voting process electoral systems and electoral reform
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Voting ProcessElectoral Systems and Electoral Reform
Electoral SystemsWhile numerous variations exist, including complex combinations of multiple systems, there are five main electoral systems:
First Past the Post (FPTP)RunoffProportional Representation (PR)Mixed Member Proportional (MMP)Electoral College (only in the US, only for Pres.)
Electoral SystemsFirst Past the Post (FPTP)In FPTP systems, the winning candidate is simply the person who wins most votes. In theory, a candidate could be elected with two votes, if every other candidate only secured a single vote. FPTP systems are mainly used in former British Empire countries.
Electoral Systems2.Runoff Runoff voting is where successive rounds of voting are held until a candidate wins a majority of the positive votes. After each inconclusive round, those candidates at the bottom whose votes together do not add up to the votes of the next candidate are eliminated.Presidential elections in France and Finland as well as selecting Olympic host cities use this process of voting
Electoral Systems3.Proportional Representation (PR)PR systems give political parties in parliament or legislative assemblies a number of seats approximately proportional to the percentage of vote they received.PR systems are used in Israel, The Netherlands, and Cambridge MA (most jurisdictions do not appear to use the pure PR method)
Electoral SystemsMixed Member Proportionality (MMP)A hybrid system of both FPTP and PREach voter casts a vote for a local candidate (who wins by obtaining the most votes) AND a vote for the political party of their choosing (which wins seats based on the total popular vote)MMP is used in Germany, Mexico, Italy, New Zealand, and other parts of the world
Electoral SystemsVote for a local candidateAND vote for a party
Electoral Systems5.Electoral CollegeHow to elect the President of the United States?Each state is represented by a number of individuals proportionate to its seats in Congress, that is, two Senators and a number of Representatives based on the state's population.There are 538 electors, so 270 votes are required to win the presidency.The process for selecting electors varies throughout the United States (each state decides the process for choosing its electors
Electoral Systems48 out of the 50 states award electoral votes on a winner-takes-all basis (exceptions: Maine and Nebraska). For example, all 55 of California's electoral votes go to the winner of that state election, even if the margin of victory is only 50.1 percent to 49.9 percent. It is therefore quite possible that a presidential candidate can win the majority of the popular vote nationally, but not become president.
Electoral SystemsGiven the previous slides distribution of numbers, it is possible to win the presidential election by winning in just 12 states!
Electoral ReformVoter ApathyWhy Dont People Vote? (Macleans)Why Are People Not Voting? (Maple Leaf Web)Explaining the Turnout Decline (StatsCan Study)The Importance of One Vote
Electoral ReformVoting System Reform in Canadawww.fairvote.ca
Electoral ReformDemocratic Renewal Secretariat (Ontario)
Electoral ReformCitizens Assembly on Electoral Reform (Ontario)www.citizensassembly.gov.on.ca
Electoral ReformStudents' Assembly on Electoral Reform (Ontario)www.studentsassembly.ca
Electoral ReformI am a grade 12 student at Anderson CVI. I am planning on majoring in Political Science at the University of Toronto. I love politics, one day I would like to work for the Canadian Government or the United Nations. I am an active participant in my community; I volunteer at many places including the YMCA. I am also part of the Culture of Peace Committee at my school and am part of many groups including the HIV/AIDS campaign, and plan on starting my own committee on stopping the use of child soldiers in Sudan.
Electoral ReformMinister for Democratic Reform (Canada)planning to organize public consultations on Canada's democratic institutions and practices (Jan 15, 2007)12 citizens' forums will be asked to provide their views on a wide range of areas, including:political parties; the electoral system; the House of Commons; the Senate; and the role of the citizen.