Vocational training at DDK Delhi by SAKET RAI
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- 1. Vocational TrainingReportHELD ATDOORDARSHANKENDRAMANDI HOUSE, COPERNICUS MARGNEW DELHI, 110001SUBMITTED BYS A K E T R A I
- 2. ECE 4th Year, Roll No. 1003031097INDERPRASTHA ENGINEERING COLLEGE, GZB,U.P.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTThis report is an outcome of industrial training, which Ihave gone through at Doordarshan Kendra, MandiHouse, Copernicus Marg, New Delhi, 110001; during theperiod 10th Jun to 9th Jul 2013.On the very outset of this report I would like to expressmy sincere & heartfelt obligations to:DDG (E): Shri Shyam Narain Singh,DD (E): Shri Rakesh Kumar Chauhan,Assistant Er. : Shri R. N. Rai (Mentor),&All engg. Supporting staff: Sh. Vinod Gupta, Sh. S. K. Dixit, Sh.S. P. S. Gulati, Sh. P. K. Mehrotra, Sh. P. Arun, Sh. PrashantShingle, Sh. Govind Ballabh, & Sh. T. C. Bagauli for creating
- 3. tremendous atmosphere of excitng training programmeat DDK.It was really a great experience working at DDK andlearning from such experienced engineers with hands onthe experience on the subject.I also would like to appreciate my colleagues Mr.Prashant Kr. Shukla, Mr. Pulkit Jain & Mr. Rahul Aurora,who attended the entire training with me as per thescheduled by DDK.Saket RaiECE 4th Year, 1003031097INDERPRASTHA ENGG. COLLEGE, GZB, U.P.
- 4. INDEXSr. No. Topic Page No.1. About Doordarshan 01- 022. TV Studio 03-063. Production Control Room 07-094. Transmission Control Room 10-125. Master Switching Room 13-146. Earth Station 15-197. Satellite Communication 20-248. HPT Pitampura 25-289. OB Van 29-3210. DSNG 33-3511. DD Archives 36-3812. Essence 39-40
- 5. ABOUT ..DOORDARSHAN KENDRA DELHI is one of the oldestKendra started on experimental basis on 5th September1959 from a makeshift studio at Akashvani Bhawan,NewDelhi as a part of All India Radio.Regular transmission was started from 1965.Govt. of India constituted Doordarshan in 1976, as apublic TV broadcaster, as a separate department inbroadcasting.Actually, Doordarshan developed itself during AsianGames 1982, held in Delhi.Continuous development in each & every sections ofDoordarshan has made it one of the largest broadcastingorganization in the world in terms of infrastructure ofstudios & transmitters.
- 6. Presently Doordarshan operates with 35 channelclassified as:Seven All India Channels-1. DD National,2. DD News,3. DD Sports,4. DD Bharati,5. DD Rajya Sabha,6. DD Gyandarshan,7. DD Urdu;Eleven Regional Language Satellite Channels(RLSC),Fifteen State Network (SN) & International Channels,One DD India Channel,One HDTV Channel;Doordarshan is also providing multi channel TV coveragein country through its free to air service; DD Direct Plus.DD is also running a mobile television service in Delhi.
- 7. T V StudioDoordarshan shooting arena is termed as TV Studio.Basically, it is a production hall to shoot out variousprograms by just creating artificial sets as perrequirements.
- 8. Followings are the pre- requisites for a TV Studio:1. Lighting systems, winches & control boards2. Cameras (3/4) with teleprompter3. Video & Audio Monitors4. Make room with entire facilities5. Furnitures & decoration items6. Cyclorama &curtains7. Proper air conditioning systems8. Efficient sound absorbers9. Smooth & plain surface to move cameras10. Effective communication with other sections11. Digital clock display system12. Warning light, alarm systems & fire fighting equipments.Doordarshans main Recording TV Studio comprises 192direct lights, 48 dimmers, 3 /4 digital cameras & 3 /4artificial shooting sets etc.
- 9. T V Studio lighting technique:T V Studio lighting technique depends upon followingfour parameters -1. Quantity of Iight:Means amount of radiated energy by the source oflight.2. Quality of light:Means the type of light source is used.3. Contrast ratio:Difference between highly lighted & darkest part ofthe scene.4. Color temperature:Different light colors have their own temperaturese.g.-Fire- 1930K,Domestic lamp- 2780K,Studio lamp- 3200K,HMI-5600K,Sun light- 5600K,Fluorescent- 6500K,Cloudy day- 6500K,
- 10. Clear blue sky-12000K.In T V Studio standard three point lighting technique isused, as shown below:1. Key light: used to highlight an object from the front.(Hard light cum 100% balance of light)2. Fill light: used to suppress the shadow created by keylight. (Soft light cum 85% balance of light)3. Back light: used to separate the object from background, so to produce 3-D visualization.
- 11. (Hard light cum 110% balance of light)Production ControlRoom
- 12. Production Control Room (PCR) is also known as StudioControl Room (SCR) or Gallery. Signals generated in TVStudio are controlled using certain effects & charactersare generated here.Facilities in a PCR include: A video monitor wall, with monitors for program,preview, VTRs, cameras, graphics and other videosources. In some facilities, the monitor wall is a seriesof racks containing physical television and computermonitors; in others, the monitor wall has beenreplaced with a virtual monitor wall (sometimes calleda "glass cockpit"), one or more large video screens,each capable of displaying multiple sources in asimulation of a monitor wall. A vision mixer, a large control panel used to selectthe multiple-camera setup and other various sourcesto be recorded or seen on air and, in many cases, inany video monitors on the set. The term "vision mixer"is primarily used in Europe, while the term "videoswitcher" is usually used in North America.
- 13. A professional audio mixing console and other audioequipment such as effects devices. A character generator (CG), which creates the majorityof the names and full digital on-screen graphics thatare inserted into the program lower third portion ofthe television screen Digital video effects, or DVE, for manipulation of videosources. In newer vision mixers, the DVE is integratedinto the vision mixer; older models without built-inDVE's can often control external DVE devices, or anexternal DVE can be manually run by an operator. A still store, or still frame, device for storage ofgraphics or other images. While the name suggeststhat the device is only capable of storing still images,newer still stores can store moving video and motiongraphics. The technical director's station, with waveformmonitors, vector scopes and the camera controlunits (CCU) or remote control panels for the CCUs. In some facilities, VTRs may also be located in the PCR,but are also often found in the central apparatus room Intercom and IFB equipment for communication withtalent and television crew
- 14. A signal generator to genlock all of the videoequipment to a common reference that requires colorburstTRANSMISSIONCONTROL ROOMTransmission Control Room (TCR), also termed as TxRoom or Presentation Suites is a room at broadcastfacilities & TV Stations around the world.
- 15. TCR is staffed 24x7 by on-air presentation coordinatorswho are responsible for the continuity and punctual playout of scheduled broadcast programming.Programming may be live from the TV Studio or playedfrom video tapes or from video server play out.When broadcast programming is live the presentationcoordinator will override the broadcast automationsystem & manually switch the TV Programming.Live Programming is unpredictable and will affect thescheduled timing of scheduled programming events; thepresentation coordinator adjusts programming to bringthe schedule back on time by adding or removing fillcontent from the play out schedule.Common TCR equipmentsBroadcast Automation Server (for large playlist itemsalmost up to 500 items),Video Tape Recorder (VTR),Computer Graphics (CG),Non-linear Editing device,Production Switcher,
- 16. Broadcast quality Video Monitor,Waveform Monitor,SDI Audio de-embedder.There are total 72 electronic equipments ofaforementioned type in the Transmission Control Roomof DD National.Basically, the automation of various PCR equipments isdone in order to achieve seamless transmission. It is alsorequired to minimize the time elapse as well as manualerrors occurred during transmission.Each & every equipment has its own defined port onProduction Switcher. Applying automation one canswitch the particular device at particular time.Finally, these equipments are connected to a NavigationPC through a Hub Switch for error diagnosis purpose.TCR is smaller in size as compare to the Master SwitchingRoom. This is a scaled down version of centralcasting.
- 17. MASTER SWITHINGROOM
- 18. Master switching room (MSR) is also known as Heart ofthe Studio and used for transmission media.It is the engineering co-ordination center of activity forselecting & routing the signal from various sources totransmitter and earth station.It is a room where all different sources from the outsidestudio comes first here and enroots transmission todifferent destination like transmitter & earth station.This room comprises of:Routine Switcher,Stab amplifier,Video / Audio distribution amplifier,Color Stabilization amplifier,Sync generator,Frame synchronizer,Digital clock monitoring system,Logo generator,Vectro- scope,Waveform monitor,Video monitor,Hum Suppressor,
- 19. Video Equalizer,Change over unit.The CONTROL CONSOL PANEL consisting the control ofRoutine Switcher, Stab amplifier, Frame synchronizer &other MSR Equipments are stored here.EARTH STATIONEARTH STATION is most significant part of Doordarshanfrom communication point of view, as shown in figure:
- 20. Transmitting E/S ReceivingE/SUPLINKDOWNLINKDigital Earth Station operates in frequency range 5.85GHz to 6.425 GHz for transmission and 3.625 GHz to 4.24GHz for reception of the signal.
- 21. Description of General Configuration of an Earth Station: Digital information in the form of binary digits whenenters earth station and is the
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