Warm Up 1 Pretend that you are an explorer in the 1700’s. Pretend that you know nothing of the technology currently available to you (no cell phones, GPS,
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Warm Up 1 Pretend that you are an explorer in the 1700s. Pretend that you know nothing of the technology currently available to you (no cell phones, GPS, computers or internet). Pretend that you are asked to draw of map of the places you personally visit. Talk to your partner about how you will go about the task of map making. Sketch a brief drawing of a map of some place you have personally visited or you can do this for the town of Weatherford. This is what explorers maps looked like as they traveled. Samples of atlas images of historical exploration and voyagesP.S. Atlas is a figure from Greek mythology. He is the son of the Titan Iapetus and Clymene (or Asia), and brother of Prometheus. Atlas was punished by Zeus and made to bear the weight of the heavensWarm Up 2With your partner, discuss the following topic:What do you already know about the slave trade out of Africa to North America?https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TtRaG_bokdsAGE OF EXPLORATIONConnecting HemispheresCAUSES OF EUROPEAN EXPANSION FROM 1450 TO 1750 Renaissance ideas Desire for trade routes, spices, and profits or a greater wealth. Desire to spread Christianity New technologies in ships and sailing. Increase countrys power Absolute monarchs use their wealth and power to support the Age of Exploration. God, Gold and Glory Concept Technological AdvancesSextantCaravel Used by the Portuguese Triangle Sails RudderCompasshnice - merchants wanted to bypass Italian and Muslim merchants - after Crusades spices were in demand. They wanted to start their own spice trade - this meant finding trade routes to Asia.Crusades left feelings of hostility - they believed it was their sacred duty to continue fighting the Muslims and to convert non-Christians throughout the world.Dias's motives "to serve God and His Majesty, to give light to those who were in darkness and to grow rich as all men desire to do."Technology made these voyages possible. Without the new technology, the explorers would not have been able to navigate the distances they did.Go to your read-a-long page. Discuss with your partner the following question.Now that the Europeans have better exploring equipment, what is the result?Improved ships and new navigational instruments made for longer journeys.Now that we can travel farther and faster we can trade more effectively with new groups of people. Mercantilism an economic system developing during the decay of feudalism to unify and increase the power and especially the monetary wealth of a nation by a strict governmental regulation of the entire national economy usually through policies designed to secure an accumulation of bullion, a favorable balance of trade, the development of agriculture and manufactures, and the establishment of foreign trading monopolies Growth of MercantilismNations increase power in 2 ways 1) get as much gold & silver as you can 2) sell more goods that you buyGoal is to become self-sufficient Causes Changes in European Societyhnice - Mercantilism is the theory that a countries power depends mainly on its wealth. According to this theory, you can obtain wealth in two ways. A nations ultimate goal under mercantilism is to b/cm self-sufficient. So, this goes hand in hand with colonization - for the colonies played a vital role in this new system. Aside from providing gold and silver, they provide things that can not be found in the home country like wood or fur. They become a supplier of raw goods, but also a market for the finished product.The Commercial Revolution spurs the growth of towns and the rise in status of the merchant class. These only go so far though - many of Europes people still live in rural conditions and the m ajority of them remain poor. More than anything else, the Commerical Revolution increases the wealth of European nations.GO OVER THEIR ANSWERS TO NEW WORLD/OLD WORLD PRODUCTS. LOOK AT PAGE 501. Go to your read-a-long page. Discuss with your partner the following questions.How does the growth of mercantilism cause changes in European society? What changes and how does it change? Ottoman Empire and the Turks(14531922) Talk about the important geographical factors of the Ottoman Empire. Why do you think the Ottomans were not able to control Western Europe?hnice - Ruled by Ming Dynasty overlords, contol Korea and southeast asia through tribute and signs of submission.When the Qing Dynasty takes over from the Ming, they enforce a policy of Isolationism - if anyone wanted to trade with China, they had to accept the strict rules of the Chinese which included trading only at special ports and paying tribute. The Dutch followed these rules - as a result the Dutch returned home with silk and a new trade item - tea. By 1800 tea would make up 80% of the shipments to Europe. Britain attempted to trade with China, but China would not bend as Britain would not comply to their rules and wanted to make them buy British products. Zheng He - a Chinese Muslim who launched seven voyages of exploration in 1405 before the Europeans began to sail beyond their borders. Remarkable voyages b/c of distance traveled, size of ships and fleet. He went to SE Asia, India, Arabia, and Africa.Rise of the Ottoman Empire Capture of Constantinople and renaming to Istanbul Capture of Mecca, Medina, and Cairo List the areas the Ottoman Empire controlled on trade routes. Cultural and political achievements under Suleiman IEmpire in place until end of World War IHe is known in the West as Suleiman the Magnificent and in the East, as "The Lawgiver." Instituted legislative changes relating to society, education, taxation, and criminal law. He was a distinguished poet and goldsmith. He was a patron of culture and cared about artistic, literary and architectural development in the Ottoman Empire. He spoke five languages: Ottoman Turkish, Arabic, Chagatai, Persian and Serbian. IMPACT OF OTTOMAN EMPIRE ON EASTERN EUROPE AND GLOBAL TRADEEastern Europe: Constantinople conquered in 1453 and renamed Istanbul Suleimans advances into Hungary and Austria in 1525 but expansion stopped with the Siege of Vienna in 1529 Caravanseri (roadside inns for rest) network: assured safety for traveling merchants and envoys Go to your read-a-long page. Discuss with your partner the following question: What would make having these caravanseri very important to merchants? Naval trade in spices, wheat, and lumber throughout the Mediterranean, Aegean, Black and Red Seas and the Persian GulfThe Ottoman Empire controlled trade routes for hundreds of year in: Middle EastIndian OceanWestern Russia and Republics areaChina and the Ming Dynasty(1368-1644) hnice - Ruled by Ming Dynasty overlords, contol Korea and southeast asia through tribute and signs of submission.When the Qing Dynasty takes over from the Ming, they enforce a policy of Isolationism - if anyone wanted to trade with China, they had to accept the strict rules of the Chinese which included trading only at special ports and paying tribute. The Dutch followed these rules - as a result the Dutch returned home with silk and a new trade item - tea. By 1800 tea would make up 80% of the shipments to Europe. Britain attempted to trade with China, but China would not bend as Britain would not comply to their rules and wanted to make them buy British products. Zheng He - a Chinese Muslim who launched seven voyages of exploration in 1405 before the Europeans began to sail beyond their borders. Remarkable voyages b/c of distance traveled, size of ships and fleet. He went to SE Asia, India, Arabia, and Africa.Zheng HeAdmiral Zheng He had massive ships created in order to conduct trading expeditions. They visited southeast Asia, India, Arabia, and East Africa They brought back gold and animals just as zebras and camels. Overall, these expeditions brought wealth and knowledge of other civilizations to China. Influence of the Ming dynasty on world trade Goals Impress world with the power and splendor of Ming China and expand Chinas tribute system Envoys from different countries travel to China with tribute However, the Ming leaders feared foreign cultures would corrupt Chinese culture so they moved into a time of isolation. The fleet of ships was too expense to maintain and since there were no longer in use the Chinese burned some ships and let others just rot away.Zheng He and Columbus: Flag ShipsGo to your read-a-long page. Discuss with your partner the following questions.What would the long-term global effects of the Chinese choosing not to explore anymore? DIFFUSION OF MAJOR IDEAS IN MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE, AND TECHNOLOGYThe Ming Dynasty adopted the following items and ideas as they traveled: Spurred by contact with Europe, i.e., telescope Trigonometry Hydraulic powered devices for irrigation and agriculture Snorkeling gear for pearl divers Astronomy from India Europeans Trade in the Easthnice - Ruled by Ming Dynasty overlords, contol Korea and southeast asia through tribute and signs of submission.When the Qing Dynasty takes over from the Ming, they enforce a policy of Isolationism - if anyone wanted to trade with China, they had to accept the strict rules of the Chinese which included trading only at special ports and paying tribute. The Dutch followed these rules - as a result the Dutch returned home with silk and a new trade item - tea. By 1800 tea would make up 80% of the shipments to Europe. Britain attempted to trade with China, but China would not bend as Britain would not comply to their rules and wanted to make them buy British products. Zheng He - a Chinese Muslim who launched seven voyages of exploration in 1405 before the Europeans began to sail beyond their borders. Remarkable voyages b/c of distance traveled, size of ships and fleet. He went to SE Asia, India, Arabia, and Africa.Go to your read-a-long page. Discuss with your partner the following question.Give examples of physical geographic factors on trade in the Indian Ocean.Portugal Leads the WayPrince Henry the Navigator was interested in trading in Africa and began to do so around her western coastline. Navigation schoolhnice - Henry's dreams of wealth began when he helped conquer the Muslim city of Ceuta. They found exotic stores of pepper, cinnamon, cloves, and other spices; gold, silver, and jewels.He wanted to reach the source of the wealth and spread the faith, so he opened a Navigation school where map makers, instrument makers, shipbuilders, scientists, and sea captains gathered to perfect their trade. By his death they had begun trading with Africa for gold and ivory, and eventually began trading for African Captives to be used as slaves. Having established Africa, they decide to move to Asia.Bartolomeu Dias, in 1488, ventures down Africa to reach the tip - men are too tired to continue though. However, his journey let other explorers know Africa could be rounded to reach Asia.Vasco da Gama - first to reach Calicut on the southern coast of India. Amazed by the spices, rare silks, and precious gems that they had to offer. They filled their ships and returned in 1499 to Portugal where he received a hero's welcome.Bartolomeu DiasIn 1488, ventures down Africa to reach the tip men are too tired to continue though. However, his journey let other explores know Africa could be rounded to reach Asia. Cape of Good Hope Vasco da GamaFirst to reach Calicut on the southern coast of India. Amazed by the spices, rare silks, and precious gems that they had to offer. They filled their sips and returned in 1499 to Portugal where he received a heros welcome. Dutch and the East IndiesTheDutch Empire. Dark green areas were controlled by theDutch West Indies Company; light green areas were controlled by theDutch East India Company.Hendrik Brouwer was a Dutch explorer, admiral and colonial administrator both in Japan and the Dutch East Indies. He was the first to have sailed to the East Indies for the Dutch East India Company in 1606.Abel Tasman was a Dutch seafarer, explorer and merchant, best known for his voyages of 1642 and 1644 in the services of the United East India Company. He was the first known European explorer to reach the island of Tasmania, New Zealand and to sight the Fiji islands.Later named Tasmania after Abel TasmanEast IndiesSometimes called the Dutch East Indies French in Indochina After competing with the Dutch, Portuguese, and British over the area the French gain a stronghold in Indochina in 1885.French Explorers to the region:Henri MouhotAuguste Jean-Marie Pavie Indochina: controlled by the French at the time called French IndochinaCalled the Indochinese Peninsula today.All of these European countries wanted goods from Asia and they were all in completion for each other. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NHGT5ivAk4cSpices the Europeans were interested in:NutmegMaceCinnamonPepperClovesGo to your read-a-long page. Discuss with your partner the following questions. List some of the major imports and exports of today.List a few pros and cons for a government to require taxes on imported items.EUROPEANS COMPETING FOR NORTH AMERICAhttp://www.eduplace.com/kids/socsci/books/applications/imaps/maps/g5s_u2/index.html Click on link, click on each name to see their individual movement. Go to your read-a-long page. Discuss with your partner the following questions. Give a brief definition of these three words. Do they have anything in common? How are they different?ColonizationImperialism Exploration Comparing and Contrasting WordsExploration- the action of traveling in or through an unfamiliar area in order to learn about it. Imperialism- a policy of extending a countrys power and influence through diplomacy or military force. Colonization- sending settlers to (a place) and to establish political control over it. Spanish ExplorationChristopher Columbus (Italian:Cristoforo Colombo;Spanish:Cristbal Coln) Italian explorer. (1492) He goes to Portugal to gain resources for a voyage west however, they had already funded expeditions to India with the help of Vasco de Gama. So Columbus tried the Spanish. Under Ferdinand and Isabella, the Catholic monarchs, he completedfour voyagesacross the Atlantic Ocean that led to general European awareness of theAmerican continents. Those voyages, and his efforts to establish permanent settlements on the island ofHispaniola, initiated theSpanish colonizationof theNew World. Name his ships.hnice - Spanish monarchs, watching the Portugese with envy, also desire a direct route to Asia. When Columbus convinces them he can find a route by sailing west in the Atlantic, Ferdinand and Isabella fund his voyage. When Columbus returns from the New World he claims that he has reached Asia. The Portuguese hear these accounts and believe that Columbus is laying claim to land they have already claimed, the rivalry b/t the two grows very intense. Pope Alexander VI steps in and suggests an imaginary dividing line b/t the two countries to be drawn through the center of the Atlantic. All the land to the west of the divinging line, known as the Line of Demarcation, is Spains - all the land to the east is Portugals. They both agree to honor the treaty and the era of exploration truly begins.Toscanelli's notions of the geography of the Atlantic Ocean, which directly influenced Columbus's plans.Actual VoyagesGood time to mention: It doesnt matter what country you are from. If you explore with someone elses money. What you discover will be claimed for the country you explored for. Example, Columbus is Italian but since the Spanish funded him then it is the Spanishs claim. Treaty of Tordesillas 2 July 1494to divide trading and colonizing rights for all newly discovered lands of the world between Portugal and Spain to the exclusion of other European nations. So, how do you think other countries are going to handle this treaty?When Columbus returns with news from his voyage the King and Queen quickly begin work on the Treaty of Tordesillas to protect their claims and interests in the New World. Ferdinand Magellan - was aPortugueseexplorer. He was born in a still disputed location in northern Portugal, and served KingCharles I of Spainin search of a westward route to the "Spice Islands. Magellan's expedition of 15191522 became the first expedition to sail from the Atlantic Ocean into the Pacific Ocean (then named "peaceful sea" by Magellan; the passage being made via theStrait of Magellan), and the first to cross the Pacific. His expedition completed the first circumnavigationof theEarth.Hernando de Soto(1539) -was aSpanishexplorer andconquistadorwho, while leading the firstEuropeanexpedition deep into the territory of the modern-dayUnited States, was the first European documented to have crossed theMississippi River.Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo (1542)-was aPortugueseexplorer noted for his exploration of the west coast of North America on behalf ofSpain. Cabrillo was the first European explorer to navigate the coast of present dayCaliforniain the United States.Go to your read-a-long page. Discuss with your partner the following question. How do the explorations funded by the Ming Dynasty and commanded by Zheng He compare with those of the Spanish explorers?Conquistadors (conquerors)Hernn Corts (1504)- was aSpanishConquistadorwho led an expedition that caused thefall of the Aztec Empireand brought large portions of mainlandMexico. Corts was part of the generation of Spanish colonizers that began the first phase of theSpanish colonization of the Americas.Montezuma II, Aztec ruler is killed. hnice - Columbus claims Caribbean lands for Spain and forms colonies, or lands controlled by another nation. His reports delight the Spanish monarchs, who continue to send voyages.Magellan, was Portuguese, but he convinced the Spanish king that he could explore the Pacific ocean successfully. With 230 men and 5 ships he set sail. By the end of the voyage, he had died in a local war in Guam, and only 18 men were left, but three years later, when they pulled into port they had sailed around the world.The spanish explorers were known as conquistadors because that was their job. They were lured by rumors of vast lands of wealth to carve out colonies in South America, Mexico, and some parts of North America.Cortes who admitted that he and his comrades had a "disease of the heart that only gold can cure," forced the Aztecs into submission and made them mine gold and silver. When they rebelled, he and other local tribes overthrew them in 1521. Three things helped him 1) superior weaponry, 2) native groups, and 3) disease.Francisco Pizarro (1509) -was a Spanishconquistadorwho conquered the Inca Empire.Atahualpa, Inca ruler force to covert to Christianity and be baptized as a Catholic. Was strangled to death. Francisco Vsquez de Coronado y Lujn- was aSpanishconquistador, who visitedNew Mexicoand other parts of what are now the southwesternUnited Statesbetween 1540 and 1542. Coronado had hoped to conquer the mythicalSeven Cities of Gold.hnice - They settle in NA before they dream of creating a spanish empire on the mainland. Coronado leads an expedition of the SW to find gold. He finds little in the dry desert, so as a result, the Spanish monarchy assign priests to explore & colonize the future US. They came to search for converts. They set up scattered missions all throughout the SW. The priests, who worked closely with the NA, push for better treatment of the NAs. They speak out against the cruel treatment and harsh pattern of labor that develops under the encomienda system. Due to the writings of de Las Casas and others, Spain ebolishes the encomienda system in 1542. (This, however, leads to the growing use of African slaves for labor needs.)Many NAs revolt against their overlords although none were largely successful.Theodor de Bry - etching of Native Americans giving the conquistador the gold he so desires - they are pouring molten gold down his throat.Go to your read-a-long page. Discuss with your partner the following question.Explain the difference between an explorer and a conquistador. Henry Hudson(1609) - was an Englishsea explorerandnavigator. Hudson made two attempts on behalf of English merchants to find a prospectiveNorthwest PassagetoCathay(today's China) via a route above theArctic Circle. Hudson explored the region around modernNew York metropolitan areawhile looking for a western route to Asia under the auspices of theDutch East India Company. He explored the river which eventually wasnamed for him, and laid thereby the foundation forDutch colonizationof the region.Dutch Explorationhnice - They have been busy with the Dutch East India Co. so they are the last to colonize NA. Henry Hudson sails west searching for a NWW sea route to Asia - he finds New York: Hudson Bay, Hudson River, and Hudson Strait.They claimed the region along these waterways and engage in the fur trade with the natives. They called the land New Netherland. They colony encouraged settlers to come and stay and opened their doors to Dutch, Germans, French, Scandinavians, and other Europeans. They were known as a "confusion of tongues" due to their diverse population. Many faiths including: Protestant, Catholic, Muslim, and Jew.Jacques Cartier(1534-1535)- was aFrenchexplorerwho claimed what is now Canada for France. French ExplorationQuebecMontreal Samuel de Champlain- "The Father ofNew France", was a French navigator, cartographer, draughtsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, ethnologist, diplomat, and chronicler. He founded New France andQuebec Cityon July 3, 1608. He is important to Canadian history because he made the first accurate map of the coast and he helped establish the settlements.Robert de La Salle (1682) also called Ren-Robert Cavelier - was aFrenchexplorer. He explored theGreat Lakesregion of theUnited StatesandCanada, theMississippi River, and theGulf of Mexico. La Salle claimed the entire Mississippi River basin for France.John Cabot- was anItaliannavigatorandexplorer, called Giovanni Cabotowhose 1497 discovery of parts ofNorth Americaunder the commission ofHenry VII of Englandis commonly held to have been the first European encounter with the mainland ofNorth Americasince the NorseVikingsvisits toVinlandin the eleventh century. The official position of the Canadian and United Kingdom governments is that he landed on the island ofNewfoundland.English ExplorationSir Francis Drake,was an Englishsea captain,privateer,navigator,slaver, andpoliticianof the Elizabethan era.Elizabeth I of Englandawarded Drake a knighthood in 1581. He was second-in-command of the English fleet against the Spanish Armadain 1588. He also carried out the secondcircumnavigationof the world, from 1577 to 1580. Sir Walter Raleigh (1609)-was an English aristocrat, writer, poet, soldier, courtier, spy, and explorer. He is also well known for popularizingtobacco in England. Instrumental in the English colonization of North America, Raleigh was granted aroyal patentto exploreVirginia, which paved the way for future English settlements. First settlement in Virginia will become Jamestown. British Settlers ArriveSome 100 people, many of them seeking religious freedom in the New World, set sail from England on the Mayflower in September 1620. That November, the ship landed on the shores of Cape Cod, in present-day Massachusetts. A scouting party was sent out, and in late December the group landed at Plymouth Harbor, where they would form the first permanent settlement of Europeans in New England.Go to your read-a-long page. Discuss with your partner the following question.What reasons were there that motivated Europeans to explore and colonize the Western Hemisphere in the 16th century? Fight For North AmericaEnglish get rid of the DutchEngland Battles FranceFrench and Indian War (Seven Years War)Result: Britain controls nearly the entire eastern of North Americahnice - England called New Netherland the "Dutch Wedge" which separated its northern and southern colonies, o Charles II granted his brother the Duke of York, permission to drive them out. Claimed the colony for England and renamed it New YorkWhen England wants more land and begins pushing west, they encounter France's lands. France and England had longtime been enemies, so it seemed a major conflict was on the horizon. Began in 1754 in a dispute over land claims in the Ohio Valley. Became known as the French and Indian War. This war became part of a larger conflict known as the Seven Years War. Britain and France - along with their European allies, battle for territorial and colonial supremacy of Europe and the West Indies.When Britain defeats France, France surrenders most of the colonial holdings on the continent. Native American ReactionRelationshipsDutch & French peacefulEnglish conflict (land & religious)Natives fall to diseaseOnes that are left are displaced (moved to other lands.)hnice - D&F - their to trade, not to expand and create empires. Occassional conflict, but mostly peaceful.English and NAs begin to battle it out. ONe of the bloodiest battles was king Phillips war. 1675 - Metacom (an educated indian known as King Phillip) led an attack on 52 colonial villages throughout Massachussetts. Hundreds of victims on both sides were massacred. After a year of fierce fighting the colonials beat the indians. However, smaller skirmishes happen througout the 1700s. But the NAs are no match for the colonists' rifles and cannons.Single most destructive attack on the NAs. 1616 an epidemic of smallpox ravaged the new enland coast. Thousands died. One of the mass effects of NA deaths to disease was the severe shortage of free labor on plantations and in mines - this is one of the reasons the slave trade developed as quickly as it did.THE ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADEWhere they went for the laborGo to your read-a-long page. Discuss with your partner the following questions. What was the cause of the Atlantic Slave trade?Why did Europeans see African as better source of labor than the Native Americans?Evolution of SlaverySlavery in Africa Slavery in Africa existed when the Muslim Empire ruled. Non-Muslims were sold as slaves. Because the Native American were dying of diseases carried by the Europeans the Europeans had to find workers for their new crops somewhere else so African became the disable target. hnice - It had existed in Africa for many years. Spread of Islam showed an increase in slavery - they justified enslavement with the belief that non-Muslim prisoners or war could be bought and sold as slaves. Between 650 and 1600 more than 4.8 million africans were transported throughout african lands. HOWEVER, slavery was not hereditary and could be escaped in many ways such as marriage.As Native Americans began dying by the millions in the Americas and as the encomienda act was repealed, Europeans b/cm desperate for new workers. Spanish took an early lead in importation. As early as 1511 they had them working in the copper mines. As a result of their colonization of america, they brought in nearly 300,000 African slaves. By the 1600s however, Portugal surpassed them due to the large amount of labor required for sugar plantations. By the time the slave trade was ended they had imported 3.6 millions AfricansAs the Euro nations start colonizing, need for cheap labor grows. As Englands presence grows, they begin to dominate the slave trade. When it ended, the English had transported nearly 1.7 Africans to their West Indies colonies.By about 1830, there were still only 2 million slaves in the US - so basically, the majority of them were going to the Indies and South America.African rulers and merchants played a willing role in the slave trade - they saw little difference b/t selling to a Muslim or a Westerner. Most Euros waited in sea ports where Africans from the interior were brought to them. They were usually exchanged for guns, gold, and other goods. Many Africans cried out to their people to stop the trade, but it was too profitable. Any rulers that refused to cooperate were bypassed and new routes were developed.African from ruling tribes and merchants played a willing role in the slave trade - they saw little difference between selling to a Muslim or a Westerner. Most Europeans waited in sea ports where Africans from the interior tribes were brought to them. They were usually exchanged for guns, gold, and other goods. Many Africans cried out to their people to stop the trade, but it was too profitable. Any rulers that refused to cooperate were bypassed and new routes were developed.Over time the African map will look like this: The Middle Passage - was the stage of thetriangular tradein which millions of people fromAfrica were shipped to theNew World.Go to your read-a-long page. Discuss with your partner the following question.What would some of the challenges be for those traveling on the Middle Passage?Slavery in the AmericasHarsh LifeResistance and Rebellionhnice - Upon capture they were auctioned to the highest bidder, and treated as animals to be examined for purchase. They worked in mines or fields, or as domestic servants. Many lived on little food in small dreary huts. They worked long hours and suffered intolerable cruelties, such as whippings and beatings. Slavery was a lifelong condition and a hereditary one. It seemed as if there was no escape.To cope with this they developed a way of life based strongly on their cultural heritage exemplefied in their musical traditions and stories of their ancestors. They also tried to resist their bondage by uprooting plants, breaking hoes, and working slowly. Thousands ran away, and several attemted revolt. Despite the failure of their attempts, uprisings continue into the 1800s.Ad for a SaleDevices used to restrict SlavesPolitical CartoonBy the time the slave trade was ended they had imported 3.6 millions AfricansResults of the Atlantic Slave Trade A depopulation of certain African areas due to the slave tradeA growth of plantation agriculture, especially in the southern coloniesA diffusion of ideas among Caribbean, African and Latin American cultures IMPACT OF ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE ON WEST AFRICA AND THE AMERICAS Africa (particularly West Africa) Political Trade in slaves promoted warfare between African states; European weapons (guns) become an important component of political power; Europeans control very little territory in Africa Economic Atlantic slave trade increased demand for African slaves by Europeans; volume of trade increased; trade patterns shifted to west coast; demand for European manufactured goods (guns) Cultural Introduction of Christianity to west Africa; African artists created products for European markets Technological Gunpowder guns The Americas Increase in the African populations, both directly from Africa and those who were subsequently born in the Americas and Caribbean The dispersal of Africans throughout the New World is directly related to slavery, as they were forced to go wherever labor was demanded. British colonies, in what is now the southern United States, depend on slave labor for production of cash crops Knowledge of agriculture including rice that spread into the Southern colonies Aspects of African food, music and art leave a lasting influence on American cultures Go to your read-a-long page. Discuss with your partner the following question.Explain the impact of the Atlantic slave trade on West Africa and the Americas. COLUMBIAN EXCHANGEGlobal trade network during early modern era. Global Exchange of new foods, livestock, and diseases between the Old and New Worlds. The Middle PassageIMPACT OF COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE ON THE AMERICAS AND EUROPEImpact on the Americas: New livestock including horses, cattle, sheep, and pigs. Horses led to the defeat of many Native Americans Foods from Africa including bananas, black-eyed peas, and yams Grains such as rice, barley, wheat, and oats Diseases such as smallpox, measles, and influenza that led to the deaths of millions of Native Americans Slaves from Africa Impact on Europe: New foods and plants including corn, tomatoes, chocolate, tobacco, quinine, and potatoes Go to your read-a-long page. Discuss with your partner the following question.Complete a Venn Diagram explaining the impact of the Columbian Exchange on the Americas and Europe. Go to your read-a-long page. Discuss with your partner the following question. How has America today been affect as a result of the Atlantic Slave Trade? COMMERCIAL REVOLUTION Commercial Revolution New business and trade practices brought about in Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries because of new wealth brought from colonies in the Americas.Factors of the commercial revolution. Rise of capitalism Private ownership and investment of wealth for profit lead to the growth of the merchant class and an increase of the money supply. Joint-stock companies (Jamestown, Virginia) Investors pooled their money together to establish American colonies and usually faced minimal monetary losses because of the large number involved in the investment.Go to your read-a-long page. Discuss with your partner the following questions. What would be the opposite of Capitalism?Compare similarities of the joint-stock company to today? Mercantilism Colonies provided gold and silver (bullionism) as well as a favorable balance of trade since they were both suppliers of raw materials and markets to their mother countries Establishment of new institutions such as banks, stock exchanges, insurance companies and futures markets Explain the concept of Inflation Causes of the Commercial RevolutionEmerging middle classRise of capitalismSailing innovations Plantation House Summary QuestionsWhat were the results of European exploration of the Americas?1.2.3.North American ColonizationThe Columbian ExchangeLarge trade networks developed *Theodor de Bry
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