased blood pressure

  • Blood Pressure

    aldosterone produced in adrenal gland, above kidney

  • Blood Pressure

  • Blood PressureWhat part of the kidney would be affected by low blood pressure?glomerulus; high blood pressure needed for filtrationdecreased blood pressure detected by juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA)receptors next to the glomerulus

  • Blood Pressurethe enzyme renin, is released



  • Blood Pressure

    Two important functions of angiotensin:causes blood vessel constrictionstimulates aldosterone release

  • low blood pressurejuxtaglomerular apparatuscells to release renin; produce angiotensinblood pressure increasesconstrict blood vesselsinduce aldosterone release;increase Na+ reabsorption

  • pH BalanceHow do living systems regulate the amount of acid / base in their systems?

    buffers conjugate acid-base pairs

    H3PO4H2PO4- + H+

  • pH Balanceconversion of CO2 to other compounds help regulate blood pH

    H2O + CO2 H2CO3 HCO3- + H+

    pH determined by the relative magnitudes of HCO3- reabsorption and H+ secretion in the proximal and distal tubules

    H+HCO3-If blood pH too low increase in H+ secretion (pH of urine gets lower, more acidic) increase in blood pH

    If blood pH too high increase in HCO3- reabsorption (pH of urine increases) decrease in blood pH

  • Classwork/HomeworkSection 7.6 Pg. 356 #1-8, 10