Vocational training at DDK Delhi by SAKET RAI

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1. Vocational TrainingReportHELD ATDOORDARSHANKENDRAMANDI HOUSE, COPERNICUS MARGNEW DELHI, 110001SUBMITTED BYS A K E T R A I 2. ECE 4th Year, Roll No. 1003031097INDERPRASTHA ENGINEERING COLLEGE, GZB,U.P.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTThis report is an outcome of industrial training, which Ihave gone through at Doordarshan Kendra, MandiHouse, Copernicus Marg, New Delhi, 110001; during theperiod 10th Jun to 9th Jul 2013.On the very outset of this report I would like to expressmy sincere & heartfelt obligations to:DDG (E): Shri Shyam Narain Singh,DD (E): Shri Rakesh Kumar Chauhan,Assistant Er. : Shri R. N. Rai (Mentor),&All engg. Supporting staff: Sh. Vinod Gupta, Sh. S. K. Dixit, Sh.S. P. S. Gulati, Sh. P. K. Mehrotra, Sh. P. Arun, Sh. PrashantShingle, Sh. Govind Ballabh, & Sh. T. C. Bagauli for creating 3. tremendous atmosphere of excitng training programmeat DDK.It was really a great experience working at DDK andlearning from such experienced engineers with hands onthe experience on the subject.I also would like to appreciate my colleagues Mr.Prashant Kr. Shukla, Mr. Pulkit Jain & Mr. Rahul Aurora,who attended the entire training with me as per thescheduled by DDK.Saket RaiECE 4th Year, 1003031097INDERPRASTHA ENGG. COLLEGE, GZB, U.P. 4. INDEXSr. No. Topic Page No.1. About Doordarshan 01- 022. TV Studio 03-063. Production Control Room 07-094. Transmission Control Room 10-125. Master Switching Room 13-146. Earth Station 15-197. Satellite Communication 20-248. HPT Pitampura 25-289. OB Van 29-3210. DSNG 33-3511. DD Archives 36-3812. Essence 39-40 5. ABOUT ..DOORDARSHAN KENDRA DELHI is one of the oldestKendra started on experimental basis on 5th September1959 from a makeshift studio at Akashvani Bhawan,NewDelhi as a part of All India Radio.Regular transmission was started from 1965.Govt. of India constituted Doordarshan in 1976, as apublic TV broadcaster, as a separate department inbroadcasting.Actually, Doordarshan developed itself during AsianGames 1982, held in Delhi.Continuous development in each & every sections ofDoordarshan has made it one of the largest broadcastingorganization in the world in terms of infrastructure ofstudios & transmitters. 6. Presently Doordarshan operates with 35 channelclassified as:Seven All India Channels-1. DD National,2. DD News,3. DD Sports,4. DD Bharati,5. DD Rajya Sabha,6. DD Gyandarshan,7. DD Urdu;Eleven Regional Language Satellite Channels(RLSC),Fifteen State Network (SN) & International Channels,One DD India Channel,One HDTV Channel;Doordarshan is also providing multi channel TV coveragein country through its free to air service; DD Direct Plus.DD is also running a mobile television service in Delhi. 7. T V StudioDoordarshan shooting arena is termed as TV Studio.Basically, it is a production hall to shoot out variousprograms by just creating artificial sets as perrequirements. 8. Followings are the pre- requisites for a TV Studio:1. Lighting systems, winches & control boards2. Cameras (3/4) with teleprompter3. Video & Audio Monitors4. Make room with entire facilities5. Furnitures & decoration items6. Cyclorama &curtains7. Proper air conditioning systems8. Efficient sound absorbers9. Smooth & plain surface to move cameras10. Effective communication with other sections11. Digital clock display system12. Warning light, alarm systems & fire fighting equipments.Doordarshans main Recording TV Studio comprises 192direct lights, 48 dimmers, 3 /4 digital cameras & 3 /4artificial shooting sets etc. 9. T V Studio lighting technique:T V Studio lighting technique depends upon followingfour parameters -1. Quantity of Iight:Means amount of radiated energy by the source oflight.2. Quality of light:Means the type of light source is used.3. Contrast ratio:Difference between highly lighted & darkest part ofthe scene.4. Color temperature:Different light colors have their own temperaturese.g.-Fire- 1930K,Domestic lamp- 2780K,Studio lamp- 3200K,HMI-5600K,Sun light- 5600K,Fluorescent- 6500K,Cloudy day- 6500K, 10. Clear blue sky-12000K.In T V Studio standard three point lighting technique isused, as shown below:1. Key light: used to highlight an object from the front.(Hard light cum 100% balance of light)2. Fill light: used to suppress the shadow created by keylight. (Soft light cum 85% balance of light)3. Back light: used to separate the object from background, so to produce 3-D visualization. 11. (Hard light cum 110% balance of light)Production ControlRoom 12. Production Control Room (PCR) is also known as StudioControl Room (SCR) or Gallery. Signals generated in TVStudio are controlled using certain effects & charactersare generated here.Facilities in a PCR include: A video monitor wall, with monitors for program,preview, VTRs, cameras, graphics and other videosources. In some facilities, the monitor wall is a seriesof racks containing physical television and computermonitors; in others, the monitor wall has beenreplaced with a virtual monitor wall (sometimes calleda "glass cockpit"), one or more large video screens,each capable of displaying multiple sources in asimulation of a monitor wall. A vision mixer, a large control panel used to selectthe multiple-camera setup and other various sourcesto be recorded or seen on air and, in many cases, inany video monitors on the set. The term "vision mixer"is primarily used in Europe, while the term "videoswitcher" is usually used in North America. 13. A professional audio mixing console and other audioequipment such as effects devices. A character generator (CG), which creates the majorityof the names and full digital on-screen graphics thatare inserted into the program lower third portion ofthe television screen Digital video effects, or DVE, for manipulation of videosources. In newer vision mixers, the DVE is integratedinto the vision mixer; older models without built-inDVE's can often control external DVE devices, or anexternal DVE can be manually run by an operator. A still store, or still frame, device for storage ofgraphics or other images. While the name suggeststhat the device is only capable of storing still images,newer still stores can store moving video and motiongraphics. The technical director's station, with waveformmonitors, vector scopes and the camera controlunits (CCU) or remote control panels for the CCUs. In some facilities, VTRs may also be located in the PCR,but are also often found in the central apparatus room Intercom and IFB equipment for communication withtalent and television crew 14. A signal generator to genlock all of the videoequipment to a common reference that requires colorburstTRANSMISSIONCONTROL ROOMTransmission Control Room (TCR), also termed as TxRoom or Presentation Suites is a room at broadcastfacilities & TV Stations around the world. 15. TCR is staffed 24x7 by on-air presentation coordinatorswho are responsible for the continuity and punctual playout of scheduled broadcast programming.Programming may be live from the TV Studio or playedfrom video tapes or from video server play out.When broadcast programming is live the presentationcoordinator will override the broadcast automationsystem & manually switch the TV Programming.Live Programming is unpredictable and will affect thescheduled timing of scheduled programming events; thepresentation coordinator adjusts programming to bringthe schedule back on time by adding or removing fillcontent from the play out schedule.Common TCR equipmentsBroadcast Automation Server (for large playlist itemsalmost up to 500 items),Video Tape Recorder (VTR),Computer Graphics (CG),Non-linear Editing device,Production Switcher, 16. Broadcast quality Video Monitor,Waveform Monitor,SDI Audio de-embedder.There are total 72 electronic equipments ofaforementioned type in the Transmission Control Roomof DD National.Basically, the automation of various PCR equipments isdone in order to achieve seamless transmission. It is alsorequired to minimize the time elapse as well as manualerrors occurred during transmission.Each & every equipment has its own defined port onProduction Switcher. Applying automation one canswitch the particular device at particular time.Finally, these equipments are connected to a NavigationPC through a Hub Switch for error diagnosis purpose.TCR is smaller in size as compare to the Master SwitchingRoom. This is a scaled down version of centralcasting. 17. MASTER SWITHINGROOM 18. Master switching room (MSR) is also known as Heart ofthe Studio and used for transmission media.It is the engineering co-ordination center of activity forselecting & routing the signal from various sources totransmitter and earth station.It is a room where all different sources from the outsidestudio comes first here and enroots transmission todifferent destination like transmitter & earth station.This room comprises of:Routine Switcher,Stab amplifier,Video / Audio distribution amplifier,Color Stabilization amplifier,Sync generator,Frame synchronizer,Digital clock monitoring system,Logo generator,Vectro- scope,Waveform monitor,Video monitor,Hum Suppressor, 19. Video Equalizer,Change over unit.The CONTROL CONSOL PANEL consisting the control ofRoutine Switcher, Stab amplifier, Frame synchronizer &other MSR Equipments are stored here.EARTH STATIONEARTH STATION is most significant part of Doordarshanfrom communication point of view, as shown in figure: 20. Transmitting E/S ReceivingE/SUPLINKDOWNLINKDigital Earth Station operates in frequency range 5.85GHz to 6.425 GHz for transmission and 3.625 GHz to 4.24GHz for reception of the signal. 21. Description of General Configuration of an Earth Station: Digital information in the form of binary digits whenenters earth station and is then processed (filtered,multiplexed, formatted etc.) by the base bandequipment. The encoder performs error correction coding toreduce the error rate, by introducing extra digits intodigital stream generated by the base band equipment. The function of the modulator is to accept the symbolstream from the encoder and use it to modulate anintermediate frequency (I.F) carrier.In satellite communication, I.F carrier frequency ischosen at 70 MHz for communication using a 36 MHztransponder bandwidth. 22. The modulated I.F carrier is fed to the up-converterand frequency-translated to the uplink R.F frequency ofC-Band or Ku-Band as per desire. This modulated R.F carrier is then amplified by thehigh power amplifier (HPA) to a suitable level fortransmission and radiation by the parabolic dish antennato the satellite. e.g.: Klystron amplifier, TWTA & SSPA. On the receive side, the earth station antennareceives the low-level modulated R.F carrier in thedownlink frequency spectrum. The low noise amplifier (LNA)/ low noise blockconvertor (LNBC) is used to amplify the weak receivedsignals and improve the signal to Noise ratio (SNR). Theerror rate requirements can be met more easily. R.F is to be reconverted to I.F at 70 MHz because it iseasier design a demodulation to work at suchfrequencies than in any of the GHz range. 23. The demodulator estimate which of the possiblesymbols was transmitted based on observation of thereceived I.F carrier. The decoder performs a function opposite that of theencoder. Because the sequence of symbols recovered bythe demodulator may contain errors, the decoder mustuse the uniqueness of the redundant digits introduced bythe encoder to correct the errors and recoverinformation-bearing digits. The information stream is fed to the base-bandequipment for processing for delivery to the terrestrialnetwork. The downlink Beacon frequency is the concept, sothat tracking equipments track the satellite and align thebeam towards it to facilitate communication. 24. Fig. General configuration of an Earth Station 25. SATELLITECOMMUNICATIONSatellite Communication plays a vital role in the globaltelecommunication systems.This technology was started in abroad in 1960, and inIndia this was adopted in 1975. 26. Near about 2000 artificial satellites are orbiting Earthrelay analog & digital signals carrying voice, video anddata to & from one or many locations worldwide.Satellite communication uses geostationary satellite andoperates in C & Ku band mostly.First Indian National Satellite (INSAT) was launched in1982.Satellite Orbits: Types 27. Geostationary satellite:A circular orbit 35,785 km (22,236 miles) above EarthsEquator in which a satellite orbital period is equal toEarths rotation period of 23 hours and 56 minutes. Aspace craft in this orbit appears to an observer on Earthto be stationary in the sky. This particular orbit is usedfor meteorological and communications satellites.The geostationary orbit is a special case of geosynchro-nousorbit, which is any orbit with a period equalto Earths rotation.Satellite Transmission Frequency Bands:FrequencyBand C-Band X-Band Ku-Band Ka-BandUplinkFrequency 6 GHz 8 GHz 14 GHz 30 GHzDownlinkFrequency 4 GHz 7 GHz 11 GHz 20 GHz 28. Satellite in Use:Orbit type: Geo-synchronousOrbital location: 93.5 EPresently Doordarshan is using a latest, powerful &largest geosynchronous satellite of INSAT series with highpower Ku- Band transponders to uplink the DD direct +signals launched by ISRO in the beginning of the year2007.Figure: Footprints of INSAT 4B 29. Communication Satellite Transponders:A communication satellite transponder is the series ofinterconnected units, which forms a channel betweentransmitting and receiving antennas. It is mainly used totransfer the received signal, after deriving the transmitcarrier frequency from received signal.Its block diagram presentation is as follows: 30. HPT PITAMPURA 31. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar T V Tower (20kw power)Total height: 235mtrs=RCC: 165mtrs+Steel: 70mtrs.H P T stands for High Power Transmitters, which isbasically used for terrestrial transmission.It is noticeable that about 92% population in India canreceive Doordarshan programs through the networks of1415 terrestrial transmitters.H P T Pitampura is started in Delhi on 7th Nov. 1988 byHonble Sh. Rajiv Gandhi the Prime Minister of India.Total Area: = Covered Area: + Open Area:16.155sqmtrs. = 2.105sqmtrs. + 14.050sqmtrs.Coverage Area is about 85km radius in NCR as shown: 32. There is certain excellent information regarding:TRANSMITTERSDD NATIONAL DD NEWSChannel no CH#5 CH#7Power ofTransmitter20 KW 20 KWFrequency ofVision Carrier175.25 MHZ 189.25 MHZFrequency ofAural Carrier180.75 MHZ 194.75 MHZEARTH STATIONDOWNLINK PARAMETERS FREQUENCY : 3925 MHz POLARISATION : HORIZONTAL FEC : 3/4 SYMBOL RATE : 27.5MSPS BAND WIDTH : 36 MHz 33. 34. O B VANOutside Broadcasting (OB) VAN is the electronicfield production i.e. EFP of television or radioprograms (typically to cover television news andsports television events) from a mobile remotebroadcast television studio. 35. OB VAN is nothing but a mobile Production ControlRoom (PCR) which is also known as productiontruck/scanner/mobile unit/remote truck /live truck.InteriorA typical OB VAN is usually divided into 5 parts:1. Video Production Area:This is the first & largest part of OB VAN, where videoproduction takes place. Video Switcher operated byTechnical Director and Video Monitors (showing variousvideo feeds) operated by TV Directors & TV Producersare the main parts of this area. Figure: 36. 2. Audio Production Area:This is the second part of OB VAN, where audioproduction takes place. Here Audio Mixers (being fedwith various audio feeds: reporters, commentary, on-fieldmicrophones) are operated by Audio Engineers.3. Video Tape Recording Area:The third part of OB VAN is VTR area, which is nothingbut the collection of video server, house addition powersupplies or computers equipments. Here the EVS (LSM) 37. operators having one or more cameras that go into theirmachines & can be played back in slow motion/pauseto show a key part of action during the game , and canalso play the replay rollouts that lead into commercialbreaks or show the highlights at the end of play.4. Video Control Area:The fourth part of OB VAN is Video Control Area,where the professional video cameras are controlledusing Camera Control Unit i.e. CCU by one or twooperators, to make sure that the iris is at the correctexposure and that all the camera look at the same.They can shade, balance, and focus the cameras fromthis position inside the truck.5. Transmission Area:The fifth part of OB VAN is Transmission Area, wherethe signal is monitored by engineers( to ensure thepeople at the home have a good picture and a goodquality signal). Further this signal is transmitted or sentto other trucks. 38. LAYOUT OF OB VAN:DSNG 39. D S N G ie Digital Signal News Gathering is a system thatcombines two technologies namely E N G ie ElectronicNews Gathering with S N G ie Satellite News Gathering.E N G is a broadcast news industry description of T Vproducers,reporters & editors; making use of electronicvideo & audio technologies for gathering & presentingthe news. It is less frequently used now because thistechnology has become less ubiquitous.S N G is the use of mobile communications equipmentfor the purpose of worldwide news casting. Mobile unitsare usually vans equipped with advanced, two way video& audio transmitters & receivers, using dish antennasthat can be aimed at geostationary satellites. The earliestSNG equipment used analog modulations eg: extensively 40. used in desert shield & desert storm operation in PersianGulf. But durring 1980, digital modulation supplanted theanalog modulation; giving rise to the newer technologycalled D S N G.The modern D S N G is a sophesticated affair , capable ofdeployment practically anywhere in the civilized world.The signals are beamed between a geostationary satellite& van, and between satellite & control room bybroadcaststation or network. In most advanced systems Inter -national Protocol(IP) is used.Basically ,it is used for uplink of the gathered newssignals.Digital modulation tecnique applied here savesthe bandwidth.Let us see the curbside view of D S N G van: 41. DD ARCHIVESDD ARCHIVES is located at AKASHVANI BHAVAN,Parliament Street, New Delhi.This place is the treasure house of many memorableperformances of the great artists, who have contributedto Indias rich music and dance heritage. This is amazingendeavor done to bring some of exquisite performancesof enduring beauty to reach out the larger audiencecelebrating the spirit of singing and dancing nation. 42. This section is equipped with following features:1. Tape cleaning equipments for different formats.2. Multi format preview suits.3. Multi format debugging suits (with facility of GrassValley High Quality Noise Reduction System.)4. Snell Wilcox High Quality Digital RestorationArchangel Ph-C System.5. DPS Velocity & Adobe Premier Pro Non LinearEditing System (with facility of Diamond for videorestoration & Audition for audio restoration.)6. Different Graphics Systems.7. DVD burning equipments.8. Tape Library Metadata System.9. Different format tape libraries with compactors.10. Media Asset Management System.WHAT ACTUALLY DD ARCHIVES DOES???1. To take the Old tapes from library 43. 2. Cleaning of tapes as per their legacy formatsAMPEX (1972): manual cleaningUmatic (1982): cleaned by RTI cleanerBCN (1982): cleaned by RTI cleanerBeta (1985): cleaned by RTI cleanerDVC (modern): cleaned by RTI cleaner3. Preview operation4. Debugging operation5. Restoration through DVC Pro 50:Either in Archangel Ph-C SystemOr in Puritan System6. Restored output is fed to:Server purposeCommercial purposeTo keep in library 44. ESSENCEDifferent Possible Pathway for the :TRANSMISSION Upto SATELLITE1. TV Studio + PCR + TCR + MSR >> Transmitting E/S>> Satellite:2. OB Van + DSNG Van >> Satellite:RECEPTION Upto HOME1. : Receiving E/S + Terestrial Transmitters >> Yagi-Uda Antenna + TV Screen.2. : Reception by private dish + TV Scree.3. : Reception by cable operator Receiver >> CableTV Network >> TV Screen. 45. SATYAM SHIVAM SUNDARAMDOORDARSHAN KENDRA DELHITHE END