wandering into the future - 2017-01-19آ  wandering into the future mind wandering, the default...

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  • Wandering Into the Future mind wandering, the default network, and the desire for exploration

    Chandra Sripada

    University of Michigan

  • system 2 thinkingSerial Thought

    Intuitive Thought Fast, Automatic, Effortless

    system 1 thinking

    Serial, Conscious, Intentional, Effortful Controlled/Directed

    The Cognitive Science of Thinking

  • system 2 thinking

    The Cognitive Science of Thinking

    Serial Thought

    Intuitive Thought Fast, Automatic, Effortless

    system 1 thinking“Because so many people attended, they had to move

    the ball.”

    Serial, Conscious, Intentional, Effortful Controlled/Directed

  • system 2 thinkingSerial Thought

    Intuitive Thought Fast, Automatic, Effortless

    system 1 thinking“Because so many people attended, they had to move

    the ball.”

    Serial, Conscious, Intentional, Effortful Controlled/Directed

    The Cognitive Science of Thinking

  • system 2 thinkingSerial Thought

    Intuitive Thought Fast, Automatic, Effortless

    system 1 thinking

    Serial, Conscious, Intentional, Effortful Controlled/Directed

    The Cognitive Science of Thinking

  • system 2 thinkingSerial Thought

    Intuitive Thought

    Serial, Conscious, Intentional, Effortful Controlled/Directed

    Fast, Automatic, Effortless

    system 1 thinking

    mind wandering

    Serial, Conscious, Unintentional, Effortless

    Discursive

    The Cognitive Science of Thinking

  • system 2 thinkingSerial Thought

    Intuitive Thought

    Serial, Conscious, Intentional, Effortful Controlled/Directed

    Fast, Automatic, Effortless

    system 1 thinking

    mind wandering

    Serial, Conscious, Unintentional, Effortless

    Discursive

    “The Forgotten Third Mode of Thinking”

    The Cognitive Science of Thinking

  • The first is Unguided, without Designe, and inconstant; … thoughts are said to wander, and seem impertinent one to another, as in a Dream. (1651/1928, 20-21

    By...Trayne of Thoughts, I understand that succession of one thought after another...This...is of two sorts.

    The second is more constant; as being regulated by some desire, and designe.

    serial thinking

    Directed Thinking

    Discursive Thinking

    Thomas Hobbes

    discursive thinking (mind wandering)directed thinking (system 2 thinking)

    Irving, Zachary C. 2015. “Mind-Wandering Is Unguided Attention: Accounting for the ‘purposeful’ Wanderer.” Philosophical Studies 173 (2): 547–71.

  • [W]hen ideas float in our mind without any reflection or regard of the understanding, it is that which the French call reverie…(1689, II, 19 §1)

    discursive thinking (mind wandering)directed thinking (system 2 thinking)

    [W]hilst we are awake, there will always be a train of ideas succeeding one another in our minds.

    [W]hen the mind with great earnestness, and of choice, fixes its view on any idea, considers it on all sides, and will not be called off by the ordinary solicitation of other ideas, it is that we call … “study.”

    serial thinking

    Directed Thinking

    Discursive Thinking

    John Locke

  • Four Fun Facts About Mind Wandering

  • Finding#1: We do a LOT of mind wandering!!

    Baumeister, R. F., Hofmann, W., & Vohs, K. D. (2015). Everyday thoughts about the past, present, and future: An experience sampling study of mental time travel. Manuscript submitted for publication. Killingsworth MA, Gilbert DT. A wandering mind is an unhappy mind. Science 2010; 330: 932. Kane MJ, Brown LH, McVay JC, Silvia PJ, Myin-Germeys I, Kwapil TR. For Whom the Mind Wanders, and When An Experience-Sampling Study of Working Memory and Executive Control in Daily Life. Psychol Sci 2007; 18: 614–621. Klinger E, Cox WM. Dimensions of Thought Flow in Everyday Life. Imagin Cogn Personal 1987; 7: 105–128.

    Experience Sampling Methodology

    many studies say 30-50% of our waking lives is spent mind wandering

  • Finding#2: Mind wandering involves imagery and sensorily-rich content

    Klinger E, Cox WM. Dimensions of Thought Flow in Everyday Life. Imagin Cogn Personal 1987; 7: 105–128. Delamillieure P, Doucet G, Mazoyer B, Turbelin M-R, Delcroix N, Mellet E et al. The resting state questionnaire: An introspective questionnaire for evaluation of inner experience during the conscious resting state. Brain Res Bull 2010; 81: 565–573.

  • It snowed in May in Michigan

    Being at Dartmouth in May when it snowed

    Being at Dartmouth sitting on a field with my friend Jana

    Being at Pittsburgh this September with Jana and other friends

    Autobiographical memory

    Autobiographical memory

    Prospective episode

    Finding#3: Mind wandering involves streams of associations

    Association – A spontaneous transition between two concepts or ideas based on relevant connections (e.g., thematic or taxonomic).

    salt  pepper

    bird  robin

  • Task- positive regions

    Default Regions

    ! "#$ "%#$ &' #$ %( #$

    ! "#$ "%#$ &' #$ %( #$

    ") *! %+, $ %- *$$) +, $

    ") *! %+, $ %- *$$) +, $

    4/#5$ 4/#5$

    ! "#$ "%#$ &' #$ %( #$

    ! "#$ "%#$ &' #$ %( #$

    ") *! %+, $ %- *$$) +, $

    ") *! %+, $ %- *$$) +, $

    4/#5$ 4/#5$

    The default network is the substrate for mind wandering

    The task positive network is the substrate for directed thinking

    Finding#4: Mind wandering and directed thinking are associated with specific brain networks

    Christoff K, Gordon AM, Smallwood J, Smith R, Schooler JW. Experience sampling during fMRI reveals default network and executive system contributions to mind wandering. Proc Natl Acad Sci 2009; 106: 8719–24. Fox KCR, Spreng RN, Ellamil M, Andrews-Hanna JR, Christoff K. The wandering brain: Meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies of mind-wandering and related spontaneous thought processes. NeuroImage 2015; 111: 611–621.

  • Bar, M., Aminoff, E., Mason, M., & Fenske, M. (2007). The units of thought. Hippocampus, 17(6), 420–428. http://doi.org/10.1002/hipo.20287

    autobiographical memory

    prospective imaginationdefault network

    Buckner, R., & Carroll, D. (2007). Self-projection and the brain. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11(2), 49–57.

  • A Puzzle: Why Do We Mind Wander?

  • system 2 thinking

    The Executive Failure Model of Mind Wandering

    Serial Thought

    Intuitive Thought

    Serial, Conscious, Intentional, Effortful

    Controlled

    Fast, Automatic, Effortless

    system 1 thinking

    Mcvay, J. C., & Kane, M. J. (2010). Does mind wandering reflect executive function or executive failure? Comment on Smallwood and Schooler (2006) and Watkins (2008). Psychological Bulletin, 136(2), 188–197.

  • system 2 thinking

    The Executive Failure Model of Mind Wandering

    Serial Thought

    Intuitive Thought

    Serial, Conscious, Intentional, Effortful

    Controlled

    Fast, Automatic, Effortless

    system 1 thinking Impulsive behavior

    Mcvay, J. C., & Kane, M. J. (2010). Does mind wandering reflect executive function or executive failure? Comment on Smallwood and Schooler (2006) and Watkins (2008). Psychological Bulletin, 136(2), 188–197.

  • system 2 thinking

    The Executive Failure Model of Mind Wandering

    Serial Thought

    Serial, Conscious, Intentional, Effortful

    Controlled

    mind wandering

    Serial, Conscious, Unintentional, Effortless

    Discursive

    Top-Down Regulation

    Mcvay, J. C., & Kane, M. J. (2010). Does mind wandering reflect executive function or executive failure? Comment on Smallwood and Schooler (2006) and Watkins (2008). Psychological Bulletin, 136(2), 188–197.

  • system 2 thinking

    The Executive Failure Model of Mind Wandering

    Serial Thought

    Serial, Conscious, Intentional, Effortful

    Controlled

    mind wandering

    Serial, Conscious, Unintentional, Effortless

    Discursive

    Top-Down Regulation

    Mcvay, J. C., & Kane, M. J. (2010). Does mind wandering reflect executive function or executive failure? Comment on Smallwood and Schooler (2006) and Watkins (2008). Psychological Bulletin, 136(2), 188–197.

  • Three More Fun Facts About Mind Wandering

  • In d

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    at te

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    (v ar

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    ili ty

    in r

    e ac

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    0 10 20 30

    Time (minutes)

    Sustained Attention Response Task (SART)

    “Press a button if the letter shown is an X”

    See Esterman, M., Noonan, S. K., Rosenberg, M., & DeGutis, J. (2013). Cerebral Cortex (New York, NY : 1991), 23(11), 2712–27233

    Finding#5: Mind wandering and directed thinking oscillate in a quasi- periodic pattern

    high inattention states

    low inattention states

    thought probe, yes mind wandering

    thought probe, no mind wandering

  • In d

    ex o

    f In

    at te

    n ti

    o n

    (v ar