warm mix asphalt - paving the green way

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  1. 1. WARM MIX ASPHALT PAVING THE GREEN WAY Shu Wei Goh Zhanping You Meor Othman Hamzah
  2. 2. Presentation Outline Warm Mix Asphalt Introduction WMA Field Trial Laboratory Evaluation Summary and Conclusion
  3. 3. Hot Mix Asphalt What is Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA)? A technology that allowed the producers of Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA) pavement material to lower the temperatures at which the material is mixed and placed on the road. Available Technologies: RH-WMA, Aspha-min, Advera WMA, Sasobit, Evotherm,etc. Warm The wave of Future?
  4. 4. Why Warm Mix Asphalt? Reduce Production and Laydown Temperature Reduce Emissions Reduce Fuel Costs Reduce Aging of Binder Decrease Wear and Tear of Equipment Increase Production Rates Better Compaction Maximization of Asphalt Recycling Rate While achieving the same or better density
  5. 5. WMA Field Trial
  6. 6. Project Information Project Location: Spread Eagle, Wisconsin, USA Asphalt Binder used: PG58-34 Design Traffic level: 3 millions ESALs HMA Compaction Temp: 150C WMA made with 1.5% Sasobit (5E3) Compaction Temp: 127C
  7. 7. Project Location Description Value Ambient Air Temperature (C) 7.66 Surface Temp. (C) 11.61 Average Wind Speed (km/h) 8.05 Latitude (Deg. North) 88.08 Travel Distance: ~8-10km
  8. 8. Mixture Cooling time 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Temperature(Celsius) Time (minute) HMA, approximate 7 minutes traveling time WMA, approximate 7 minutes traveling time Calculated using MultiCool Program
  9. 9. WMA Construction at Iron Mountain, MI Warm Mix Asphalt Hot Mix Asphalt Reference: Goh, S. W., and You, Z. (2008). "Warm Mix Asphalt using Sasobit: A Brief Field and Laboratory Experience." Mid-Continent Transportation Research Forum 2008, Wisconsin, Madison.
  10. 10. Stack Emission Results -40% -30% -20% -10% 0% 10% 20% NOX VOC CO2 Fuel Usage PercentIncrease/Reduction(%) Reference: Graham C. Hurley, Brian D. Prowell and Andrea N. Kvasnak (2009), Michigan Field Trial of Warm Mix Asphalt Technology: Construction Summary. NCAT Report No. 09-10, Auburn University
  11. 11. WMA Construction at Iron Mountain, MI
  12. 12. WMA Laboratory Testing
  13. 13. Laboratory Evaluation Volumetric Properties APA Rutting Dynamic Modulus Testing Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR)
  14. 14. Material Preparation: Asphalt Mixture Performance Testing Testing Sample (Collected from Asphalt Plant at Iron Mt., MI): Asphalt Binder used: PG58-34 SuperpaveTM Gyratory Compactor: 86 gyrations HMA (5E3) Compacted at 150C WMA made with 1.5% Sasobit (5E3) - Compacted at 127C Sieve Size (mm) 12.5 9.5 4.75 2.36 1.18 0.6 0.3 0.15 0.075 Percent Pass, % 100 99.1 75 55.9 41.3 27.5 14.5 7.5 5.5 AC, % 5.5
  15. 15. Volumetric Properties Description HMA WMA Maximum Specific Gravity, Gmm 2.573 2.569 Bulk Specific Gravity (Gmb) at the end of Compaction 2.441 2.455 Air Void Level 5.13% 4.45% Asphalt Binder Content 5.52% 5.52%
  16. 16. APA Rutting Test Asphalt Pavement Analyzer: The purpose of this test is to evaluate the rut resistance of the asphalt mixture and the rut depth was measured using the Asphalt Pavement Analyzer machine. Testing Parameters: 8000 Cycles 58C (136 F) 100 lbs
  17. 17. APA Rutting Results 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 PermanentDeformation(mm) Cycle Number HMA WMA
  18. 18. Dynamic Modulus Test Determined by applying sinusoidal vertical loads to cylindrical samples while measuring the deformation Tested ranged from 0.1 to 25 HZ Temperature tested: -5C 4C 13C 21.3C 39.2C
  19. 19. Dynamic Modulus Test Results 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 0.0000001 0.00001 0.001 0.1 10 DynamicModulus(MPa) Reduced Frequency WMA HMA -6 -4 -2 0 2 -10 10 30 50 ShiftFactor Temperature (Celsius) HMA Shift Factor WMA Shift Factor
  20. 20. Tensile Strength Ratio (TSR) 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 16.4 26.4 36.4 46.4 56.4 TensileStress(KPa) Time (Sec)
  21. 21. Tensile Strength Ratio 520 609 442 532 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 1.5% Sasobit (WMA) Control (HMA) TensileStrength(KPa) Dry Moist Ratio: 0.850.05 Ratio: 0.870.05
  22. 22. HMA vs WMA After 2 years of Serviceability
  23. 23. Sasobit and Control Test Sections after Two Years of Traffic Reference: Graham C. Hurley, Brian D. Prowell and Andrea N. Kvasnak (2009), Michigan Field Trial of Warm Mix Asphalt Technology: Construction Summary. NCAT Report No. 09-10, Auburn University Description HMA Sasobit Rut Depth (mm) 1.4 0 Total Length of Crack (ft.) 3 46 Density (% Gmm) 97.3 95.7
  24. 24. Conclusions Emissions from WMA were significantly reduced compared to HMA production. Early performance indicates that Sasobit WMA can be successfully used in cold weather climates. Based on emission stack testing, a decrease in asphalt stack emissions and fuel usage was determined during the production of WMA. An increase in CO and VOCs for the WMA indicates the need for additional burner tuning to fully combust the burner fuel
  25. 25. Conclusions WMA has a higher E* throughout all the temperatures and frequencies. Mixtures with higher E* generally have a lower rutting potential and this concluded that WMA has more resistance to rutting. Based on the tensile strength ratio result, it was found the moisture susceptibility of WMA was compatible with HMA. However, it was found that the tensile strength of WMA is lower than HMA.
  26. 26. Conclusions Based on the APA testing, the field produced WMA made with 1.5% Sasobit (compact at 23 C lower than HMA) has similar rutting potential compared to control HMA. Based on the field evaluation (after 2 years of serviceability), it was found that WMA made with Sasobit has better rutting resistant. However, it was found the additional Sasobit decreased the crack resistance of pavement.
  27. 27. Acknowledgements The research work was partially sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) through Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). The authors also acknowledge the funding support from the United States Department of Transportation through the University Transportation Center for Materials in Sustainable Transportation Infrastructure at Michigan Technological University.
  28. 28. Question? Shu Wei Goh, PhD. (gsw@universalpave.com)
  29. 29. Asphalt Research Laboratory Testing Rutting, fatigue cracking, and low temperature cracking; moisture damage and reflective cracking; binders creep stiffness and rheological properties

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