Virtual Worlds, Real Peace: Can Virtual Worlds Facilitate Conflict Resolution?

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Virtual Worlds, Real Peace: Can Virtual Worlds Facilitate Conflict Resolution?. Doron Friedman, Sammy Ofer School of Communications, The Interdisciplinary Center. Acknowledgements. Sharon Joffe, IDC Tsahi Hayat, IDC EU Project Presenccia UNLV-IDC Project. Agenda. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Virtual Worlds, Real Peace: Can Virtual Worlds Facilitate Conflict Resolution?Doron Friedman,Sammy Ofer School of Communications, The Interdisciplinary CenterCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCAcknowledgementsSharon Joffe, IDCTsahi Hayat, IDCEU Project PresencciaUNLV-IDC ProjectCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCAgendaVirtual reality and virtual worldsScientific research of human behavior in virtual environmentsSome proposals for conflict resolution using virtual worldsCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCPeace..?Communication Across Borders, July 08, IDCContact HypothesisContact under certain conditions, such as equal status, cooperation towards a superordinate goal, and institutional support, will create a positive intergroup encounter, which, in turn, will bring about an improvement in intergroup relations. Communication Across Borders, July 08, IDCcontactmediated?Communication Across Borders, July 08, IDCIndirect mediated contact?Communication Across Borders, July 08, IDC6-degrees of separationCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCBut what is the quality of mediated contacts?Communication Across Borders, July 08, IDCThe mediated contact hypothesis?Under conditions C1,C2,C3, contact among rival groups can reduce hostility (as measured by M1,M2,) by a factor of XUnder conditions C1,C2,C3, mediated contact among rival groups can reduce hostility (as measured by M1,M2,) by a factor of XWhat is the relation between X and X?How can we make X=X or even X>X? Communication Across Borders, July 08, IDCAdvanced Virtuality LabResearch themes: virtual reality, virtual worlds, neuro-physiological interfaceshttp://www.idc.ac.il/communications/avl/Communication Across Borders, July 08, IDCCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCHighly-Immersive Virtual Reality (10 years ago)Communication Across Borders, July 08, IDCCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCSome Presence DefinitionsThe sense of being there (Held & Durlach, Sheridan, Zeltzer: premier issue of PRESENCE, 1992)A perceptual illusion of nonmediation (Lombard and Ditton, 1997) Communication Across Borders, July 08, IDCPresencia EU Project(2003-2006)UCL CSUCL IONg.Tec, AustriaTUG Graz AustriaUMH, SpainTechnion, IsraelCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCPresence our defintionSuccessful substitution of real sense data by computer-generated sense dataSuccessful response is similar to expected response in realityResponse Low level physiological high level cognitive and emotionalIncludes verbal responses about being thereResponse includes potential for interactionCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCSocial Presence, Co-PresenceCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCIs there a sense of presence in online virtual worlds (such as Second Life)? Communication Across Borders, July 08, IDCOur SL Bots Version 1.0Implemented in LSLWander around (walking) and look for avatarsCollect information about the avatars they meet (e.g., age, proximity, name)Interact with avatarsAnimations (50, however..)GreetingSpatial behaviorCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCHall: Proxemics (1960s)Intimate space - < 1.5 feetPersonal space 1.5-4 feetSocial space4-12 feetPublic space> 12 feetCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCProxemics of interacting avatarsCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCNon-interacting couplesCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCSpatial response: An automated experimentIs there an equivalent for a posture shift in SL? Communication Across Borders, July 08, IDCMethodBot looked for avatars alone, stood 4 meters from them, greeted them, waited 2 seconds, and moved to a distance of 1.2 metersObserved whether they move within 10 secondsAutomated experimentHowever: needs manual supervisionCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCResultsCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCThe online-behavior spectrum hypothesisCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCVirtual Peace: Some suggestionsTele-socialization of physically remote peopleCo-located virtual studioInducing empathyCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCVirtual Group DiscussionExperiment: comparing face-to-face discussions (of global warming) with a similar discussion in a virtual worldPreliminary resultsWith Tomer Hendl, Amit Lavie-Dinur, and Yuval KarnielCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCCommunication IssuesSynchronous vs Async.Pace is important; timely responses are important for empathyVideo conference vs. VR/VESense of spatial presenceVR can preserve anonymityCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCEmpathyEmpathy (Levenson & Ruef, 1992): knowing what another person is feeling, feeling what another person is feeling and responding compassionately to another personI am talking about something else, like suspension of disbelief, or presence..Note the definition above has cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects.There are some anecdotal studies of empathy in online communitiesCommunication Across Borders, July 08, IDCOnline studies of empathy, some results (Preece, 1999, review)Empathy is common online and in many communities, particularly support communitiesWomens communication is typically high in empathy and low in factual content, whereas for men it is the oppositeThese are all asynchronous communities Communication Across Borders, July 08, IDCPerspective takingPerspective taking, as measured by an individual-difference questionnaire, has been shown to be correlated with offering greater assistance to the target (e.g., Batson 1991)The fundamental attribution error (Jones and Nisbet, 1971) leads us to consider more situational factors when judging ourselves and more dispositional factors when judging othersPerspective taking leads to make situational rather dispositional attributions (Regan and Totten, 1975)Communication Across Borders, July 08, IDCPerspective taking in actionGalinksy and Moskowitz (2000) asked subjects to imagine the everyday life of an elderly person; this resulted in more positive attitudes towards that social group Yee and Bailenson (2006) allowed participants in an immersive VR setting to vew themselves in a virtual mirror. Negative stereotyping of the elderly was significantly reduced when participants had elderly avatars, as compared with young avatars. Communication Across Borders, July 08, IDCPaul Erdos in 1950s discovered random network mathematics. Recently picked up by scientists of complex systems.Due to the mathematical properties of scale free networks the distance is surprisingly smallUsing the web, maybe we can make a lot of contacts