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  • ICAR - CENTRAL PLANTATION CROPS RESEARCH INSTITUTE & AICRP ON PHET

    KASARAGOD – 671 124, KERALA.

    VIRGIN COCONUT OIL HOT AND FERMENTATION PROCESS

    Centenary publication cþ43

  • VIRGIN COCONUT OIL

    HOT AND FERMENTATION PROCESS

    Compiled by

    M.R. Manikantan A.C. Mathew K. Madhavan

    T. Arumuganathan M. Arivalagan

    P.P. Shameena Beegum K.B. Hebbar

    ICAR - CENTRAL PLANTATION CROPS RESEARCH INSTITUTE & AICRP ON PHET KASARAGOD – 671 124, KERALA

    2016

    Techical bulletin No. 108

  • All India Coordinated Research Project on Post Harvest Engineering and Technology (AICRP on PHET)

    Central Plantation Crops Research Institute (CPCRI) (Indian Council of Agricultural Research) Kasaragod - 671 124, Kerala, India Phone : 04994 - 232893, 232894, 232090 Fax : 91-4994- 232322, E-mail : director.cpcri@icar.gov.in,

    Web : www.cpcri.gov.in

    Virgin coconut oil- Hot and fermentation process Techical bulletin No. 108

    Published by

    P. Chowdappa

    Director

    ICAR- Central Plantation Crops Research Institute

    Kasaragod - 671 124, Kerala, India

    Text compiled and edited by

    M.R. Manikantan A.C. Mathew K. Madhavan T. Arumuganathan M. Arivalagan P.P. Shameena Beegum K.B. Hebbar

    December 2016

    Photo Credits

    K. Shyama Prasad

    Printed at : St. Francis Press, Ernakulam

    Centenary Publicaltion - 43

  • Sl.No. Title Page.No

    1 Introduction 05

    2 Health benefits of VCO 06

    3 Uses of VCO 06

    4 Processing of virgin coconut oil 07

    5 Process for the extraction and preparation of coconut milk 11

    6 Hot process for processing of coconut milk to produce VCO 17

    7 Fermentation process for processing of coconut milk to

    produce VCO

    19

    8 Packaging and storage of VCO 20

    9 Utilization of by-products 20

    10 Research findings 22

    11 Critical control measures 25

    12 Cost analysis of the VCO project by hot process method 26

    13 Cost analysis of the VCO project by fermentation method 31

    Content

  • VIRGIN COCONUT OIL HOT AND FERMENTATION PROCESS

    5

    1. INTRODUCTION

    Coconut is an important and versatile

    crop, which provides all required

    amenities for human life. Nearly one

    third of the world’s population depend

    on coconut for food and economic needs.

    Widely acclaimed as ‘Kalpavriksha’ or

    ‘Tree of Heaven’, coconut provides food

    security and livelihood opportunities

    to 10 million people in India through

    cultivation, processing, marketing and

    trade related activities and thus it exerts

    profound influence in rural economy.

    Coconut processing sector in India is

    largely confined to copra production,

    oil extraction, desiccated coconut and

    manufacture of coir & its products. One

    third of the annual production is used

    by processing industry for coconut oil

    production, while rest is processed into

    desiccated coconut and other products.

    In the recent past, the coconut oil

    has been used as a food ingredient in

    functional foods, besides being used

    in pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals,

    cosmetics and industrial uses including

    biofuel. Coconut oil is a rich source

    of medium-chain-triglycerides (MCT)

    which are beneficial for human

    health and nutrition. Sixty three

    percent of coconut oil is composed of

    antimicrobial medium-chain fatty acids

    and therefore can assist the immune

    system in fighting against microscopic

    invade. Coconut oil is rich in fatty acids

    viz., lauric acid, capric acid, caprylic

    acid and caproic acid which makes

    up triglyceride molecule and forms

    antimicrobial properties of the coconut

    oil. MCT’s found in coconut oil have

    been shown in laboratory experiments

    to be effective in destroying viruses,

    bacteria, yeasts and parasites.

    Even though India is the third largest

    coconut growing country in the world,

    its contribution to the processing,

    value addition and export market is

    significantly less as compared to other

    coconut cultivating countries. The

    problems of fluctuation in the prices of

    coconut and its products due to local

    as well as international competition,

    global awareness and demand on

    nutraceutical and functional value

    added products, acute shortage of

    skilled manpower necessitated the

    need for development of broad based

    entrepreneurship driven processing

    technologies for the sustainable growth

    of coconut based industries. The recent

    high value coconut product, which is

    becoming globally popular, is Virgin

    Coconut Oil (VCO).

    Virgin coconut oil is the oil obtained

    from fresh, mature endosperm (kernel/

    meat) of the coconut by mechanical or

    natural means, with or without use of

    heat, no chemical refining, bleaching

    or deodorizing and maintains the

    natural aroma and nutrients. It is called

  • VIRGIN COCONUT OIL HOT AND FERMENTATION PROCESS

    6

    “virgin” because the oil obtained is

    pure, raw and pristine. Virgin coconut

    oil is suitable for human consumption

    in its natural form immediately after

    extraction and filtration. It is the purest

    form of coconut oil, crystal clear,

    contains natural vitamin E and with

    very low free fatty acid content (0.1 %).

    It has a fresh coconut aroma ranging

    from mild to intense depending on

    extraction process. Virgin coconut oil

    greatly differs from the traditionally

    produced coconut oil from copra in

    terms of quality attributes. Refined,

    bleached and deodorized coconut

    oil does not contain natural Vitamin

    E since this is degraded when the

    oil is subjected to high temperature

    and various chemical processes. The

    fast developing and high value niche

    market for virgin coconut oil offers a

    good prospect for the improvement of

    the income of coconut farmers.

    2. HEALTH BENEFITS OF VCO

    VCO has many advantages, which

    include the health benefits from the

    retained vitamins and antioxidants, the

    antimicrobial and antiviral activity from

    the lauric acid components and its

    easy digestibility due to the presence of

    medium chain fatty acids (MCFA). VCO

    and coconut oil have been traditionally

    used to enhance the beauty and

    the growth of our hair, refine and

    moisturizes our skin in addition to

    being used as an “ethnomedicine”

    for minor illnesses such as diarrhoea

    and skin inflammations. Studies have

    proved that the topical application of

    VCO increased the wound healing rate

    of rat skin. Lauric acid, a medium chain

    fatty acid component in VCO, showed

    potential use in anti-obesity treatment

    as it increases energy expenditure, gets

    directly absorbed and burnt as energy

    in the liver, resulting in early satiety and

    thus leading to weight loss.

    3. USES OF VCO

    Coconut oil has several industrial

    applications. But VCO is unique among

    all the other vegetable oils because of

    its high lauric acid content. The lauric

    acid present in VCO is converted to

    monolaurin which provides disease

    fighting ability to body and keeps infants

    away from getting viral or bacterial or

    protozoal infections. Since mother’s

    milk also contains monolaurin, VCO can

    be considered as equivalent to mother’s

    milk. It is also used as

    1. Hair and skin conditioner

    2. Oil base for various cosmetic and

    skin care products

    3. Carrier oil for aroma therapy and

    massage oils

    4. Nutraceutical and functional food

  • VIRGIN COCONUT OIL HOT AND FERMENTATION PROCESS

    7

    4. PROCESSING OF VIRGIN

    COCONUT OIL

    Virgin coconut oil can be extracted

    directly from the fresh coconut meat

    or from coconut milk. The different

    processes involved in VCO production

    are hot-processing method, natural

    fermentation method, centrifugation

    process and extraction from dried

    grating (EDG) method. The choice of the

    technology to be adopted depends to a

    great extent on the scale of operation,

    the degree of mechanization, the

    amount of investment available and

    the market demand. For decades,

    people in coconut producing countries

    like India and the Philippines boiled

    coconut milk extracted from freshly

    grated or comminuted (grated,

    chopped, granulated) coconut meat

    with or without the addition of water, to

    produce coconut oil for hair and body

    massaging applications.

    The modified hot process method for

    producing VCO also follows the same

    principle except for controlled heating

    to prevent the oil from turning yellow

    and maintain the moisture content

    less than 0.2 % to prolong

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