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  • Wardlaw’s


    Nutrition Updated with 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans

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  • Wardlaw’s Perspectives in

    CAROL BYRD-BREDBENNER Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey GAILE MOE Seattle Pacific University JACQUELINE BERNING University of Colorado at Colorado Springs DANITA KELLEY Western Kentucky University

    Updated with 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans

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  • WARDLAW’S PERSPECTIVES IN NUTRITION Updated with 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans,


    Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2016 by

    McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions

    © 2013, 2009, and 2007. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any

    means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education,

    including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for

    distance learning.

    Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the

    United States.

    This book is printed on acid-free paper.

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 DOW 21 20 19 18 17 16

    ISBN 978-1-259-91837-7

    MHID 1-259-91837-8

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    All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Names: Wardlaw, Gordon M. | Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol. | Moe, Gaile. | Berning,

    Jacqueline R. | Kelley, Danita S.

    Title: Wardlaw’s perspectives in nutrition.

    Other titles: Perspectives in nutrition

    Description: Tenth edition, updated with 2015-2020 dietary guidelines for

    Americans / Carol Byrd-Bredbenner, Rutgers, The State University of New

    Jersey, Gaile Moe, Seattle Pacific University, Jacqueline Berning,

    University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, Danita Kelley, Western

    Kentucky University. | New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education, [2016] |

    Includes bibliographical references and index.

    Identifiers: LCCN 2016009387 | ISBN 9781259918377 (alk. paper)

    Subjects: LCSH: Nutrition.

    Classification: LCC QP141 .W38 2016b | DDC 612.3—dc23 LC record available at http://lccn.loc.gov/2016009387

    The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website

    does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does

    not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.


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  • v


    1 The Science of Nutrition 2 2 Tools of a Healthy Diet 38 3 The Food Supply 72 4 Human Digestion and Absorption 116


    5 Carbohydrates 154 6 Lipids 190 7 Proteins 226 8 Alcohol 260


    9 Energy Metabolism 284 10 Energy Balance, Weight Control,

    and Eating Disorders 318 11 Nutrition, Exercise, and Sports 364


    12 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins 402 13 The Water-Soluble Vitamins 438 14 Water and Major Minerals 488 15 Trace Minerals 540


    16 Nutritional Aspects of Pregnancy and Breastfeeding 576 17 Nutrition during the Growing Years 616 18 Nutrition during the Adult Years 656

    Brief Contents

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  • vi

    Meet the Author Team Caro l Byrd-Bredbenner, Ph .D. , R .D. , FAND,   received her doctorate from Pennsylvania State University. Currently, she is Professor in the Nutritional Sciences Department at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. She teaches a wide range of undergraduate and graduate nutrition courses. Her research interests focus on investigating environmental factors that affect dietary choices and health outcomes. Dr. Byrd-Bredbenner has authored numerous nutrition texts, journal articles, and computer software packages. She has received teaching awards from the American Dietetic Association (now called the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics), Society for Nutrition Education, and U.S. Department of Agriculture. She was the recipient of the American Dietetic Association’s Anita Owen Award for Innovative Nutrition Education Programs. She also was a Fellow of the United Nations, World Health Organization at the WHO Collaborating Center for Nutrition

    Education, University of Athens, Greece. She enjoys exploring food and culinary customs, traveling, diving, and gardening.

    G a i l e L . M o e , P h . D . , R . D . ,   earned a doctorate in nutritional sciences at the University of Washington. She is a registered dietitian who has worked in clinical nutrition, research, and management, as well as education. She is currently Professor and Director of the Didactic Program in Dietetics at Seattle Pacific University. She has published in peer-reviewed journals in the areas of nutrition and cancer and media reporting of nutrition research. Gaile enjoys swimming, cycling, walking, and hiking, along with learning about culinary traditions, food, and food policy.

    J a c q u e l i n e R . B e r n i n g , P h . D . , R . D . , C S S D ,   earned her doctorate in nutrition from Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colorado. She is currently Professor and Chair of the Health Science Department at the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs

    (UCCS), where she has won numerous teaching awards. Dr. Berning is published in the area of sports dietetics and was the sport dietitian for the Denver Broncos for over 25 years, Cleveland Indians for 18 years, and Colorado Rockies for 10 years. Currently she is the sport dietitian for UCCS athletics and US Lacrosse. She is active in the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, where she served as the chair of the Program Planning Committee for FNCE and is currently Chair of the Appeals Committee. In 2014, Dr. Berning was awarded the Mary Abbot Hess Award for Culinary Events for teaching the University of Colorado football team how to grocery shop and cook. Additionally, she served 6 years as an ADA spokesperson and is a former chair of the Sports, Cardiovascular, and Wellness Nutritionists dietetics practice group. She enjoys walking, hiking, and gardening.

    D a n i t a S a x o n Ke l l e y, P h . D . , R . D . ,   earned her doctorate in nutritional sciences from the University of Kentucky. She serves as Associate Dean of the College of Health and Human Services and is a Professor in the Family and Consumer Sciences Department at Western Kentucky University. Previously, Dr. Kelley was Director of the Didactic Program in Dietetics at Western Kentucky University. She is a Past President of the Board of Directors for the Kentucky Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Her scholarly work has focused on healthy eating of adolescents, communication skills of dietetic students, histaminergic activity and regulation of food intake, and dietary restriction effects on the antioxidant defense system. She has received awards for teaching from the Kentucky Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and the Dietetic Educators of Practitioners of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. She enjoys singing, walking her dog, cheering for her family in water-ski competitions, and watching her children participate in athletic and musical endeavors.

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  • vii


    Welcome to the Tenth Ed

    ition of 

    Wardlaw’s P erspectives i

    n Nutrition U pdated with

    2015–2020 Dietary Guid

    elines for Am ericans

    Wardlaw’s Pe rspectives in

    Nutrition ha s the richly d

    eserved repu tation of prov

    iding an accu rate,

    current, in-de pth, and thou

    ghtful introdu ction to the d

    ynamic field of nutrition. W

    e have ende avored

    to build upon this tradition

    of excellenc e by enrichin

    g this edition for both stud

    ents and inst ructors.

    Our passion for nutrition,

    our genuine desire to pro

    mote studen t learning, an

    d our commi tment to

    scientific acc uracy, couple

    d with constr uctive comm

    ents from ins tructors and

    students, gu ide