Viruses 001

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<ul><li> 1. Viruses &amp; Bacteria Chapter 17 Biology 11 Presentation put together by Mandie Lynn Walls</li></ul> <p> 2. What are Viruses </p> <ul><li>A virus is a non-cellular particle made up of genetic material and protein that can invade living cells. </li></ul> <p> 3. T4 Bacteriophage 4. Herpes Virus 5. Escherichia Coli Bacterium E. coli is a bacterium.That is a crude cell, it is not a virus because viruses are protein containers with DNA cores or RNA cores. 6. E. Coli and the Bacteriophage What it looks like in real life 7. The Structure Of a Virus </p> <ul><li>Viruses are composed of a core of nucleic acid </li></ul> <ul><li>The Nucleic acid core is surrounded by a protein coat called a capsid </li></ul> <ul><li>The Nucleic core is either made up of DNA or RNA but never both </li></ul> <p> 8. Cycle of Lytic and Lysogenic 9. Vaccines</p> <ul><li>Viruses grown on chicken embryos are attenuated vaccines </li></ul> <ul><li>Another type of vaccine is made by heat killing the virus</li></ul> <p> 10. Retrovirus </p> <ul><li>Change DNA into RNA. </li></ul> <ul><li>Example of a Retrovirus is HIV </li></ul> <p> 11. </p> <ul><li>A typical, "minimal" retrovirus consists of:</li></ul> <ul><li>an outer envelope which was derived from the plasma membrane of its host</li></ul> <ul><li>many copies of an envelope protein embedded in the lipid bilayer of its envelope</li></ul> <ul><li>a capsid; a protein shell containing</li></ul> <ul><li>two molecules of RNA and</li></ul> <ul><li>molecules of the enzyme reverse transcriptase </li></ul> <p> 12. Bacteria Cell 13. Prokaryotes </p> <ul><li>Cells that do not have a nucleus </li></ul> <ul><li>Exist almost every where on earth </li></ul> <ul><li>Grow in numbers so great you can see them with the unaided eye </li></ul> <ul><li>Are placed in either the Eubacteria or the Archebacteria Kingdoms </li></ul> <ul><li>Make up the smaller of the two kingdoms </li></ul> <p> 14. 15. Eubacteria </p> <ul><li>Make up the larger of the two prokaryote kingdoms </li></ul> <ul><li>Generally are surrounded by a cell wall composed of complex carbohydrates </li></ul> <p> 16. Cyanobacteria </p> <ul><li>Photosynthetic bacterium </li></ul> <ul><li>Bluish-greenish color </li></ul> <ul><li>Contain membranes that carry out the process of photosynthesis </li></ul> <ul><li>Do not contain the same type of chloroplasts as plants do </li></ul> <ul><li>This bluish-greenish algae can be found nearly everywhere on earth. </li></ul> <ul><li>Can survive in extremely hot environments and even extremely cold environment </li></ul> <p> 17. Archaebacteria </p> <ul><li>Lack important carbohydrate found in cell walls </li></ul> <ul><li>Have different lipids in their cell membrane </li></ul> <ul><li>Different types of ribosomes </li></ul> <ul><li>Very different gene sequences </li></ul> <ul><li>Archaebacteria can live in extremely harsh environments </li></ul> <ul><li>They do not require oxygen and can live in extremely salty environments as well as extremely hot environments. </li></ul> <p> 18. Identifying Prokaryotes </p> <ul><li>Cell Shape </li></ul> <ul><li>Cell Wall </li></ul> <ul><li>Movement </li></ul> <p> 19. Bacterium Shapes </p> <ul><li>Cocci~ Sphere shaped bacteria </li></ul> <ul><li>Bacillus~ Rod shaped bacteria </li></ul> <ul><li>Spirrillium ~ Spiral shaped bacteria </li></ul> <ul><li>Flagella~ Leg-like structures that help to propel the bacterium. </li></ul> <p> 20. Gram + and Gram Bacterium Cell Walls 21. Cellular Walls </p> <ul><li>Chemical nature of a cell wall can be determined by Gram Staining </li></ul> <ul><li>By finding out what color the cell produces when it is gram stained you can figure out the type of carbohydrates in the cell wall </li></ul> <p> 22. Movement </p> <ul><li>Flagella ~ Tail like structure the whips around to propel the bacterium </li></ul> <ul><li>Cillia ~ Miniature flagella surround the cell that help to swim </li></ul> <ul><li>Non motile ~ Sticky cillia like structures that keep the bacterium from moving </li></ul> <p> 23. Flagella 24. 25. Bacteria and their energy </p> <ul><li>Autotrophs </li></ul> <ul><li>Chemotrophs </li></ul> <ul><li>Heterotrophs </li></ul> <p> 26. Autotrophs </p> <ul><li>Make their own energy </li></ul> <ul><li>Using Solar energy </li></ul> <ul><li>Eg. Cyanobacteria </li></ul> <p> 27. Chemotrophs </p> <ul><li>Make own Energy </li></ul> <ul><li>Using Chemical energy </li></ul> <ul><li>Eg. Archaebacteria </li></ul> <p> 28. Heterotrophs </p> <ul><li>Obtain food </li></ul> <ul><li>By eating </li></ul> <ul><li>Eg. E-coli </li></ul> <p> 29. Bacteria Respiration </p> <ul><li>Obligate Anaerobes </li></ul> <ul><li>Facultative Anaerobes </li></ul> <ul><li>Obligate Aerobes </li></ul> <ul><li>Live without Oxygen </li></ul> <ul><li>Can live with or without oxygen </li></ul> <ul><li>Cannot live without oxygen.</li></ul> <p> 30. Bacteria Reproduction </p> <ul><li>Binary Fission </li></ul> <ul><li>Conjugation </li></ul> <ul><li>Spore Formation </li></ul> <p> 31. Cellular organism copies its genetic information then splits into two identical daughter cells 32. Conjugation </p> <ul><li>A type of Bacteria Sex </li></ul> <ul><li>Two organism swap genetic information, that contains the information such as a resistance to penicillin </li></ul> <p> 33. Spore Formation: Endospore </p> <ul><li>A type of dormant cell</li></ul> <ul><li>Exhibit no signs of life </li></ul> <ul><li>Highly resistant to environmental stresses such as: </li></ul> <ul><li>-High temperatures </li></ul> <ul><li>-Irradiation </li></ul> <ul><li>-Strong acids </li></ul> <ul><li>-Disinfectants </li></ul> <ul><li>Endospores are formed by vegetative cells in response to environmental signals that indicate a limiting factor for vegetative growth, such as exhaustion of an essential nutrient.</li></ul> <p> 34. Symbiosis </p> <ul><li>Close relationship between to species in which at least one species benefits from the other </li></ul> <ul><li>Live together for LIFE </li></ul> <p> 35. Parasitism </p> <ul><li>Bacteria exploit the host cell, injuring them </li></ul> <ul><li>Eg. Mychobacterium tuberculosis </li></ul> <p> 36. Mutualism </p> <ul><li>Symbiosis in which two of the species live together in such a way that both benefit from the relationship </li></ul> <ul><li>Eg. E-coli</li></ul> <p> 37. Nitrogen Fixations</p> <ul><li>Process by which nitrogen in the atmosphere is converted into a form that can be used by living things</li></ul> <p> 38. THE END 39. This powerpoint was kindly donated http://www.worldofteaching.comis home to over a thousand powerpoints submitted by teachers. This is a completely free site and requires no registration. Please visit and I hope it will help in your teaching.</p>